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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : kl` mR\n

@r`D@cN@k~@G kl`v h` irnm: ašNd aWhq` b#m
a#@lKs#NdR @r`D@cN@k~ Rm`n q#Km: V@y~RK; dsL@d~RF; S@t`K@h~M

@DD @v`L

aRv r#y` h` @s~yT kl`kr# a#@lKs#NdR @r`D@cN@k~ (1891-1956)@G }m SRn eKsW jnpq p|c`W-q#Km 1998 a@g~S ms V@y~RK ngr@Y p#v#W. anr#v ey jRmyt h` Sdnyt @gn y$mt yw y. @DD @v`L em qR\ny pvQ @mm a#gm ap pl krN@N eN iw` v#qgW em kl`kr#v` h` o k`l@Y kl`v g#n q kl`kr#vN n N |n b> v q v#qgW `nyK sMp`qny @k@rn @h.

vn yv@S t kl` Rm`pkyN@gN @k@n @r`D@cN@k~@G Rm`n k`Ryy v&`Pwv p#v K@yN awr , R, @k`l`J, c`y`r$p Lpy sh @m~Swr kl`v (@p`W h` s<r` kAk, c`rk q#NM h` @p~StR) q y. 1920 gnN l jgW RyK kr gW @h@wm q\ky ag St#Nv` l[` wNy h` e g#WwN sm< g#mt elƒ@Y, y w@y i vsr aktv h` @qkl`v y. o {`wny @n` @k -- @qK |\Bq @k; aWh#r q#.

vWmN qR\n@yN k`RyyN pyK ekvr i @v: ey, @eh`k q^@k~n@yN, as`m`n& r#y` kl`kr# prrK b> y@m@G av@b~[y p^l q g#„r# q kr. ey, St#Nv`qy yt@W kl`vW kl`kr#vW n p$ @Kqy irnm y@mt pW @k`t @q. qR\n X`Nd, @n` v#l#Ky h# @s_NqRymy h` a`k^my g#t gnn`vK iSm kr. e@S m, ey, b#r#M W rmy W kl` k^ ekvK s$@hn @™K;k sK h@v wb.

@r`D@cN@k~ upw lQ@Q \`Nw wRbRg@y y. @Vq`s@y@G @y o@G y` n^w&`g`ryk a`v@Wvkr#@v @ls ߿y`v kl awr o@G mv @r aLlNyk v` y. 1900 gnN l @r`D@cN@k~ pl ks`N nm# `@Qy ngryt sAmny awr d` @r`D@cN@k~ p v e p`slkt a# y. 1914 , ks`N lw kl`ywn@Y Lp hq`rn awr y w k`n shk`y -- a#yt m a`@Vk aRvWvyN @h kl`k`yk vRvr` S@wp@n~v` (1894-1958) ot ng#n. em vR;@Y m @pbrv`@y, an`gwv`N RK, v k#NNS h` Vl#R my`@k`VS N pvWvn lq sAgykt h` @Q\nykt shX` @mN iK o an`gwv`q@y @@w@yK bvt pW y. 1915 @m`SkV vrt p# @r`D@cN@k~, 1916 m`R@v Vl#R t#TN (sA[`yk), kR m#@lV, l@b`V @p`@p`v`, a#@lKs#NdR eKStR sh n@qq` udLT@s~v` smg eKv pvWvn lq qR\nyK u@qs` wm @Rš` sh kvk ipW k@L y.

@r`D@cN@k~, 1917 oK@w~br@y ӵvn lq Ply nv a`Nv sm< ann& r#y` kl`kr#vN wr@yN @k@nK y. 1918 , o `n`v@b~[y b> mhjn am`w&A\yt (n`R@k`M@`S) ayW q^\& kl` aA\@Y (i@s~) @m`SkV k`RyA\@y @Svyt p#@Y y. a;Akv, o i@s~@v @k_k`g`r @r~@v sh e iw` m v#qgW @m`SkV a`ywny vM sASk^y b> @k_k`g`r@y aŽp vs@yN pW @k. anr#v el„ vsr py l , @k_k`g`r @r~v N Wwr#N h`ryykt aŽk sk@G wn @qqhsK pmn aWpW @k`t g#n; `@Qy @k_k`g`r 30K ӵn.

@Rš`v, vRny h` vyny (texture) b> v, @p@nn h#yt, wkr m a`k^k aN@V;nyN@gN pv, 1921 K;k vAvK gW @h@wm ew#N ptN @s yLl awh#r v&vh`k kl`v sh sm`j pRy`s@y @Svy s kl`v @yqm sm< mN ann& y. s`[nkv`qy (constructivism) y@vN kt g@V;ny a#r„@N e@l. em v&`p`r@y QŽmy h` m@n~q&`Wmk K b>v s`kCc` m @M @y ;y p}@yN pb`r @V. e mt agy s#lv @h`W, "kl`Wmk a`@V\y" K@p kl s`[nkv`qy, r$p`Wmk kl`@v (representative art) mlgm @Vqny @k`t @mw#N t "ap kl W@W w#m, s#km h` iؿm pmnk#" k`\yt pW k@L y.

s`[nkv` q^@y @m avsN sArckyt m`KSv` r#Q[ h. "py q\k p@y rj kl X`vn`@y~ h` [`rnv` Rv` kl`v @k@r y@m@G r#Q[Wvy s` `ny ny @MW sAkLpr$pgw @MW m`RgyK vs@yN kl`v @n`g#m y nv sm`jyK @g`dn#A@m @y n pN@Y hSw@yN e iw` m v#qgW a`[y ur` g#m" @y`N @`TS s>hN k@L y.

m@G h#m nM, y@m, wmN s`[nkv` kRwv&yN amw kl` @h~ @n`kl` @h~ @r`D@cN@k~@G h#m RvlWv@Y slnK, avS}`v`qyK @ls q#m s`vq& bv . It pth#v, aw&v\& @s_NqRymy @r_X`vy e@lsm r>v` gN shN @vnS m`yK l v#d mt ot p#v slw`v, o sv @|; sASk^k sMpW b> s`KyK @ls mm q.

1920 q\ky m#q X`g@y ptN @r`D@cN@k~ aŽk @ls c`y`r$p Lpyt k#p y. b`r sh aX&Nwr @l~ky @vw iw` Kmv h` w`K;kv @V\ q, sASk^k awy @k@r XKmW a`kLpykt wr@Y e@r q kl`kr#@v, qR\n n`m`vyt mnrM bN[yK spyn tR g#l#S pvsn a`k`ryt, "ek t kl`vK vn h` @n`vn" y`k`rkmkt aw g#m @y~g& bv @p@N.

("@@v;k" h` "y}`R}v`" l[`vN s#M lW) c`y`r$p Lpy b‹ K@ykt @mN, @b@hN l[`krny p`ln wNy smg g#M a# m vlKv`gw h# @vw#, s`nkv @h~ a`nkv, @r`D@cN@k~ a@PK;` k@L nM, ey e@S @n`vn bv vth` g#mt yw y. wm rcn`@v l` g#l#S sthN krn p, "Plvy @k@rW qhs h` nv @l~kyK b> e `v @k@rW s#b$ |v`s@yN p @r`D@cN@k~ sh [y w nm`kr# g`] vR@t`V, ey iwN v#l> gW@W lm`lpyN @m. oN@G k^N q^y @Y @my . e@Sv, 1920 gnN ag vn t, ey, bl@y yN wv rtW an&yNt q#mt id @n` N Ply q^yk aR}k}nyK y.

kv m, wm vSN c`y`r$pgw kl as`m`n& k#mr` @k~n krn@k`t @gn @r`D@cN@k~ ht "[@N|vr a`k^v`qy" y@vN pl vrt @c~qn` @kr#@N 1928 a@™L y. ey m elvn y. g#„r# Nwny St`Nv` l[` wN@y n`AgyK @n` y. e@hW, tSwr , n#w@h`W, y a`Žpw&yt wRjnyK @m`nyM @qykt v ey @ls sA@V y. vSN r#-r# bvt, "a`gNk" bvt h#rmt q#@rn pœmyN@gN smNw @r`D@cN@k~@G @@\y ont q# @ls ar#kr y. @m@ls a#r„ h`r k@lkW nwr @n`n. Svy

"m`q @q`;yN" gW @r`D@cN@k~, y Žm hgSv` g#@m avAk a[&`\@yN v wm v#dktvl y# bvt s#kyK n# nW rv@|;@yN m o @prl` p#@Y nv Rm`n`Wmk @V\yN kr` y. k#rk` Ply vkv`vk av@\~;ny @k`t gW @s_NqRmy h` QŽmy l[Rm o@G a#t lt m >` b#s n.

a#w#M v`G h`r, vcn@Y @m`nyM aR}yN v b#r#M kl` c`r @ls s#lm k`ry. g#l#S K;ny krn p, "w QglyN h` Qgl k`Nd n# en Ek`Žp wN@Y aдhy p# b#N @mm v`qv`q vAck a`Wm-sArK;n@yN ; k# n." qnK @ls, @r~g` v&`p`r@y [b`lqK; v&`p`r@Y @s~yT vRgy -- pvRwk] sm`k qr#q#yN@G c`y`r$p sry sMbN[@yN @r`D@cN@k~t @q`;`@r~pny @kn. o@G iw` kt Nr awN ekK vn l`b`l q#yk@G aŽ`nRvk vn@w sp r$py iv`N š`@n`V nm# c`rky` N @hl` q l#@V @m@l: "@r~g` q#yN ht ud b#mt ayK n#w. e q^v`q`Wmk aNwRgwyK @n`m#w. @r~g` q#yN sh @k`M@s`@m`L wr#yN b#y W@W iy ."

@r`D@cN@k~, "y w@y avsN q\kQvy @qkl`v, @q`MnSshgwv, KPwv, a@@[RymWv h` qv gw k@L y" (g#l#S). @qvn @l~k sA`my @klvr mW sm< wm n @p`@w w# sthnN o @m@ls p#v y: "v#d klW @n`klW vW vW @n`vW mm @k`@hW m anv\& Qgl@yK v . m` q#ntmW y y` h` sm`n vn awr m` vN awr w# h @Y m` pm. mm aq^\&m`n @sK."

qR\n@y eK k# @p@nn lK;nyK v@Y, n` n` [ kl` kt @vw @V\ @r`D@cN@k~ el` qh` p`n as`m`n& @ls uCcwr @s_NqRymy h` QŽmy mTtm . (@mm g#m, s#bN m, kl` Rm`n @k@r y@m@G c`ry rny vn Rv`AgyK @n`@V. @vn m kr#nK vn ey pv sAKPwv ms` bl.) @wL s`yM j&`k r$p a#Šm, @s~yT r`j& vN @Sv`@v R; Rm`ny m, @m`SkV qR\nyN c`y`r$p g#m yn` kvr ktWwk rwv y q @M kl`kr#v` \` QŽyN q as`m`n& sA@Vw`vN q @vk# y@mt h#@<. o@G N aWw@n~mk Ev` @n`v iw` b#r#M vRgyk @s_NqRymy, q`R\k h` @klvr sm`jmy slk` b#Mvl &127;lyN vn vg y@mt av@b~[ @v.

qR\n n`m`vyt av`vK spyn kl`kr#v`@G r# a#@lKs#NdR l#V@rN@yV, q&`@V sh e amN gy @k@r @r`D@cN@k~@G vprv\ uWkX`vy b>v s>hN kr. 1920 p#v y qR\nyK u@qs` @r`D@cN@k~ ipW kl bN[yN @k`ts @M: "m`@G s$m Rm`nyK m, eyt Rv k^@yN @vnS vn m`AkyK sw nv aWhq`b#m." em bN[yt o N m`w^k`v "yLl aWhq`b#m" n.

@m vkv`@v, @r`D@cN@k~ "@X_k @l~ky pp`lny @k@rNn` s`[nk Žy`m Rny @M yWnyk @y @Y y" l#V@rN@yV pvs. k`ly h` avk`\y b> vRgyNt o y k@L q`R\k sAkLp h#yt @n`v @l~ky b> @n`@yK w`rk` q&`my, j&`k h` m@n~q&`my a`k^ @|;yN vs@y. "@l~ky @g`dn# @bn l[`N -- @X_k, v q&`Wmk h` sAkLy g@d`" an`vrny m o@G a`y y. "Svy [@Ry] s`[nk mN k`ly h` avk`\@y g#„rt m mt wm`t idS}`v l#@b a#w#" yn a@PK;`@vN @r`D@cN@k~@G w rv l#@V, @qn lq On$ m @Rš` šNdyk ӵ lK;yN (anNw) sAš&`v smSw |vy s#M lW lK;yN sAš&`vt sm`n y yn kLwy N b#V p#h# y.

@mm v&`j-dv` g@V;ny wrmK @n`m< yvn q# yNn k`rny @n`vn bv @p@N. kl`kr#v`@G al`;y sh o@G prm`R}yN pr`sy cAcl h` Sw ek. "mm an`gwy @k@r @b@hN s#lmW @v" o 1920 y: "@mw#N t i vsr py q#k bl` g#mt mt av\&v a#w."

@r`D@cN@k~ aRv Qgl@yK m @n`v wWk`n r#y` kl`kr#vN s$@hn sK l ek h` sm`nv b#r#M a`nyK jnny kl Qgl@yK q y. m`KSv`q@Y ev`, kl`my wy h#dg#S@m l` Plvy @n`y h# s`[kyk# sn`} krv m#@lC, t#TN h` wvW ay v#qgW kl` kRwv&yN @vw el„@N 1917 oK@w~bR Plvyt Rv@y yn k`rny iw` Rvl a`k`ryt v` qKv. a#Ww vs@yN m, 1920 gnN l iSm skl[ nw`vN @b`L@;kyN@G bly g#mt s^v m b#r m, @l`v @hL em QŽy aw&Nw@yN @k`t w#mK v a#w.

@r`D@cN@k~ b‹ w#n#WwN, oK@w~bR Plv@yN g#N Ply gyk p`qn @ls @mN m e Rm`w^N @ls q s#lm vd` v#dq`yk v a#w. wvwvW aWhq` b#M h` nv @V\yN s>h` q#v#Nw a`@VgyK iN s#p. St`Nv`qy, e @eh`k gmnyt e@r Ply c`ryK @ls q#k gw y.

@r`D@cN@k~@G Rm`nyN @n`@yK p`R|vyN @k@rW o rw [ kl` m`[&yN @k@rW m@G y` e@nkt @vnS @v. j&`k r$p adA vM -- Ev` s`m`n&@yN uWk^t @ls Rwv n q m` l ewrM uQ@y~gyK jnny k@L n#w. sWwN m, o@G Lk`n `[`rk (easel) k^ @b`@h`myK h#Mbr c`rykt id @n`wbn wrmt m rpr y -- ey o@G a`y v`t s#k n#w. @k@S @vwW, a#w#M Rm`nyK ays n#v "kr#n`kr wv AgK m`k vNn#" h' w#mt @pr, y@m @M kl`kr#v`W o@G sgyW v#d kl a\y kr wWvyN s#lLlt gN@N nM @y@h. (@m@ls pvs@Y, @n`s‹ q^my |n @mm @y k`RyyN@gN b#h#r @k`t wb s y.)

"ap@G avŽy @k@TyN p`lny vNn" @`TS y. kl`vt On$vtW vd` s#pphv av\& @vw#" o em k^@y m s>hN k@L y. plvn @l~k Q[y p#n nn t @r`D@cN@k~ @q h#v @Y y. anr#v oK@w~bR Plvy sh 1918-21 L Q[y el#ƒn. wm kt kmw k (1918) nm# k^ Nw`r# kl sm@y @r`D@cN@k~ h`mwt v#mt a`sNn @k`N@Q yt@W vW b#V a q. Plvy, e anNw krw` y a`@Vgq` bvt s#kyK n# nW ey N Sn` pQ[y mw q# d`vK q @y`qn l. Plv@y S}`X`vyW pRnWvyW q&`y`@G @h~ @Q\p`lny`@G k`Ryyt vd` kl`kr#v`@G k`Ryy sMbN[@yN @KNy y.

1924 t, St`Nv`qy nN kt ph`gw v&`Žy @s~yT \ry l o vNnt y. @k@yN y@w`W, @s~yT kl`kr#vN ht @eNyv h` Sv`X`kv vR[ny @k`t g# sm^ŽmW kl`my wykt avsr @n`l#n. ap sv @b@Y, oN@G \k&w` b> uWk^t q#M m`yN pm.

@r`D@cN@k~@G Lk`n Rm`n a`k^k v\@yN PmW v wrmK rv@b~[ y. m@G mwk@Y h#yt, o sRv-p`R|yv v#mnW ann&w`vK kr gW@W y @Sy` r$ s@m~[`n (photomotages) sm . my`@k`VS@G @M b>v (1923) nm# k`v& sAhy s>h` o Rm`ny kl r$ sthN Ww`kR;y y. ky`@GW o@G @pMvy K@GW c`y`r$p smg s<r`vN kp` gW @n`@yK Nr sA@y~g kl @r`D@cN@k~, my`@k`VS@G @Vqn`bw @\~k-š`Wmk (tragiocomic) pq&yN q^\& k`\ny @s`y` g. qnK @ls,

"vs` g @qsvN
plK n#w!
a#@s mt
m@G
m@G m h'
m@G Svr@y ӵd
kp m` aW @G"

yn pq& šNdy u@qs` p`lmK mw lw#N pvn a 50K us# my`@k`VS @k@n, uWwr #v@Y sr# bv, m vlN, q$N s bq` gW ky`@G wvW s`m`n& m`n@Y @Sy`r#vK sh w jlk> kp`@gn [`vny vn @S @p@nn @b~TvK o @y`q` gW@W y.

nv a`Rk @vw (NEP) y`vt n#A sm@y, @M kl`kr#@v~ @q@qn rjyt ayW [ sm`gM mN s#p X`Nd h` @Sv`vN b> c`rk ktvl y# ay sm< aWv#L b#> gWh. Ev`@y mnhr ekvK qR\n X`Nd awr h @V. @r`D@cN@k~ qvtny Rm`ny kl awr my`@k`VS tpw rcn` k@L y. uq`hrnyK @ls, Kr`NS E@YtR (r vN n#y`) nm# ahS y`` S@k~ @pTyk sthN v@Y, r vN hq`@V anXvyWvy b>v sr# @Sn`vN @vw @k@rn anr# a#<m:

"ap@G ahS y`n` u vnt n#@G. s$m w#nk m -- rsk# mw pv` a a@P sAkLpn`v @r~pny kr: vN g#b a@P nM sr` k@v @mN ivwt bd g` a#w."

1925 , @K@g`R@n~ (N šr) r s>h` c`rk q#N@m @m@ls p#v@S: "hkWvy h` kP plv` hn @K@g`R@n~ r".

1920 gnNvl @s~yT @Q\yt p# eK a@mk` sAc`rk@y@G vcn@yN y@w`W, @r`D@cN@k~ "[`k`r W klxvn @QvL" (N} h` s<r` kMb, @p`W sl, r`j& vN @Sv`v s>h` SvRn`Xrn, nm` @p~Str...) Rm`ny k@L y. 1925 p#@y p#v#W s#r kl`v h` k`Rk nkrny b> j`w&Nwr q#Km s>h` o ipW kl @s~yT sAgm@Y kMkr# sm`j \`l`@V sASkrn s#l#Sm q qRw v& awr y. (em q#Km @v@vN @yl kl @s~yT n`m`v@y tkvry Rm`ny @kr#@N q o a.) vWmN qR\n@Y sA[`yk@y pvsn p, "v#d ny avs`n@Y œ`Ny, `nvWX`vy @mN m @Q\p`ln `n`v@b~[y q s#pm a`y @k`t gW em sm`j \`l`@v n#M p|c`W-PlyX`vyK g#Bv n."

qR\n@yN adK m p`@H @N @r`D@cN@k~ N gNn` lq c`y`r$pv. smhr t, ey o@G @wm it`Py . eK c`rk@y N h#‰N "sAv` l[Rmy" (principle of counter-point) @m l` aq`l v @p@N. vd` uq`n W vd` w`K;k W m`[&yk vd`W h#Mbr mt h` vd`W m`k mt @r`D@cN@k~ wm`t id h. 1924 gNn` lq, @k~p`tv orv` bln, @b@hN ŠŠyn @s @pNM krn my`@k`VS@G c`y`r$p at y. em vs@R m g l# y v@y~v^Q[ m$yN@G a`@Lš&y q eb‹ y.

qv@S @Q\p`ln Sw @k@r @r`D@cN@k~ @kb‹ a`kLpyK q#r#@V q yNn m` ht v q#n gNnt n#w. 1925-26 l , Rm`ny s ot p#vr# "smSw r#y` @k`ST (@b`L@;K) pK;@Y ih`sy" qh` q#K@vn @w~`k @p~StR p@hN, ytW@sN @qkK s>h` o @`TS@G @Sy` r$ a#lW kl b#V sthN kr v. 1927 gNn` lq, @MsyK mw @g`dg# @g` kNqr`vk @Sy` r#v nM @k @N "l[`v`qy XAg@Vv`!" y@v.

y`STSk`y` @Y @g`dn#Ll, @r~g`N@G Nr (1928-30), E.eM.O. @m~tR kRm`Nw\`l`v (1929), vKw`N @m~l (1930) sh rkr#vN@G œmy @y`q` g#, S w sK gW v&`p^yK q h` @b~LK q awr a#l m`Rgy w#m (1933) yn c`y`r$p m`l`vN@gN @w~r` gW Rm`n smhrK qR\nyt wb` n.

vRvr` S@wp`@n`v`@G c`y`r$pQvy @b@hN h#Mbr h` h^qyAgm b#V mt h#. 1924 gW pl c`y`r$p@y @Y, wm eK awK @gl pst wb` gW, a@nK aN Mv#yK gW wxvN @kS klxK q, vtr# nK q sw `nvW lln`v. a#@G vg s#k srqM n`vK Š @b@Y, "@h`>, ob @m`kt env yl q ob wN@n?" msNn`K @m. a#y s r` n# awr a`@l~k p#LlM y h# v q a#@G vS@y w#vr# @syK @p@N. ytW@sN, a#y Sv@Y wm k`Ry@yN r`myK lq w#n#Wyk @m.

a@nK c`y`r$py 1936 gNn` lQq. E, ekm lln`v b#V ob @n`h#@< a#w. emhnt @y~g& vS@yN -- pt kb`yN q, eK a#sK v# yn @S p#l‰ @w`PyN q s#r a#y mt @nW @y`m` N y. a#@G h#M? ey KPwX`vy, pr`jy h` ytW m a<v. k#mr` Ly`t pN ӵ j@NlyN en a`@l~k kqMby S@wp`@n`v` mw pwv @b@Y e gr` a#@G n m#q rS c`y`vK q, a#@G r#@r vMps phN rS c`y`vK q sq. @vnW vcnvN y@w`W, a#y Sv@Y r m#yk n pQ@q. ey, m` q#k @bn vd`W `skr c`y`r$p awN ek.

1924 t 1936 qKv` vkv`v q\kykt v# v@Y yNw -- @q`@l`S vsrK pm. e@hW, \w vR;y agX`g@yN Ķ y$mt ey m`nvW k`ly.

@my Ww`kR;y qR\ny. o@B l<p`wk a#WnM vh` @g`S ey nrx m#n.

pvRwny - qR\n @MS

 

aq`l @vnW

pt a[&K; sNn w`n@G smg sMš s`kCc`vK
1999 01

vn @s_NqRyyt e@r v@Y pN sm`jmy @k`N@Q
pr# v] nm` c`ry

1999 m`R 12

fyR ptyt e@r @k~p`Gy
1999 @pbrv` 05

@q`rkd m`r`v
1998 @qs#MbR 18


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