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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

k`|r aRqy k#k$@r
iNy`v nv t h`rykt s#r@sN pSw`ny smg s`kCc` kL qm

W @j~NS

k`|r aRqy g#n s`kCc` kr s y @Q\ a#m sRt`J aS 7 q` nv Lyt emt pSw`ny kr @y~jn`vK py s aNw@Y iNy`v N K@p krn l. e@mNm ur# g k`RL mh` m`Rgy X`w m, m`[&@VN q a# y L v#yNt whnM mt q iNy`v yvr g. @my vn`, m# ms l t iNy` hq`vN h` pSw`n@Y a`[`ry lbn k`|r @bMv` hq` e@nk`t e@rv qr# stNvl @y n k‹kr @Q\@Y [`n m m`Rgy .

ihw yvr @qk m, pSw`nyt ayW "as`Q" (qhS) k`|r@Y t iNy`@V jM h` k`|r `Nwyt a# q#N, pSw`ny h` iNy` k`|ry @bq` @vN krn p`ln @Rš`vt (eLO) tr qhS gnnK oB@bN ӵ `S h` k`RL @Q\vl @l~p`k k‹g#tvl v`l`@gn n iNy`-@r~ hq`vN plv` h#@M eLl@yN nv @g`dM h`ryk q`nm k`\yt pW krn bv @p y. iNy` hq`vN "m$w lq jyhnyN sA@KNny krgN n awr em wWv@Y t wv r h`r iKmN m yW @k@r a#w#", hq` k`\k @GyR @m`h`N bNq` py @snr`q` v^W sMmNnyk p#v y.

m# 31 q`, iNy`v aS@G sAc`ryt pWyK @ls ek< vW, @qp`R|vy m, nyK b>v ek<w`vkt Emt a@p`@h`sWv yh. 7 q` K@p m @v@vN iNy`v N @q l#b a# ekm p#h# m nM, em ny wmNt "aph" y yNn .

iNy`v N aS@G sAc`ry "kLq#m" @Vqny kr l#@mN anr#v vh`m l`@h~R vr kl kw`vk , pSw`n agm# nv`S ;F, QN ph@vN m p`ln@yN ivwt wL y` h# y anr# a#< y. "pSw`ny h` iNy`v awr Q[yK a#@M idkd b#h#r kl @n` h#" y ;F p#v y. Sv`n r`j&yN @ls p#v y vsr 52k k`ly l @M vn @wK iNy`v h` pSw`ny awr a# a# Q[ @nN @qkk m [`n k`rn`v @Y k`|ry .

py sy l , pSw`n @Q\ @LkM ;M;Q ahmD, y rt wm @X_k ašNdw`v a`rK;` krg vS wm a gbd`@V a# "On$m ayK" X`w mt pbt @n` v a#w# k`\ kl t, o k@L, iNy`vt e@rv n&k h`ryK b> p#h# wRjny.

iq` r` vn t iNy`v @Vqny k@L, wmN m# 9 q` ptN E vn @wK " @r~ a#vNnN" 200K {`wny kr a# bv sh wmN@G @s`Lq`vN 54K {`wnyt lKv 14K ar#qhNv h` 209K v`l mt lKv n bv .

qhn @Q\p`ln wWvyK

1990 gnN L@L, iNy` a`rK;k hq`, pSw`n@Y sh@y~gy lbn h` @b`@h~ avS}`vN pSw`ny N sNnQ[ @kr# k`|r @bMv`Nt r#Q[v qr# arglyk @y . @mm @bMv` kNd`yMvN smhrK "Sv`n k`|ryK" @v@vN @p n awr @s kNd`yM pSw`ny l "eKsW" k`|ryK bl`@p`@r`W @v. @mm g#Mvl {`wnyt lK sAš&`vN b> wK@Sr# @b`@h~ @sN clny vW ey 10,000-15,000 awr sAš&`vK y yNn gw`gk gnNb#mK @ls s#l@K. @k@S @vwW, k`|ry arby` p#nn# a# vWmN iN-pSw`n a`wN, 1990 l t @M qKv` p#v vd`Wm Ev` y.

k`RL-`S m`ly` k‹g#t @Q\@Y q#N st@N @y n k`|r @bMv` hq`@V |w sAy mK vW, e m`ny h` ey @m@hMvl @y n @Q\@Y kr wWvy mN @p yN@N, eyt pSw`n@Y v&my sh@y~gy l#y bv y.

iNy` @Q\ lt > a# @bMv` hq`vNt pSw`n XtyN q a#lW bvt an@y~ s`K -- pSw`n @s`Lq`vN @q@n@G ml r#r# @ls -- a# bv iNy`v y` p`. e@mN m, pSw`n vN m`vt a# @V y# y` iN pv pSw`n hq` N phr m @hl l# iNy` G h`rk y`n`@V yv`, pSw`n a`rK;k hq` N aLl` g l#@mN pv mr` qm l#b a#w# q pSw`n@Y aW adAvt pW @qvn vN yv sykt vd` r>v` @gn @M v[ As`vNt lK @kr# bvt q iNy`v @c~qn` kr.

@qrt awr p`ln @Rš`v (eLO) |wv aR} qKv` n# bvt aS N krn lq k`\yK iNy`@V mhW @n`mn`pyt @H a#w. oN ey qN@N, iNy`v lt Šm KKw @M a`vrnyK sh k`RL-`S kl`p@Y iNy` @r~ hq` n`\ m v#l#Km s pSw`n hq` v^wv m#hWy h# bv @pNM mK @ls y. iNy` h` pSw`n hq` rr#v m k`lvK @v h`r vm`r# krgNn` @Q\yK vn eLO @pr @Rš`@V @Svy krn pSw`n @jnr`Lvr@yK, m`[&@VN amw` kl kw`vk s>hN k@L, iNy`v h` pSw`ny q#ntmW Q[yk mGnv n bv . "1948 , 1965 , 1971 Q[yK p#v, q#N 1999 ey pv" y @GyR Sr`T š`N yL wr@Y y` @Y y. "oN phr Nn@qN, a ekt ek krN@n" y o wv rtW y.

iNy` h` pSw`n a`N @q@Km RvlWvy h` aRqy, wWv@Y pvWn` qhnX`vyt ek a#w. N S@v~Wwmv` X`ry jnw` pK;y N @m@hyv lbn iNy`@V sX`g a`Nv, Il< srW s^@V iNy`@V mh m#vrny p#v#W@vn @wK bl@Y n X`rk`r a`Nv. pSw`ny a`Rk aRq@Y a#xmt lKv mhW kr wWvyk p@v.

k`|r g#@M wmN a`NvtW vd` bv oP kr vS, iNy`@V r#Q[ @Q\p`ln pK;, a`rK;k a#m @j~RJ fRn#NdS N krn lq k`\yK d#h#@gn @B. agm# aw`L vJp` h` Sv@Q\ a#m eL.@K. aQv` aphw`vt pW krN, fRn#NdS pvs` a#W@W, pSw`n agm# ;F k`|ryt @kr# Šm g#n @n`q#n y` y h# bv . (hq` @jnr`Lvr#N@G @Q\p`ln blwl a mt yWn qr` a# ;Ft e@r bl argl@Y @k`tsK @ls pSw`n ty k`|r@Y ‰m s#lM kl bvt @y~jn` @k a#w.) pv fRn#NdS, "pSw`n ‰NnNt" eLO a@nK p#Wwt y`m s a`rK;k m`vwK sMp`qny mt iNy`v k#m v a# bvt a#<mK k@L y. [`n pK;y h` iNy`@V sMq`k a`N pK;y vn @k`Asy, "j`@Y a`rK;`vt vd` a`mkyN@G yhpw g#n uWk m" b>v fRn#NdSt @c~qn` k@L y.

k`|r Šm [`n |nyK @ls pl@vN iSm t, iNy` @k`ST pK;y (m`KSv`) -- a(eM) -- @mvN wWvyK vR[ny mt a`Nv id a#W@W @k@S q yNn q#ng#mt wmNt av\& y iLl` @Y, pSw`ny smg g#mN wmNt @Q\p`ln v` lb` gw h#k# yn |v`s@yN v a`Nv N l# anr# a#<M @n`wk` Nnt a#w# y@vN @y~jn` kr. e@hW a(eM) sh a@nK [`n St#Nv` pK;y vn iNy` @k`ST pK;y (a) iKmNm a`N@V m`vwt v# @B. a(eM) o@G "vgM rw" k`\ sMbN[@yN fRn#NdS blg @ls @Ccnyt lK kr a#W@W, pSw`nyt @r~[y q#K@m l` smSw rtW y @Q\p`ln pK;W a`Nv ps @plg# n avS}`vk iNy`vN @Hq mt pmnK em k`\ @Svy krn bv pvs.

eKsW jnpq@Y y`kl`py

pSw`ny smg s`kCc` a`rMX m kLq#@M iNy` Nv l pvWn` v#qgW s`[kyK mt @b`@h~ @sN id a#W@W, vWmN k`|r aRqy sMbN[@yN eKsW jnpqy @gn a# a`S}`ny . q\k gnn`vK S@S pSw`ny eKsW jnpq@Y sp sgyv t a#w. e@hW wl Q[@Y avs`nyW iNy`v y س k`n j`k a`Rk @l~p`y awh#r q#mW smg, q a`y`@V -@Q\p`lk gkyN @vnS mt ptN @gn a#w.

iNy`@V eKsW jnpq w`n`p cD @s@lS@T, sMq`k eKsW jnpq aqhSvl a`@l~k@yN, iNy`vt @b`@h~ @sN v`shgw, @Vqn gnn`vK m kr a#w. "eKsW jnpqy, . . . q`k (k`|ry l) m#hW @n` v a#w. q`k @n` kr a#w. k`|ry vn`, m#hWmN @w`rv rtvL @qk awr s`mk` s`kCc` mN s>`gw h# |ny. eKsW jnpqy @my av@b~[ kr@gn ," y @s@lS@T, sN@D oBsvR pyt p#v y.

k`|r@Y an`gwy N kr vS, jnmw c`rnyK p#v#Wy y yn pSw`n@Y iLmt, eKsW jnpqy, q\k gnn`vK S@S, sh@y~gy . e@hW 1990 evk pSw`n@Y eKsW jnpq w`n`p p#v@V, eKsW jnpq a`Nv, "eKsW j`N@G 1948 h` 1949 @y~jn`vl adA vn a`k`r@Y, k`|ry b> jnmw c`rnyK b> iLm wv rtW ipW @n` krn" bv .

@snr`q` iNy`@V h` pSw`n@Y agm#vr#Nt eKsW jnpq jn`Žp KNtN y# mN q iNy`@V a`S}`nyt sh@y~gy @q l#b a#w# iNy`v y` . em vl aNwRgwy Q[ kr n#w. e@hW iNy` k`\kyN y` N@N, k`|r mw@Hqyt s`mk` s‹mK s>h` k#>M @M , KNtN p`ln @Rš`vt (eLO) gr# krn @ls pSw`n@yN iLl` bv .

@vnW `@Qy g#Mvl @mN @m q, btr m`[& k`|r mw@Hqy @pNM krN@N, a`kLk j`gn h` j`k-jnv`Rk ann&w`vN l L b#s gW @qyK @ls y. w}& vs@yN gW kL, k`|r g#m vn`, iNy`v l wmy a`Žpw&@Y ur#myK vn awr ey @b`@h~ @sN ert aŽr`j&v` bl @Q\p`lnyt @k` @M @k`tsK @ls, @M qKv` p#v @bNn.

iNy` j`kv`q@Y n#mt n @q vS m`vwK @s@M , w`n&@y~, q\k gnn`vK S@S, @vnm SM @Q\p`ln ›`nyK g#N awr avs`n@Y , up-mh`Qpy jnv`Rk @Rš` oS@S @bq` @vN klh; emN SM pSw`nyK h` N a`Žpw&y sw iNy`vK @ls e@nkt sr# r`j& @qkK Rm`ny klh. w`n& av\&w`vNt ytW @k , e@hW v&vS}`lv w`n& rjyt aR[-v#dvsM, q`smy pNn@Y sb>w`vK p#v m`r r`j& 600K pvWv`@gn y`m mN wm p`lny k g#mt q w`n&@y~ uWs`h klh. w`n& w @k`Ll@Y h` r`j&wNk v#dvl p`wyK Rv-Sv`nw` @Q\m` sw jM h` k`|ry @mm m`r r`j&yN aN \`lwm @Q\y y. aq @mN m, eq` q k`|r m`r r`j&y @g~yv h` jnv`Rkv @vnS @Q\ gnn`vK Ek`bQ[ k@L y.

w`n& iNy`v (m`r iNy`vt r#Q[v) Sv`nWvyt pW vn t, m`r r`j&yN Ev`@Y Sv`nWv@Y "SvX`k wWvyt" y pW v a#w# yn aqhs, 1947 a@g~S@V bly m`r#mt }m s py vn @wK m, w`n&@y~ pvWv` @gn a`h. w`n& a`S}`n@yN mW k`|r@Y mhr`j`, wm m`r r`j&y Sv`n r`j&yK bvt pvRwny @M bl`@p`@r`W@vN, up`m`r#vl @y. e@hW pSw`ny ot r#Q[v k#rLlK a#l t, @mm N p`lky` k`|ry iNy`vt a$mt ek< y.

iNy`@V Sv`nWvyt h` @bmt @pr`v p#v q\ky l, iNy` j`k @k`Asy, k`|r@Y \`lwm @Q\p`ln sA[`ny k`|r j`k sM@Mlny smg sp sb>w` p#v#W y. ey mNm SM sA[`nyK @ls a`rMX nW -- k`|r@Y r`jy pl h` ey pqnMv idM p#l#Ny l @|;@yN bl p#v#W@Y N a`gm -- @k`As@Y a`X`vy yt@W, j`k sM@Mlny j`wN h` sm`j sASkrn a#lW jnv`Rk @n` vn v#d@vlK m@yN vR[ny k@L y. e@hW k`|ry iNy`vt a$m avs`n@Y s`K;`W krg#@N, phN mhjn blg#NmK hrh` @n` v, E @vvt, @k`Asy, w`n& w wN@Y r`j& yN@Y p`Pky` -- n#w@h`W a gn@N [`n ur#mKk`ry` -- bvt pWm b> @prq#mK mw pqnM @kr#, mhr`j` smg g@qvK hrh` y.

e &127;lyK @ls, k`|r g#m wl Q[y l -- eKsW jnpqy pSw`n@Y k t h` a`Rk abl @qNn` @ls mmW smg -- [ a`rLvlt p#tl. py q\ky S@S k`|ry l sNnQ[ @bMv` v&`p`ryk n#m s>h` blp$ aR}X` s`[kyK nM, asLv# a#F{Sw`n@Y @s~yT a`mnyt e@r SM l[Rmv`N@G r#Q[Wvyt eKsW jnpqy N @Q\p`ln h` t sh@y~gy .

nyt h` p#r @s~yT sAgmyt y`bqv ӵ k`|ry q#v#Nw @l~p`k vn`kmN Kw y. e@hW k`|r |ny, pSw`ny h` iNy`v yn @qr@T m [@N|vr p`ln@Y @Q\p`lk-q^my pqnM smg q b# pv.

vWmN iNy` sAgmyt ayW SM bwryK sw ek m `Nwy vn k`|ry, bAGl`@Q\y (p#r n#@gnr pSw`ny) @mN @n` v, 1930 gnNvl l t e a`rMX@Y ptN m pSw`n v&`p^@Y aw&Nw @k`tsK @ls slkn l. m$w vsr gnn`v l , k`|r g#m, pSw`n p`lkyN s>h`, pSw`ny l m v#@dn j`k-jnv`Rk a`wNt -- pw`Nvr#, bǿSvr#, Nvr# h` iNy`v @b@mN anr#v ur# iNy`@V t pSw`nyt y uR kw` krNnN awr vrs`w wT v# blyK s>h` pSw`ny l bwry @ls pAj`B S}ryt a@y~g m ptN g#mW smg -- X`ryK @ls X`w @M agn` m`[&yK bvt pWv a#w.

iNy`@V asAš& g#tvlt g s‹mK sMp`qny @m l` y a@p`@h`sW X`vy oP a# w yt@W, iNy` p`lk pNy vdvd`W m N S@v~Wwmv`qy @qst h# @B. @mm pr`gwv` q^v`qy @Svy krN@N, sm`j a`wN apsrny mt sh apRmW @k`AS "sm`jv`qyt" kLp "j`k" q^v`qyK sMp`qny mt . jMm S}`k qw`v h` brpwl sm`j asm`nw`v @H @k`t@gn mhjn sh@y~gy n` g#mt h#v a#, sAš&`@vN v#@dn j`k-jnv`Rk h` j`gnv` sNnQ[ arglyNt @r~[y qKvN@N em "j`k" q^v`q@y.

 

aq`l @vnW

k`|r@Y g#M uWsNn @V
iNy`v h` pSw`ny awr anr#q`yk g#mK

1999 01

iNy`@V aNwR-v`r m#vrnyK
1999 m# 11

@J a`Nv a#q v#@mN p n#vw mh m#vrnyK
1999 m# 7

iNy` ayv#y mh` v&`p`kyN@G p#smt lK@V
1999 a@™L 06

 


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