World Socialist Web Site

 

Mehring Books




 

 

WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

iNy`v h` pSw`ny vd` L Q[ykt s#r@s

W @j~NS
1999 17

@qrtm, mw@Hqyt lKv a# k`|r kl`pyt tw y @p` @Q\m`v @G hq` bl g#NmW @Q\p`ln h` t n`ykyN hwr vn iN-pSw`n Q[yK b>v v^wvm kw` mW smg, iNy`v h` pSw`ny awr a`wN @ls uWsNn a#w.

15 q`, pSw`ny ert pAj`B `Nw@Y SKk pyk ӵ @Q\m` gMm`nvN jny` ivW m a#rh. @M awrr, iNy`v, ert k`|r `Nw@Y k`RL-`S-btK kl`py lt hq` XtyN h` a`[ y#m gtm kr@gn y. pSw`n@Y sh`y lbn gLl` hq` k>r# b#>@gn n @l~p`k k‹ g#t ӵt` a#W@W, iNy` h` pSw`n k`|r `Nw @bq` @vN krn p`ln @Rš`vt (eLO) @l~tR gnn`vK oB@bN @l~tR 100k pmn plN W @Q\yK vn @mm kl`p@Y y.

aRqy Gg#Sm sh Rn-pm`n Q[yK w`mw`m a#lm @n` @V nM evN wWvykt uLpNqM @M avq`nm sMbN[@yN @qp`R|vym e@nk`t @c~qn` kr g. 13 q`, k`RL iNy` hq` XtyN amwN, agm# aw`L vJp` p#v@V, iNy`v s`my pwn nW Q[yt q q`nM bv . pSw`n@Y @Q\ k`Ry`l@Y k`\k wK aLt`F eyt c`r q#K@Y, iNy`v "s`kCc` s>h` y @q`r vs` qm`, t y`m`Rg mw av[`ny @y` @k`t a#" bv y`p`.

15 q`, iNy` h` pSw`n t n`yk@y~, pAj`B @Q\m`v @G hq` blg#Nm a`rMX k@L kr#N q yNn b>v e@nk`t @c~qn` kr g. iNy` hq` sh h`rk y`n` "wRjn`Wmk iyVvN" @y`qv l#b a#w#, pSw`n @GyR rD K@v@r p#v y. "pSw`ny ymK kr a#WnM, E s$m @qyKm kr a#W@W, avm a`rK;k yvr @ls pm." iNy` hq` k`\k@yK, wm hq` nv S}`nvl bl whr# kr@gn a# bvt shk nW wv rtW av[`rny k@L, em hq` @yqm "R@v~p`yK" vn awr "sr` N g lbn yvryNt" c`r @ls @kr# bv y.

pSw`nyt ayW as`Q ("qhS") k`|r `Nw@Y agm# Lw`N @mHD, upm mTt@M Q[yK a#m vlk`l s aRqy lt vh`m m#hW vNn#, eKsW j`N@G a`rK;k mNdl@yN iLl` . evN Q[yk n&k a`[ q X`w kl h#k# q o anr# a<v. "hwr vn pSw`n-iNy` Q[y l n&k upkrn X`w kl @h`W, et @mm Q[y @l~k@Y @s @Q\vlt q p#r y` h#" y o p#v y. k`|r@Y wWvy jnmw c`rnykt ytW kl y# iLl` 1940 gnNvl ag t sMmw @kr# eKsW j`N@G @y~jn`vNt gr# m iNy`v N K@p kr l#m @pNM krN, pSw`ny ز k`nv yWn qr` a#W@W, k`|ry arby` wmNt iNy`v smg vsr 52K S@S pvn mw@Xqy "j`w&Nwrkrny" mt y.

m$w nvl , eKsW jnpq jn`Žp L KNtN, aRqy smny @M uWs`hyK @ls, vJp`t h` pSw`n agm# nv`S ;Ft rkwn@yN kw` @k`t @B. [vl mNr@Y h` iNy` a`N@V k`\kyNt av, KNtN, p`ln @Rš`@V iNy` p#W@wN wm hq` ivW kr gNn` @ls eKsW jnpq@Y ز k`n sgy vn pSw`n@yN iLl` a#w -- @my vn` p`ln @Rš`v hrh` @k a# vWmN "k`v#m" pSw`ny N sA[`ny @kr# h` pSw`n hq` q a#lW @m@hmK bvtW @qK pSw`n@Y sh`y l#@bn k`|r @bMv`N h` a#F{Sw`n@Y t wb`N stNkr#vN pmnK a#lW @m@hmK @n` vn bvtW iNy`v kr a# @c~qn` a @h~ v# vs@yN v^wv g#m.

pSw`n hq` k`\k K@v@r, @n`w#m h` pK;` m b>v eKsW jnpqyt @c~qn` krN, p`ln @Rš`v b> eKsW jnpq a`S}`nyt c`r qKv` @B. "eKsW jnpqy q`k p`ln @Rš`vt gr# krn @ls iNy`@vN iLl` @B q? pSw`nyt e@rv pK;` mK h` agg` mK a# bv mt h#@<."

eKsW jnpqy, @k@S @vwW, pSw`nyt pK;p` hq` p`ln @Rš`@vN a@nK p#Wwt pb#m @h~ plv` h#m vn @wK iNy`v h` pSw`ny awr wv r s`kCc` @n`p#v#W@v a#w# yn iNy` a`N@V a`S}`ny sMbN[@yN nM ek<w`v pl @k`t n#w.

iNy`v m# 26 q` k`|r@Y "k`vNnNt" e@rv vN h`r yW @mN anr#v iKmN m, pSw`n @Q\ a#m sRt`J aS @y~jn` k@L, o s`kCc` s>h` nv Lyt p#@nn bv . e@hW iNy` a`Nv, o@G sAc`ry p vw`vKm m`q k@L y. avs`n@Y , py @snr`q`, iNy` @Q\ a#m jSvNW A smg s`kCc`vK p#v#W@M avS}`v aSt l#. e@hW iNy` a`Nv, eKsW jnpq@Y a`S}`n@yN r#L l#b sh @Qy h` j`w&Nwr vs@yN v` lb` g#m s k`|r aRqy gs`k$@M h#y`vN b>v vdvd` uQq`myt pWv, sAc`ryt @pr` n py l y pSw`n @r~ v`c`l kw` uWsNn k@L y. "s`m s`kCc`vl" @n`v#l#Ky h# ">v#mt" @pr` p#y gnn`v l , vJp`, ihl pK; n`ykyN@G sRv-p`Kk SmK k#>v`, k`|r@Y iNy` h`ry uWsNn kr s, @k`Asy h` St#Nv` p`R@MN pK; q a#lW r#Q[ pK;vl sh@y~gy shk krg.

iNy` t k`\kyNv |v`s krN@N nM, pSw`nyt pK;p` hq`, jM h` k`|r `Nw@Y Mh`n agvr vn /ngR, nyt y`bq lq`K kl`py smg sMbN[ krn j`k mh`m`Rgyt wRjny kl h# wWv@yN a`p wL kr q#@M aQqr iNy` hq` . em eLly jy gw @h`W, wvmW "k`vNnN@G" aw pvn S v`syt wkr @n` vn uS k‹g#t n#vw aLl` g#@m @l~p`k aR}X`ryK @n`m# wrM y. vsr gnn`vK S@S, iNy` hq` w s^v l<` mW smg em @Q\ vw`vwK @ls awh#r q# y. e@hW iNy` @Q\p`ln p#l#Ny, @m`n yM @h~ tmy h` @Q\p`lk yqmK qr`@gn, smSw @Q\y m "Kw" kr gw m @g_rvyt kr#nK kr@gn a#w.

m`r`Nk XvyN W d`vK

iNy`@V vWmN X`rk`r a`N@V aŽp pK;y vn N S@v~Wwmv` X`ry jnw` pK;y, tv` r$pyK @g`dng` g#m sh pSw`ny s mW iNy`@V SM wry rwL mW b>v @k`As@Y h` v`m`A\@Y @Q\p`ln r#Q[v`Nt @c~qn` m s k`|r |ny @eh`kv X`w @k`t @B. (@J@Y Rvg` sA[`ny vn jn sA{ Rm`w^ ;&m` s`Q kR y @Y, iNy` v&vS}`v yt@W jM h` k`|r `Nwyt q`ny @k`t @|; wWvyt e@r 1952-53 uQ@{~;nyt sh@y~gy m s` rgw @k`t y y.)

iNy`v \rW s^@V m#vrnykt q`nM vn w yt@W k`|r@Y Q[yK a#lm, @Jyt, -- n&k Q[yk wRjny @k`t w#mt wrM arqR ay s>h` -- j`kv` k`D ek @sLlM @M h` y g` sm`j-a`Rk n&`y p@yN ivwt mhjn av[`ny apsrny @M avS}`vK q`ny kr a# bv @p@N. r#Q[ p`R|vy, wmN@G p#W@wN, @mm bl`@p`@r`W wWvyt n mt uWs`h krN@N, pSw`n@Y vd`Wm K;m` rw sr` kr#q yNn b>v @Jy smg wr< v#@m.

m$wm iNy` t wK@Sr#vlt av, k`RL-`S-btK kl`p@Y XyAkr @Q\vl ӵ oN@G bl m[&S}`nvN "k`vNnN" plv` h#mt s atK qhyK pmn gwv a#w. iNy` hq` a@g~S ms L X`gy vn t jyhny k`\ mt smW @v@w`W, @Jy, y m#vrn uQ@{~;ny yW @M [`n kr#nK bvt @mm "jyhny" s#kvm pWkrg a#w.

m#vrn v` b> @g`rh# gnNb#M p@sN w#vW, vWmN k`|r aRqy Gg#S@M s#ly v` wmNt a#w# yNn g#n iNy` p#l#Nyt gnN b#y h# m s>h` -@Q\p`lk @HN q pv. pm`n@Y t g#mK qr` g#@m l` iNy`v pSw`nyt vd` @h`> wWvyk . 14 q` iNy` qL a#m ySvNW Ah rs`rM @ls p#v@V, iNy`@V a`Rky "\KmW" vn awr, "pSw`ny k`RL @p@qst kd` v#@M mq`y pvWv`@gn y` h# wWvyk @n`m#w. . . . pSw`ny j`w&Nwr l& arql mw rq` pv." y@v. pSw`ny s @Q\ my sAwy @d`lR yn 1.8K bvW (iNy`@V @d`lR yn 30k sAwyt sNsNqn`Wmkv) @Q\ ny br ert j`k a`q`y@mN h adkt vd` v# (yyt 53.3) vn bvW -- iNy`@V ny br vn ql @Qy p`w@yN yyt 23 h` sNsNqn`Wmkv -- Ah iN pv s>hN k@L y.

rtvL @q@Km n&k a`[ [`w`v s`Žw kr#nK vn s` iNy`v q#N vd` L Q[ykt k#m v n#w# yn |v`s@yN v pSw`ny y k`RL @m@hm yW kl vgK @p y. iNy`v E aNm c`r qKv` @B. eb#N q a`y`v ag`[yK aQqr Xy`nk d`vkt a#q qm l#b a#w. @`NTlN nm# iNy` v^W s<r`@V eK c`rky p#v p, "k`RL, n&kkrny iNy`-pSw`n sb>w`vl S}`vrWvyt @h~ pnwX`vyt @H a#w# n#w @h`W sMq`k q g#mk wRjny a kr a#w# yn upkLpnyNt yN mNm vl kp." e@ls m, evN sMq`k q g#M @n`v#l#Ky h# @ls m iN-pSw`n sb>w`vNt nv, avn s`[kyK ek kr a#w yn |v`sy iSmWwt @gn W a#w. vrK h` h l# q bLlN iKmN m w^Pyt pW @k@r a#w# v h#K@K k`tq?

 

aq`l @vnW

k`|r aRqy k#k$@r
iNy`v nv t h`rykt s#r@sN pSw`ny smg s`kCc` kL qm

1999 11

k`|r@Y g#M uWsNn @V
iNy`v h` pSw`ny awr anr#q`yk g#mK

1999 01

iNy`@V aNwR-v`r m#vrnyK
1999 m# 11

@J a`Nv a#q v#@mN p n#vw mh m#vrnyK
1999 m# 7


e-mail.



Copyright 1998-99
World Socialist Web Site
All rights reserved