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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

@k`lx ngr@Y p#LpW-˭Kv` jny`@G v`s |ny s@ˆ q?

. m#QqvWw

@k`lx ngr@Y idM aKkr 600k pvn ˭K h` p#LpW a# "aSr jn`v`s" ivW @k`t aNwR j`k sAgw h` @Qy v&`p`k kt s>h` @y`q` g#@M v#d@vlK @l~k b#A@V @m@hm yt@W v`s h` n`gk sAvR[n aŽk`y a`rMX @k`t a#w. @k`lx ngr@Y w#Nw#Nvl ӵ ˭K h` p#LpW jn`v`s lAk`@V [`n ngryt @Qy a`@y~jn a`kR;ny kr g#@M h` kr @S m em Mvl pvWn` sAvR[nyt @y`qv` gw h# v&`p`k vn`kM ap@W y`mK bv @l~k b#A R@Q\y @B.

"rsr rvr v#dsthn" (Sustainable Township Programme) nN h#d gNv` ipW @k`t a# @mm p#LpW h` ˭K v`s ivW @M @m@hm p`qn@Y @g~ykrn y`q`m@Y ply. @mmN @p` @pr a`Nv y`vt q#mt q`nM vN@N @k`lx ngry [@N|vr @l~k @vl> @p`lt Ek` m @VgvW krN kMkr#-ԫw jny` aŽr`j&v` `G[n@Y r#r# h`ryNt v^w m bvt a anr# a<v` .

"jnw`vt vhN sAvR[nyt idkd" nM kvr@Y ow` W kr a# rsr rvr @w`rr# m[&S}`n@Y k`\n aAk 01 s>hN kr @bN@N a a`q`yM lbn jn`v`s ivW @M q ont nv v`s lb` @M q "ap |v`s krN@N @vl> @p`l yNny . eyt m` p#nmt apt bl`@p`@r`WvK n#w." y@v. p#LpW h` ˭K ivW @mN qhS kr gNn` idM @Qy h` @Qy @p_Qgk v&`p`k aA\yN @vw @mN lb` gNn` qL v`s sARn w#m s>h`W mhjn up@y~w` h` n`gk sAvR[n kt s>h`W @y`qv` gNn` bvt Q[ kr @B.

jr`v`s v`sS}`n @vvt aAg sMRn nv v`s @qN@N y yN ڱ jny`@G idM @k`Ll k` g#m s>h` a`Nv mv` @pNvn m`y` @l~kyt pwv p#LpW h` ˭K sAh`r@yN Ev`@Y vW vn ڱ jny` mw a# @k@rn sARn sm`j-a`Rk g#t mm @qst @mm y @y` v a#w.

rsr rvr v#dsthn y`vt q#mt Rv@yN @l~k b#A@V aдhy yt@W @kr# @k`lx ngr@Y p#LpW h` ˭K jn`v`s b> sK;n h` sAgnn v`Rw`vN @pNM krN@N lAk`@V [np pN@Y a`Rk-@Q\p`ln @KNS}`n@Y @v@sn kMkr#-ԫw jny` @k`wrM g#„rt sm`j k`lkNX`v@Y h` qw`v@Y Lv` @B q yNn y.

ngr@Y bwry p#LpW h` ˭Kvl

ihw v`Rw`vt av @k`lx ngr@Y jnghn@yN yyt 51K vW vN@N p#LpW, ˭K a#lW ablN h` aSr jn`v`svl y. @k`lx ngr m`@v jn`v`s 1,506k pL Ekk 66,022K vW @v. @mN ˭K jn`v`s 1,071k v`s Ekk 25,500K q p#LpW jn`v`s 183k v`s Ekk 13,313K h` wvW p# ablN, w`vk`kv a@wN atv` gW, a` jn`v`s 231k v`s Ekk 27,209K pv.

w`n& ytW w sm@Y, 20 vn \w vR;@Y L vkv`@V @k`lx ngry k`Rk h` @vl> m[&S}`ny bvt pW vn wWvy l gMbN ߿y` h` v@n~p`yN @s`yN mh` pm`n@yN sAmny mW smg p#LpW h` ˭K jn`v`s a# y. ekl ˭K h` p#LpW v`sS}`n kr gW bwry @Y @k`lx @k`@V Tt kr gsNnN, K@;~kr#vN h` @vnW v#dvl rw vd`W ԫw kMkr# @N y. jl h` v# phkM @n`m#v a v`w`vrnyk wqbqv, @s_š&mW h` l`c`r wykt a#v# @X_k @k`N@QvN @w`r s` m Mw sASk^kmy yK gw mt Ev`@Y @v@sn ԫw @k`tSvlt bl @kr#.

1947 Iy` qhN pv lAk`@V s$m aŽr`j& g# p`lk kLyK yt@W m n`gkv ˭K h` p#LpW jn`v`s wvwvW v# y. @k`lx ngr@Y p#LpW h` ˭K jn`v`svl @v@sn bwry aR[ kMkr# v^WN@G, @b`@h~ t v#d v# w`vk`k v@n~p`yN@G rw vN@n~ @v. @M awr ngr sX`@V ksl ivW m a# sp`rK;k v#dktvl @y@qn kMkr#vN, @g`dn# i m a` w#Nvl kr#vN @ls v#d krNnN h` elv, kdl @h~ sr#vW v# ymK n` e@nq` @Vl spy` gNn` pk @vl‹N a` .

˭K p#LpW jn`v`svl m @v@sn jny`@gN @k`tsK Ev` a`rMX vkv`@V t m @vnW v@n~p`yK spy` gw @n` h# w#n q`mk y`vl, gAj`-kP j`v`rMvl h` gk` v^W@Y @ymt wL . @|;@yN m 1977N pv [np j`v`rMkr#vN @mb‹ pԫw @k`tS @h@r`N mWv& @vl>`m a# p`w`l v&`p`k kt s>h` @y`qv` gW@W y. [np @Q\p`lkN@G aдh@yN @g`dn# sA[`n`Wmk sNnQ[ m#r kLvlt a#w#M wr#n @k`tS @g`r# kr g#.

[nv`qy yt@W kRm`Nw h` @vl>`m vR[ny vn wWvy l, k`Rkrny h` n`gkrn@Y plyK @ls kMkr# pNyt tN @mb‹ Mw sm`j S}ryN v#@dn ar# m`KS h` eAgLS 1948 @kMpW kl @k`ST k`\n@Y qKv` @N @m@S yŸ "p`qd R[n pNy (lumpan proletariat) @hvW s`m`y kNqL, n# nM p# sm`j@Y phl wTv N ivwt qmn lq akRmn& @ls @vN pvn @k`ts eK @h~ wvW w#nk R[n pNk PlvyN v&`p`ry lt a# Emt id a#w. @k@S v q vn wWvyN av, g` mNnvl @M @k`tS aLlSvlt yt y` krn a bvt pW @M n#„r#v @b@hN blp`" (m`KS h` eAgLS - @k`ST pK;@Y k`\ny - g k`\n, 1980)

˭K h` p#LpWv` @qmVyN@G aNw ڱ X`vy s` p`sL y`mt @n` h# @h~ p`sL a[&`pny awr mg nwr mt pԫw wr#n @k`tS @vnW ߿y`vK @s`y` g#mt pvn ar#w`v @H@vN m w vn m`RgyN @vw a#q v# @B. ˭K h` p#LpW a` aS}`vr v`svl @v@sn jny` awr pvn ߿y` mTtm r@T l ߿y` ap`wyt vd` @b@hN aŽk bv sK;n mN @h @B. vn`wLl n`gk aWv#y`vŸ / lAk`@V a a`q`yM v`svl ihl {nWvy b> 1997 a[&yn v`Rw`vN p#v@sN@N vn`wLl @Q\@Y œm blk`yt ayW vn jnghn@yN yyt 50K p#h# ߿y`@vN @p@ln bv y. @k`lx ngr m`@V pvn \`lwm ˭K h` p#LpW jn`v`sy pvN@N vn`wLl @Q\@Y y. e v`s Ekk 3500K @B.

ayhpW @s_š& h` lN@G wWvy

m`nvW @p` jlnl @h~ v# phkM @n`m# m, apv& h` jly b#s y`@M k` pQ[ @n`m# m @k`lx ngr@Y ڱ jn`v`s 1,500t m @bn @p` wWvy. @M awr ek v#yK @h~ jlnlyK @n`m# ˭K p#LpW jn`v`s q @B. $NDp`S, @k`SgS hNy h` m`g`vWw @Q\vl pvn S@TyMgm, a`mRy, @b~Žr`j r, sm r, m` r, S@TS r, bb`Ll vWw a` ˭K p#LpW jn`v`s b>v @kr# sK;nyN an`vrny kr @N v# h` jly s>h` |tyN @n`m#@mN Ev`@Y @v@sn qr#pL n n v&snk` @s_š& wWvyN b>v y. v`s 350K pmn @bn @šWw`r`m m`v@W bb`Ll vW@W @p` v# ekK @h~ @n`m# bvt @h . apv& ek vN@N @gvL aQqN gl` yn k`vlt y. v# nvlt apv& smg m @gvL vrt yt @V. m`g`vWw @Q\@Y m 92 vWwt a#W@W v# @qk. @Mv`@Y n aŽk jnghny s` v# X`wyt gw @n` h# @S jr`Rn a#w. @b`@h~ v#vl @q`rvL pv` k# a#w.

rNwrv sAk @r~gvlt @g`r# m, wk`n cRm @r~g, mNq@p~;ny, lqr# mrn @mN m m`nk av@r~[ny b‹ asAk @r~ wWvyN bl vs@yN p#vm p#LpW h` ˭K a`–wv qKnt l#@bn @p` lK;nyK @B.

t ihw s>hN kl vn`wLl n`gk aWv#y`vŸ / lAk`@V a a`q`yM v`svl ihl {nWvy b> a[&yn v`Rw`@V @h kr @N @k`lx ngr@Y p#LpW h` ˭Kvl @v@sn lNt p`sL a[&`pny lb` mt "unN vN@N" w @qmVyN sK pmnK vn bv y. @qmVyNt ev# unNmkt a`Rk hyK n#w. a@nK @b`@h~ lN v#yN rw ߿y`vNt h` [ sm`j @r~ ktvlt @y`qv` g#m @V.

@k`lx ngr@Y @s jnghny h` ss>n t ˭K h` p#LpW jn`v`svl lm` h` @y`N jnghny ihl ap`wyk pv. ihw q#K v`Rw`vt av ˭K h` p#LpW jn`v`svl jnghn@yN lqr#vN@G t ar# 14 qKv` vn lN@G \wy yyt 44. @k`lx ngr@Y smSw jnghn@yN @mm vy@S \wy vN@N yyt 30.6. p#LpW h` ˭Kvl @v@sn ar# 15-24W awr vy@S pvn @y`N-wr#n jnghn \wy yyt 22.9. ar# 25-54W awr yyt 28.1k \wyK . vys 55-64W awr pvN@N yyt 3.4k \wy. ar# 65t v# vy@S pvn ay N@N yyt 1.6K v# iw` m a \wy. vySgw jnghny am @pNM krN@N [`n vs@yN m ayhpW @s_š& wWvy ڱ X`v@Y aŽk dny mw a# vn @vnW @H mw aklt mrnyt pW @M ihl vnw`vK @mm jn`v`svl pvn bv y.

@s_š& a`rK;`v, shv`sy h` jnny m`nv sAh@Y v`s av\&w`v smg b#Š pv. e@hW ihw q#K@N It pwv [@N|vr l`X m@Y r|nWvyt @g`r# sm`j@Y iw`mW ԫw S}rykt aWv pvn @Kqy wWvy y.

@p` @pr a`Nv aŽr`j&v` up@qS mw @k`lx ngr@Y p#LpW h` ˭K sAh`ry mt ipWv a#W@W ihw sm`j-a`Rk g#t smg ڱ jny`@G v`s |ny sŠ@M arN q? n#w. ˭K p#LpW sAh`r@Y s#b$ aR}y ihl m l`Xy @s`yN @l~ky rn aNwR j`k sAgwvl h` Ev`@Y EjNw lAk`@V [npyN@G l`X p`sy sA>@M K@m yK wn` m y.

@k`lx ngr@Y ˭K h` p#LpWv` jny`@G v`s |ny s>n y`@yN a`Nv ipW kr a# "rsr rvr v#dsth@N" sw& aNwRgwy ms` bln t @h vN@N v`s a kMkr#-ԫw jny` wvwvW v&snyt a#q q#@M s#lm.

rsr rvr v#dsthn

"blhWk`r@yN" idMvl pA N@N y hAv gsn ˭K p#LpWv` j`vt @X_k, sm`y @h~ a`Rk vs@yN Ev`@Y p#lpyMmt w&`l ayK n#w# @mm v#dsthn arby` v`s h` n`gk sAvR[n aŽk`y W kl @w`rr# pk`@V s>hN @V. enW oN ivW @M k`Ry@Y mvn g#tvl rjyt bs`[nmy vs@yN \`l qlK q#mt @vn @hN ey q vlKv`@gn -- b s`[nmy pqnmk @n` v @vl> @p`l pqnmk -- t s‹M @sm s rsr rvr v#dsthn @y` a#w# p#v@S.

˭K-p#LpWv` jny` pA idM yM lkt wK@Sr# @k`t oN@gN lb` gNn` idM @vvt em wK@Sr# @lN nv g^hyK wn` @qn bvt v`s h` n`gk sAvR[n aŽk`y @p`@r`NvK a#w. em idM a`@y~jkyN @vw m h` @Qpl vm`r# kt s>h` n`gk sAvR[n aŽk`y, j`k v`s sAvR[n aŽk`y, / lAk` idM @g`d @M h` sAvR[ny @M sAS}`v h` @k`lx mh ngr sX`v eKv "L" (REEL) nm# sm`gm ӵv`@gn a#w.

idM @vl> @p`@L pvWn` l mK vW s#m g^h EkkyK s>h` r#. lK; 4k qlK nv vsK i @M yqm @ls wK@Sr# @k`t a#w.

lb` @qN@N y# yn @mm r#yL lK; hw@R @p`@r`N pw s$m ˭K p#LpW v#@yt m l#@bN@N n#w. plv vd`W v# a`Rk vn`kM sw idM qhS kr g a#w. q#nt @mm v#dsthn s>h` @vS yN k#m krv` gW @p@qS @ls vn`wLl, r#l p`@R @BkvWw, @k`L@Y pR L vWw, nvM m`v@W 42 vWw, a#Lgl m`v@W sm @p@qs, @k`L@Y S@T;N vWw a` ˭K-p#LpW jn`v`s knMv ivW mt N @B.

u vn sm`j h` vn g#t

rsr rvr v#dsth@nN @k`lx ngr@Y ˭K h` p#LpW a` aS}`vr jn`v`svl @v@sn pL 66,000N @k`tskt @h~ a`sNn k`lyK l nv v`s l#@bN@N n#w. q#nt @b`L@L @BSlN p`@R M @k`tsk "shSry" nN mhL v`s sARnyK @g`dn#mt s#lM kr a#w# Q[ kr @B. wmN kN p#LpW h` ˭K v`sy @vvt @mm v`s sARn@yN vsK lb` Nn q ndW g`S q jl h` L q m`kv @gmt @B. ndW g`Sv @ls m`kv ay krn ql @k`wrM q# wv m N n#w. jl h` L @n` @g@Y nM Ev` kp` qm a#w. ndW g`S @n` @gvN@N nM krn @qy wvm @h @k`t n#w. @k@S nW yNwM eq` @Vl s kr gNnt nM @h~ v@n~p`yk rw @vN v`sS}`n s>h` qlK @n` @gv` ˭K p#LpWvl vW vN q#N "@q@l`vK awr" m# a#w.

nv v`s sARnvl pAyt y`mW smg @b`@h~ ay@G vn v^WN a m r`y`s@yN v a#w. ont ߿y` s#p#@M h` a@nW vn |n sŠ@M sm`j v#d@vlK bA@k`@l`W [np my l @p` @pr a`Nvt pvN@N n#w. aNwR j`k sAgw s>h` @k`lx ngr@Y idM lb` g#@M vmn`v mw ˭K p#LpWv` jny` h# wrM rt mhL v`svlt a#q qm a#w, n#w@h`W oN @k`lƒN tw a$w @p@qSvlt plv` h a#w.

[np my l v`s |ny "s@>n" a`k`ry b> v "v`s |ny" n#m# @Lšn@Y eAgLS @m@S s>hN k@L y:

"i‰N, v`s |ny s‰y W@W nM @lskt q, aq pvWn` sm`jy l v`s |n s@>N@N a@nW sm`jmy |n s>n aNm y: enM iLm h` s#pm awr a`Rkmy sm mTtm m@yN a# m m. nW @mv# s‹mK s` em |ny n#vw n#vwW p#n n h` s‹mK a# @n` @V, @M |ny sm`jmy PlvyK N @k@S s@>N@N q yNn E E wWvyN mw pvnv` pmnK @n` v, ey vd`W g#„r# |n smg p#t @B. @m vd`W k @qyK nM gm h` ngry awr @r~[w`v n# kr q#m y." (eAgLS, The Housing Question, Progress Publishers, 1979 32-33 )

@p` @pr a`Nv "rsr rvr v#dsthn" ڱ jny`@G v`s |ny sŠ@M h` @k`lx ngry r# h` a`kR\y @ls s#lM @M v#d@vlK @ls vRnvW krNnt uWs`h @gn a#w.

n`gk ڱ jny`@G v`s |ny @mN m [np l`X my yt@W n`gkrny mN a# a h` w sm`j-a`Rk p`k @l~k@Y aN k ngrvl @mN m @k`lx ngr@Y q wv wvW v#@d a#w.

[np my vR[ny @vN - n`gkrny @b`@h~ gMbq jny` `y w@Y G[X`v@yN qv` gWw q [nv`qy @M vWmN avŽy l ivKbvK n# l`X p`w wr<@Y plyK @ls psr ;ny, y anr#, ˭K p#LpW, gk`vN, lN h` y`ckyN aŽk @ls v# a#w.

vRwm`n@Y @l~k jnghn@yN q\ lK; 500kt Sr v`s @n`m# bv eKsW j`N@G m`nv v`sS}`n b> v`Rw`@vN (HABITAT' 97) @hqrV a#w. v`s @n`m# ay@gN a brwy n`gkv vW vn ay y. 1995 y @k~ 2.5K n`gk jnghny 2025 vn t yK @k~ 5K v a#w# gnN bl` a#w. s#lM rw n`gkrny i \w vR;@Y @l`v uwm p`sk, a`Rk h` s`m`y |n uQgw kr a#w. n`gk @Q\vlt @mm g#t sŠmt m`nvW sMpW a#wW ayhpW klmn`krny s` g#t u a#w# HABITAT v`Rw`v qKv.

HABITAT v`Rw`vt av a`y`v, ak`v h` lN a#@mk` rtvl q\ lK; 600k sAš&`vK n`gk PpW N @v@sN@N wyt anr#q`yk @s_š& wWvyN m[&@Y y. eKsW j`N@G m`nv v`sS}`n v`Rw`v av @l`v uwm v`s |ny pvn i@y~y`@V aS ab`b` ngr@Y jn sAš&`@vN yyt 79kt v`syt v`s n#w. iNy`@V jkRw` ngr@Y jn sAš&`@vN yyt 54kt v`s phkM @n`m#w. @w@v w#n @ls qKv` @bN@N @k`@l`My`@V @b`@g`t` ngry y. e jnghn@yN yyt 50kt v`syt vhN n#w. @k`lx ngr@Y yyt 51K p#LpW h` ˭K v# jn`v`svl vW vN@N y yN@nN @pNM @k@rN@N v`s |n@Y brpwl X`vy .

ihw sAš&` @Lšn mN @hvN@N n`gkrn@yN m vn sm`jmy h` p`sk |n sŠ@M v#d@vlK l`Xy mw pqnM [np myt @n`m# bv y. m`nv vRgy`t sq`c`rmy h` @s_š&mW wykt pqnm v#@tN@N sm`j sm`nw`v L kr gW sm`j m@Y a k pvRwny.

a`–w v`Rw` h` N}

1. Report on slums and shantees in Colombo -- World Bank Survey-1998

2. Urban Renewal in Wanathamulla: High density low income housing in Sri Lanka (Bachelor Thesis, 1997 Lund University)

3. The residential circumstances of the urban poor in developing countries (UNCHS Report)

4. The Housing question ( Engels, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1979)

5. HABITAT -- 1997 (m`nv v`sS}`n b> eKsW j`N@G sM@Mln v`Rw`v)

6. @k`ST pK;@Y k`\ny, m`KS-eAgLS (g k`\n - 1980)

aq`l @vnW

v`s |ny s>`gw h#K@K @k@S q?
1999 a@™L 12


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