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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : kl` mR\n

s`w& c`r
Ww aSv#Nn (jgW @k k}`@V q @Wm`v)
pvRwnyŸ nq`s qnNy

c`ry vr#n alh@k~N

Ww aSv#Nn pvRwn s`w&yt aN m ek @kkw` sCcy. s`w& K@@Y @Lšky h` pvRwky vn nq`s qnNy @m pvRwky` y. jgW @k k}`@V q @Wm`v y@vN q @mm @k k}` sAhy nM @k`t m, ey p`k av[`nyt lK m @k@r blp`n eK @Hv. p q\kyK S@S @qml @mN m Ahl kMkr#-ԫw mhjnw`vt q e@rv o@n`N@G w yqN vn @Lv# vRgv` Q[yk w l v q bl, sA@V @mN m Rv&`j kl` Rm`nyN s>h` @mm Q[y @Wm` pvN@N rl @lN m s` .

pvRwky` N vN vr pvRwny @k`t a# @k k}` qhyK @m sAg^w y. @l~k s`w&@Y š kl`kr#vN vn iGn`T@y~ @l`@N, aRnST @hA@V sh is`K b`@bL@G @k k}` nK q swv plSn, @s~yT h` p`S}`n s`w&kr#vN@G @k k}` @M awr @V.

e@S v q, nq`s qnNy@G @w~r` g#m l kl`Wmk blw`v@yN usS Rm`nyN @V nM E @mm sCc@yN adk pmn m`nyK b#V p#vy y.

p`S}`n @Lšky vn sq`W hsN mN@w~@G (1912-1955) Ww aSv#Nn nM @k k}`v E awN ek. 1947 iNy`v @qkd @mN av l# a`gk-v`Rk k`@k`t` g#m @m ;y pv. @k k}`@V M k`\y v@Y "Kv`M" nM cwy vt` y. SM a`gk ԫwy vn o@G vst q N S@v~Wwmv` h`ryK eLl @k @m`@h`wkt pv en avS}`@vN k}`v a#r@‚. E, @v v# v`l l#b n Kv`M wm y mr` qm` sh wm l`b`l yy ;ny @k`t mr` qm` a# b#V q#@M avS}`@v. yr# @h@wm mg gt n g#@sn NN @qp krN ngr@Y gmN g. ԫw N vhnkt en o e @qkl`v N l`b`l q#yK yr#@vN m @k@ls` mr` qm. e@hW wmN N gW q#y@G r#r qW m @m@wK @Vl` o mw rj# yr#v phv y. em q#y N o @V wm yy ;fN m y!

"y k`y m` vW m wm`@G q$N a#@G ur# qNd a# b#V ot q#. o@G y a#@G m^ sm ps` kr @gn @g`S . o cNd @ls gSs` a#y q` h#@Y y.

"@nW y`gW ot m v# y@g`S y yy@G r#v S y. a#@G d` @qyr# ur#v . o@G r#@R m @mN wl d`yK n#. pTtM krn lq @q`@rN @sK v a`@V y. o aw apwK y. asl v#r v mw a#LlK elNnt s#r@sN N Kv`M ot S y.

"ux kq?" aWw` r#@V y. Kv`M y n o @vw h#r y. "Kv`M" s` a|v`s@yN v k$ g# y.

Kv`M@G a#S adK v# . o@G @nN S bvK pl y. @nW h h# @n` @p@nNn`K @mN y.

"ux m@G @gqr @m`kq krN@N?" s` gRjn` k@L y.

Kv`M y @vln a# Ll ز @k`t a#L@lN e @p`y @pN y. ";fN" o mh h†N k$ g$@V y.

a@nK s`, @p`y vs` a#Ll ivW k@L y. o@G aN kv . iKv o "Bl`, m@G v Ml`" v#l@pN @gN twt a#@N y. (33-34 )

@k k}`@V avs`ny g#N@v@Y e@S y. wm v&snyt @pr ptN m Kv`M q wm "sr`@G" mVvr#N h` s@h~qyN m @hl` ;ny @M @y bv @m p#v@sn awr m kvK aw#v vst a# vn s` q @mm v&sn@y m y# p#@y @v. M mN sh^qy` X`v`\y mTtmkt pW @n` krn arN @mm @k k}`v l, ԫw mhjny` a#q qm l#b n a`gk-v`Rk k`@k`t` g#@M pvn X`w^{`wk h` Svn`\k SvX`vy [vw krv. avs`nyt Kv`M @mN m a@nK s` q pWvn asrn X`vy mN @my s#b#N m "Ww aSv#NnK" bv kvry` y` . pvRwkvry` N wm pvRwn sCcy enN m h#‰N@mN lAk`@V q#nt av` a# vRgv` Q[y @k@r wm y`vK @ls ey ipW krn bv p#h# @k@r. ԫw mhjny` sMbN[@yN @mm k`@k`t` g#@mN lq h#K@K Ww aSv#NnK b#V s#b$ m y.

@b~L@;K pK;yt sMbN[ v y @mN m St#N@G vq k>rk avsN Sm @h kl`kr#v@G k^yK q t a#lW y. is`K b`@bL@G @G "h`Qq" @k k}`v 1919-21 k`l@Y aŽr`j&v`qy h` e r#y` g`Wvy N lqr# @s~yT kMkr# r`j&yt e@rv yW krn lq L Q[y pM @k`t g. @p~lNw @pr@n stN vn @b~L@;K asr# @Sn`Akyk l[`y h` o nv`w#N gW v@S wr#n v#Nq„ k`Nw`vk (es@bW @t`MN) awr a# vn @™my t ;y @V. oN n g#S@N q Q[y . e@hW oN@G @™my s&127;l m s>h` Q[y q` id @n` @q. h# s$m t m o@n`N h` eK mt yWn q#r#v q avs`n@Y Q[y N m @pMvW @qpst kr lb.

bl m`k sb>w`vyN vS @k`t gW b`@bL@G @mm @k k}`v, Q[y N wy r#r# @ls ur` g#@nN p#vm ġ„ krn awr m It e@r m@n~X`k, a[&`Wk al`;yN@gN sh^qy` @™rny krvn y.

aRnST @hA@V@G (1899-1961) "p`lm l< N mhLl`" @k k}`v q wy mW@W Q[y y`Wmk vn  shgw a`k`ry ġ„ krvn y. f#ST v`N N Sp`›y a`mny @k@rn t iN mt uNw#N h#r qm` pl` yn mhLl ;y @k`t gWw, @mm d` @k k}`v. g<K asl p`lmN e@wr mt p#@nn mhLl` sh ey r krn @sbl` awr @k @qbsN ey smNw y.

mhLl`t k`W kr#W n#w; wmN@G w@n`wytW, wy @bq`hq` g#mtW wmN N a`qry kr l#mtW, ot a#W@W, v@S a# krn sN p@q@nK m pm. @b`@h~ K kMk@t`vlt n N o@gN avsN @m`@h`@W em st q ur` g l#.

wm qr#vN v# sN h#r qm` pl` en mhLl`t y`mt w#nK, arnK n#w. o @vW @n` h‹n , k` smg @h~ wm KkMk@t` b> v k}` m ot a# ekm s#nm . @h@wm, @s`Lq`v` smg, wmNt h#r qm` Emt sN@G irnm b> k}` krN E g#n K @v. @M mhLl`@G wyt arnK yK s#p avs`n sb>w`v@yN q ov glv` ivwt kr l#mt e@r @r~[yK q mhLl` @k@r akMp`vK q sh^qy` l q#nmt @k kw`v smW @v.

ūy` n` (1889-1954) nM @s~yT @Lk`v@G "@sNpy`@G akMp`v" nM @k k}`v, wy h` mrny m Q[y N y aR}k}ny @k@rn ar# n`t&my blw`vyN v ipW krNn. @k k}`vt vS @k a#W@W oK@w~bR Plvyt pv el#ƒ L Q[ sm@Y sw& m. Ply hq` an @qn l[` @t`V N {`wny krn lq @b~L@;K l[`y h` v`pW v m s` pmnK m o@G g# >t q mrn q‡vm ym mW, o@G @qm`yN@G a`y`cny mw, qr# @yN pv mr` q#mt N mW E QŽy . @qm`yN@G ay#m a#y g#yK s` akMp` @k`t w q`ny m . @sNpy`@G "akMp`v" av a#yt w q`ny l#@N qr#v` krn @wK pm. qr#v` p a#y mr` qm a#w; a#@G vW m @h~ @n` m, qr#v`@G m @h~ @n` m mw r>` pv a#w; s oW qr#v`@G wy l#m a#yt mrny k#>m @V. @k k}`v avs`n@Y em avS}`v @m@S gNv.

"yLl h@Y n`\ šyt pW y. q#N a#y vK @n` q. a#y aSv#@N @@vry q#L@mN pm. @mv# N@gN sm`vK lq @n` h# y. upw lq vh`m qr#v` mv@G a@g~v` @k`t o a#y mr` qmNnt y. a$ >gWw` y. @k`@d~@vN a#@sn e@nkt @vnS p` h’vL q, k#>vn, amwn kth’vL q, @l~h r` sw d` k q, qkl` r m#@Y a W q @k@r a#@G w K;kv @y` y. @M a#@G avs`n vhn. a#y qr#v krN y. o a#y mr` qmNn`h. a#@G uqr @Q\@y clnyK a# y. ey @n` q#vW a@g~v` mt yw w#n#Ww` a#@G irnm y pW kr @q s wT mK v# y. ur a#M kNn`K @mN q#n q a#yt h’` v#ly @n` h# y. b@V K;k LlN a$ mN m yt y." (58 v)

iw` @Lšk iGn`T@y~ @l~@N@G "@p`k`" @k k}`v Q[y @Wm` kr gW sAhykt a# krn lq q ey s^vm Q[y vS ;y @k`t gWwK @n` @V. e@hW em @Hv s` wvW bl kl` Rm`nyK smg h^qy sAv`q@y @y@qN ey rs‹@m l` sh^qy` vlk`lN@N nM n#w. @l`@N@G @mm @k k}`v em sCcyt a#lW @h`>m @k k}`vK b#V s#k y.

q smyk vW vn @g`N sK sh oN h` a#rt pWv oNt s`w&y ig#Nmt yWn qrn l`b`l v awr sb>w`vyK @mmN r$w y. "@f`Ntm`r`" nM wm pwl nv k}`@V @l`@N N ġ„ kl aN m, sm`j S}ryK @ls @g` jnw`v n @q lbn g#h#tW, Ev` r`j&y sh a`gm b‹ p`lk pAk sAS}`w@Y š sAS}`vN smg oN@G g#m N k`\ vn ar#W, oN@G \KN @mN m blw`vyN awr m pvWn` prSpryW, sA@V v sh^qy`t n g#Sy h# kl`Wmk Rm`nyN s>h` @l`@Nt pvn nWvy @m q psK @k`t gw h# y.

@k kw`v "@p`k`" y@vN nM @k`t p#v#@m q a#<mK pv. "@p`k`" y @ r#y` kl`kr# @y~ @t~LS@t~ N 1860 enN pl krn lq @k k}`vk nm @v. @l~@N@G @k k}`@V v` (k}`v k`\y o@G q^ @k~n@y) @g`Nt yv@Y @t~LS@t~@G em k}`v . @t~LS@t~@G k^@Y [`n cwy q "@p`k`" nM rql vlVvk @m@hkr#v vn @g`@y.

@g` jny` q a#lW v#dvsM @Vq`s myW, e h’ Ek`k` sh als vn QmyW a\N @@v;k v h` kl`Wmk blg b@vN Kwv Rm`ny krn mh` kl`kr#v@G Rm`nyK ӵt @k`t @gn @l~@N @g`dng` gNn` em sb>w`v@Y a#<M q, @k kw`@V blWvyt @H @v.

e@hW @l~@N@G "@p`k`" @Wm`v Q[y @n` @V. pvRwky` N apt e@S EW g#Nmt aqhS kl q, @mm @k k}`v l Q[y i krN@N e QŽ k`\nyt upS}MXk vn y`kl`pyK pm. Q[y b> q^yN  m m @k k}`@V s#b$ rs Nqny @k@r b`[kyK v a#w.

@mm sAh@y a# i @k k}` vn "v# vQ" (yy` rb`H), "NW@w~", "a`p gmn" (r;`D a ;vR), "@vlx" (wK fSy`D) ... sh plSn @k k}` swrW "s$m w#n m iN@N mSs@y`" (VlR @b`@g`@m`@l`F) sh @s~yT @k k}`v q Q[y yNn @Wm` kr gW@W v bl "kl`Wmk Rm`n" @lN Ev` h#‰Ny @n` h# y. k g#tv p#n n@Y Ev`@Y aNwRgwy sMbN[@y.

@m en plSn @k kw`vN E @h~ @M aN plSn "K" v&`p`ryN N ojv# j`kv` }&`vNt b#‹ al`;yN@gN @m@hyn. g#t g# pvWn` s`vq& @Q\p`ln arn krn @k`t @gn m em @k k}`vN plSn K argl@Y @@v;k s`m`k aNwRgwy kl`Wmkv ġ„ krn Rm`nyN @n` @V. E awr m, @mm s`vq& -[@N|vr j`kv` q^@yN RvRn @n` @Y nM, yy` rb`H (v# vQ), wK fSy`D (@vlx) yn @LškyN@G \lw`vyN, wm @k k}`vN l &127;l q#y h#v p#v bv q k`\ kl y.

@b`@g`@m`@l`F@G @k k}`v q t @n` @q@v y. ey, @s~yT St#Nv` l[ry N wmN @g`dn#@V y# Iy` "w r@T sm`jv`qy" yN@n "s`R}kWvy" mv` @pNm s>h` @s~yT kMkr# pN@Y o_q`Ryy h` pw&`gWvy gs` k$m s wm s`w& kl` @pr@n @y`qv` gW sm`j sWw` y}`R}v`qy l k^ykt qn. St#Nv` l[r@Y p`v`M s`m an@r v @t p#v @s~yT kMkr# r`j&y k g#m s>h`, e kMkr# pNy N @qvn @l~k Q[y l @gn yn lQq` pw&`g h` @r~q`r argly gs` k$m s em smy @Wm` @k`t @gn St#Nv` @LškyN aN @mvN nvk}`, @k k}` yn`y phl y.

pvRwkvry`, @mm @k k}` pvRwnyN sMcgw @M , @w~r` gNn` @k k}`vN Q[y yNn @kwrM rt kl`Wmkv h` @@v;k a`k`ryt ġ„ @V q yNn b> v ewrM m s#lmW @n`m# bv @p@N. Iy` s`mv`@y @ls, Iy` m`nv wv`y @ls @n` @V nM vRgv`y @ls v em q^@yN Q[y @Wm` @k`t @gn @k k}`vK Rm`ny krN@N nM y@mt e@S @m l` b`[`vK n#w. nW kl`vt q Rn`ykyK pv. ey nM sm`jy h` Qgl sAvR[nyt @@v @k`N@QvN aWmK a@PKw kl`kr#v`@G av&`j arglyW, o wm k^yt ;y kr gNn` y}`R}yW (Q[yW) awr pvWn` y}` @@v;k sMbN[w`vy b> kr#n .

Q[y v# |w sm`j-@Q\p`ln pAcyK smg @p`r bqn kl`kr#v E @h~ @M [@N|vr j`kv`, g` q^v`qyk blp$@mN sh dn@yN Kw v @n`m# nM Q[y @k@r o@G y @@v;k @n` @V.

@kwrM X` sMpNn kl`kr#v v, @mvN v&`j [@N|vr q^v`qyk dn@yN wm Rm`n \lw`vyN krgW@W nM evN k^yN sh^qy` l kl`kr#v` @mN m wmNv q @pl lbn dk y}`R}yt e@rv bl m@n~X`k y`vK jw kl h# @n` @V; evN k^yN y}`R}y b> v @@v;k `nyK uQvhny @n` @V. @mm kr#n pvRwkvry`@G av[`nyt @g~cr n#w. e@S v q, pvRwky vs@yN, nq`s qnNy N "Ww aSv#Nn" pl m mN q iyt @gn y lbn kl`Wmk X`w`v h` argly a wK@Sr# mt wrM ap ey @HvK kr @n` g.

@mm sthn a`rMX@Y m, Q[y @Wm` @k`t gW bl, sA@V sh Rv&`j kl` k^ lAk`@V rl b#V s>hN k@l. e@hW eN, lAk`@V kl`kr#vN, wmN Q[yK m[&@Y n s` @Wm` kr gw W@W, vRgv` Q[y y y@vN R@Q\yK @h~ an`` p#nmK aqhS @n` @k@R. Q[yN a#lgW sm`jyk kl`kr#v`@G argly smNw v@Y y pQ@qN m, [ h#d r#v gN, q^\&m`nv @mN m aq^\&m`nv q wmN mw blpvWn` Q[y l ġ„ vn dk y}`R}yt e@rv ey jy g#m s>h` @gn yn X`w`v s`@v. evN sm`jyK l n, e m @k`tSkr#v vn, wy @k@r sA@V kl`kr#v`t q em y}`R}y mg @n` h#y h# @h.

"Q[y" yn pAcy sMbN[@yN sMX`v& m`KSv`N N "Q[y nM, @Q\p`lny m @vnW a`k`ryN kr @gn y`m" yn kt p`y rNwr@yN av[`rny krn lQq. kl`@V K@y l "Q[y" @Wm`vK t s#k @ls m kl`kr#v` @mm "Q[y" nM |w @Q\p`ln pAcy smg @p`r b#y @v. m`nv Kk`m@Y r`gw @eh`k av\&w`v m kl`v l k`\nyK aWpW kr g lbn @hN m, kl`kr#v`@G @mm argly l , "wy" aN kvrq`tW vd` aN |nyt b‹N @k@rn sh wRjnyt lK @k@rn Q[yt e@r o@G sA@V kl`Wmk y`v, "wy" iLv` lbNnK h` e Kk`my blg @ls ġ„ krNnK m @n` v#l#Ky h# y. e@S m, ey, pN sm`j m@Y &127;lyK @ls kd`p`W @k@rn Q[@yN av`Ry@yN m d`vt pW vn kMkr#-ԫw mhjnw`vN l blpvWvn Kk`my smgW, E h` b#‹ @@v;k-a`Wy al`;yN smgW ann&m q @n` v#l#Ky h# y.

 

 

aq`l @vnW

@r`D@cN@k~@G kl`v h` irnm: ašNd aWhq` b#m a#@lKs#NdR @r`D@cN@k~ Rm`n q#Km: V@y~RK; dsL@d~RF; S@t`K@h~M
1999 08

pt a[&K; sNn w`n@G smg sMš s`kCc`vK
1999 01

vn @s_NqRyyt e@r v@Y pN sm`jmy @k`N@Q
pr# v] nm` c`ry

1999 m`R 12

fyR ptyt e@r @k~p`Gy
1999 @pbrv` 05

@q`rkd m`r`v
1998 @qs#MbR 18


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