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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

iNy` ayv#y mh` v&`p`kyN@G p#smt lK@V

p`L jy@Skr

@pbrv` ag p`R@MNvt ipW @kr# iNy` ayv#y ert mh` v&`p`kyN@G uQ@y~mW g#mt @b`@h~ @sN lKv a#w. @my, X`ry jnw` pK;@Y (@J) n`ykWv@yN aS}`r a`Nv N ipW kr l# @qvn ayv#y . "mm @mm ayv#y 1 t 10 qKv` pm`nyk 9 vn S}`n@Y wbN@n" y [`n @m~tR r} h` yr# p# p`qk a`ywnyK vn bj`J o@t~ sm`g@M sX`p r`L bj`J k`\ k@L y. iNy` kRm`Nw sM@Ml@Y (aa) [`n @LkM tr#N q`S, "smSwyK vs@yN ey @h`> ayv#yK" y p#v y. iNy`@V \`lwm Qgk v`@N p`qk sm`g@M [`ny` vn jM@;D ir`, "iw` ar# @k`N@Q yt@W s$m a@yt m ymK mt" uWs`h m @v@vN qL a#m y|vNW Aht \As` k@L y.

Ah@G ayv#y kw`vt p n gnn`v l iNy`@V @k`tS @vl> @p`@L ihl y`mK y. iNy`vN s>h` `G[n l`X b ap`ky yyt 10 qKv` h adN kPp` m, a@n&`n& arqLvl l`X y bvN qhS m sh pgnk m^k`Ag aA\yt b r`m q`ny m b> Ah@G yvr mN a`@y~jk@y~ @|;@yN m sNyt pWv a#w.

r# b a m h` E b> y`q`my srl m ašNdv iyt @gnyN pv`, @R b mw aŽX`ryK p#tm mN @Qy kRm`Nwvlt wLvK lb` @M a`N@V yWny q iNy` v&`p`kyN@G p#smt lKv @B. ayv#yt @pr a`sNn k`l pC@Cqy l , @Qy p`qk@y~, aNwRj`k sAgwvlt e@rv wr< v#@M wmNt sh@y~gy @qn @ls @Jyt dny qm` . v&`p`k a[&yn a`ywn@Y a[&K; ar#N gy`L E b>v @m@S aqhS q#K yŸ "brkrn y`q`my mN @k@rn m q @Q\ a`@y~jn p#n a#W@W wmNt q#v#Nw @ls phr @qN y yn k`rn`v q kRm`Nwkr#vNt a#Ww vs@yN m q#@n."

iNy`@V [`n v&`p`k vWpwK vn SnS lN p@Y .a`R. pNct av, "qL a#m sASkrn [jy ašNdv @llvN . nW yM @vnsK swv y, enM j`kv` lA phr k g#mt q uWs`h kr."

sw& k`rn`v nM, iNy`@V a`Rk "sASkrn" y`q`my arx` q#N q\kyK wrM klK gw a#wW, iNy`v wv mW N@N @b`@h~ @sN @p`@r`N "a`Rk n#Gmt" @b@hN pN y yNn . iNy` apnynvl s#ly n#GmK a# awr ihl m[&m pNyt l`X @Qy p`@X~k X`Nd s>h` t @M h#y`v q l# a#w. e@hW iNy`v @Q\ a`@y~jn s>h` wr<@Y wv mW N@N @b`@h~ @sN Rvl ayk y. ert bl \K uWp`qn h` @bq` h#@M j`ly sh sA@Q\ h` v`hn @p` k`Ry v&hy pvN@N pg`Wvy l y. iNy`@V j`kv a`rKwv p#v a`Rky > r#m mhjnw`vNt wmN aW‰n aNw qw`v@yN @g`dE@m l` s#ly shnyK lb` n#v` pmnK @n` v, ey @Qy `G[n@Y \`l @k`tsk@G p#v#Wmt q yN vl kp` a#w. SnS @D s<r`v N py vs@R Q[ krn lq eK a[&ynyK mN gmny @k`t p, iNy`@V \`lwm v&`p`r a`ywn 50 s#l kl Ev`N p#v#Wm b>v pv` \KmWv oT a#Ly h# wWvyk N@N yNwM 14K pm.

@Qy `G[nyt wLv @M yvr, r# b‹ a m h` r`j& aA\@Y v&`p`k a`ywn n` q#m mN @Q\ a`@y~jkyN n@M av\&w`v smg lny m b>v, Ah@G ayv#y iNy` v&`p`kyN@G \As`vt lKv a# awrm, ayv#y sMbN[@yN @Q\ `G[n@Y a`kLpy vd` s`v[`n SvX`vyK @gn @B. l shn`[`r h` @s shn`[`r kPp` m mN rj@Y yqM a krn @ls q emN q#N ql @Qy p`w@yN yyt 6.5kt sm`n y wK@Sr# @k`t a# ayv#y <y yvn @ls q j`w&Nwr l& arql ز klW S@S iNy`vt bl krN .

w}& vs@yN m, Ah@G ayv#y, el@xn qL vR;@Y (1999-2000) ayv#y <y ql @Qy p`w@yN yyt 4 qKv` a @k@r a#w# an`v# pl kr. @k@S @vwW, @Q\ |@L;kyN h` @b`@h~ @Qy |@L;k@y~ Ah@G k`\ b>v s#k phl kr. oN |v`s krN@N, em k`\ a`Rk vR[ny b> sq`yk an`v# mw pqnM Ev` bv y. epmnK @n` v, shn`[`r kPp` m @vvt Ah @w~r`@gn a#W@W b ihl q#m .

iNy`v 1991 y a`Rk "sASkrn" v#d@vl yW @mN pv }m vw`vt, a`q`yM h` sAgw b ihl q#@m. a`q`yM h` sAgw b mw yyt 10k w`vk`k aŽX`ryK p#nmt ayv#y @y~jn` kr. @mm aŽX`r@yN qhS @k@rN@N phlm b k`Nd@Y n ay pm.

e@hW b a`q`y@M a@PKw vR[ny vn r#yL yn 93N h adkt vd` upy` g#@n a#W@W, sLvN ay @k@rn bQq trykt r#ylN ihl q#@m. v`hn yqM ihl q#mt @q a# @mm b v# m, avs`n@Y , a`h`r h` @s X`Ndvl l gnN ihly`@M r$p@yN p`@X~kyN mw p#t@v a#w. iNy` sm`j@Y qwm @k`tS mw y pw v a# @mm yvrt e@r mhjn @r~[y sA‹@M yWnyK @ls, Ah k`\ k@L, a`Nv @mN l#@bn amwr a`q`ym sm`j Xs`[n h` `y sAvR[n v&`p^ @v@vN @y`qvn bv .

a`q`yM b aŽX`ry h` sL bQq v# m yLlN m sm @S gnN g#@M a`N@V @vw -- k#pM krn @ls sm`j@Y s$m @k`tsk@gN m iLl` l#@B -- @pNM mK @ls Nw`r# mt, ayv#y kw`@V , Ah uWs`h k@L y. @k@S @vwW, p nm o m`[&vlt p#v@V, b mw p#n aŽX`ryN w`vk`k vn awr Il< vs@R wm` Ev` ivW mt bl`@p`@r`W vn bv . sL bQ@Q @kr# v# m sMbN[@yN evN @p`@r`NvK n#w yNn a@vN s>hN m anv\& y.

Ah y ayv#@yN @Q\ `G[nyt q` a# [`nm shny nM, "r`j& aA\@Y a`@y~jnhrny" -- enM, r`j& aA\@Y a`ywn a`@y~jkyNt n` q#m -- @VgvW mt a# @p`@r`Nv . em a`@y~jkyN wmN l gNn` r`j& a`ywn, ߿y` h` v#P kPp` hrh` l`X lbn sm`gM bvt pvRwny kr a#w. a`Nv vWmN qL vR;y l "a`@y~jnhrny" mN r#yL yn 80K upy` gW bvt pM@p~ g# Ah, el@xn qL vR;y s>h` r#yL yn 100k ilKkyK k`\yt pW k@L y. r`j& aA\@Y a`ywn 43K a`@y~jnhrny s>h` R@Q\ q#ntmW a`Nv N ipW kr l#b a# bv q wvW a`ywn gnn`vK m m b> @y~jn` iKmN m a`@y~jnhrn @k`;mt @y` @k@r a# bv q o @Vqny k@L y. "@my v&`j a`@y~jnhrnyK @n` v, s#b$ a`@y~jnhrnyK" y, ayv#@yN pv p#v v^W s`kCc`vk , Ah av[`rny k@L y.

@Q\ a`@y~jn sMbN[@yN p`ln am#y s>h` ipW @k@rn ay#MpW b>v kt m knM m sh @Q\ a`@y~jn y`vt q#@M aŽk`yK ӵm a`y a#lW, @Q\ a`@y~jn ph @M eLly sw yvr m`l`vK q Ah @Vqny k@L y.

a`Rk h` @Q\p`lk blM

@J sX`g@Y @qvn ayv#y h#dg#S@m l` a`Rk h` @Q\p`lk blM gnn`vK m k`Ry X`ryK i @k`t a# bv @p@N. `@Qyv pqnM sX`g hLkr#vN 17K sw ag#m vJp`@G a`Nv pvN@N, @Q\p`ln dnyNt -- kNd`yM mN eLl @k@rn dnyNt pv` -- a`Nk @ls n#@mn wWvyk y. sX`gy N m p# r#Q[Wvy @H@k`t@gn, ", shL, , iN[n h` @p`@h`r shn`[`rvl kN @Vqny @k`t kPp`vk s#r b`l mt @mm vsr l @Jyt bl @kr#.

py @qs#Mbr@Y , @J a`N@V hLk`r pK; gnn`vK m, a`N@V a`Rk @vWvlt e@rv p#v, kMkr#vN yn 20K pmn shX` , eK n mh v#d vRjnyK smg sh@y~ h.

sX`gy N q mhjnw`v awN q m vn y`v b> y, [`n yqM kPp`vK y`vt @n` q#mt Ah gW N@V k s`[kyK @ls s#kv m pv. wvW s`[kyK nM, mhjn yqMvl kPp`vK iNy`@V a`Rky pb#SmK lt wL kr a#w# yNn b>v a`Nvt pvWn` y .

@b`@h~ qR\kyNt av, r@T > v# a# @p` k`Ry v&hyt sMbNŽwv pvWn` aX&Nwr dnyN, n#@gnr a`y` a`Rk kd` v#@M blp$m sh py m# ms n&k a aWhq`b#Mvlt pv eKsW jnpqy h` wvW rtvL N iNy`v mw pnvn lq a`Rk whA a`y @H @k`t@gn, iNy`v q#ntmW g#„r# vn a`Rk mNqg`Wvykt n .

1998-99 qL vR;@Y }m hW ms l, k`Rk p`qn@Y smSw vR[ny, It @pr qL vR;@Y em k`l pC@Cq@Y p#v yyt 6.2 agyt sNsNqn`Wmkv, yNwM yyt 3.6 mTt@M p#v. yyt 1ktW vd` a vR[nyK @pNM krN sh a`h`r s#kM h` @r v# smhr aA\vl r@PK; v#mK q swv, p`@X~k X`Nd kRm`Nwy @|;@yN m pb$mt lKv @B.

py ayv#y pqnM @kr# bl`@p`@r`Wvlt l @ls, k^ aA\y ekw#n pLmt lKv a#w. a`h`r s>h` g lbn [`n& p`qny, vWmN qL vR;y l yNwM yyt 0.3N vR[ny @V y wK@Sr# @k@R. ey vn`, jnghn vR[nyt vd` @b@hN phN ӵ agy.

e@hW, avs`n@Y vd`W m v&snk` y h# vN@N, apnyn vR[ny phl v#m . eKsW jnpq @d`lR ag@yN gW kl apnyn vR[ny, ey yyt 21.1k ihlm agyK (1995-96) kr` n# 1990 gnNvl m#q t @M qKv` @yN a#q v# @B. 1997-98 qL vR;@Y ey yyt 1.6k @s`CcM agyK awr 1998-99 apnyn v#@d a#W@W, yyt 0.2N y wK@Sr# @k@R.

apnynvl ekw#n pLm, iNy` p`lkyN avs`n@Y "brkrny" @w~r`g#m kr` @m@hy 1991 aRqy v# @gM @|; aRqyK b> y y mwkyt nAvN, vWmN qL vR;y l iNy`@V @vl> <y @d`lR yn 10 iKmv` vR[ny mt y h# y. apnyn aA\@Y u_nw`v, @Q\ a`@y~jn ihl qm`g#m mN s#kvm m#@s n#w. 1998-99 vs@R @Q\ s^ a`@y~jn It @pr vs@Rt vd` yyt 38N a a#w# wK@Sr# @k@R.

@`NTlN s<r`@V @pbrv` 26 kl`pyt y y l a`Rk |@Lk` jy` @g`S pvsn p, "@b`@h~ |@L;yN s>h` . . . [`n g#tv, iNy`v @gM @|; aRqykt n @q q @n` @q q yNn @n` v, e@S v a#W@W kvq` q yNn ".

aq`l @vnW
@j~ b` @Qy a`@y~jkyN aQq` g#mt yvr @p`@r`N @v
1999 m`R 26


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