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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

q pl`W sX` m#vrny
nv v@M @pr l#S@V m#ryN h` hq` l[`N

. m#QqvWw

a`c`Ry mb` kr#n`rWn@G n`ykWv@yN W nv v`m`Ak @prn q pl`W sX` m#vrnyt wr< v# N@N kt m#ryN@gN h` t hq` l[`N@gN q wm a@PK;k l#Sv sNnQ[ kr g.

hMbN@w`t SKk@Y nv v`m`Ak @pr@N pl`W sX` mN a@PK;ky vn er`J rN nm#Ww` m#r@y @ls @M awr vd`W kt a@y. @M w#n#Ww` vyx pl`W sX` m#vrn@Y cNq ;n h` m#r y` s>h` vr a#m mNq r`jpK; hMbN@w`N @gN ndyk š@yK bvt @hqrV @B. hl`vw @Q\@Y @h`r cNq q#M h` m#r y` @m@hyv` a#W@W @m` bvt q v`Rw` pl a#w. er`J nm#Ww` @p` @pr m#ry @ls a aw#v cNq ;n@Y @y bv vW pWvl pl c`y`r$pvl pv` qR\ny bv m# 9 q` Ky vW p@W s>hN v .

@p` @pr@nN q pv a#N@Y q a@PK;k l#SvN ivwt wL o nv v`m`Ak @pr@N a@PK;k l#Svt "cw sA@\~[n shk" a#v ph@vN m a#lW @B. mNq r`jpK; N @p` @pr@N hMbN@w`t SK a@PK;k l#Svt o@G nm a#lW klW jn`Žpy em nm K@p kr a#W@W a#y bjn qhS @prn atv` gW k`l@Y o wm`t e@rv r`w @Sn`rWn@G p#Ww gW a@yK s` y. iN pv o hMbN@w`t a#N@Y a@PK;k l#Svt a#lW m s>h` r`w @Sn`rWn smg rL mAh h a#wW a@PK;k l#S rv` avsN @hN o ipW kl @n` h# bvt q#N@Y y# v`Rw` @V. @k@S @h~ pl`W sX` mN pTtmK d#h# g#mt avS}`v sls` g#@M a@yN er`J nm#Ww` eKsW sm`jv` pK;@Y n`yk Ag jyy h nv v`m`Ak @pr@N a@PK;k l#Svt Ag` @gn @B. @M sMbN[@yN m# 16 q` Ky vW p@W "ey`@G cNq a@PK;kWvy" nM r# yk @k SwryK s>hN . e qKv` a# @lst Ag jyy, @mm m#ry`v mb` kr#n`rWn @vwt @y` kl t, "iS@sLl` oy` a@P n&`y i@gn gNn On, a@P pW mhjny`t EW gNvNn vN @vNn On" y@vN kr#n`rWn "n&`kv" pvs` @B. et Ag jyy, "ey`t hMbN@w`t pqnmK @bnv`, ymK krNn vN, cN@qt yqM krNn sLW @ynv`, iN ey` q#M@m`W at ekK n` gNn vN" y "X`wy" av[`rny kr a#w.

@k@S nW avs`n@Y kr#n`rWn@G "n&`y" jyy@G "X`wy" sM–w a#W@W er`J nm# kt m#ry` nv v`m`Ak @pr@N a@PK;k l#Svt a#lW @m. nv v`m`Ak @pr@N a@PK;k l#S@V n ek m m#ry` @h~ [np v&`p`ky` @pr w#n#Ww` @n` @V. a#N@Y @h~ @p` @pr@N a@PK;k l#SvN h# y [npyNt h` m#ryNt g#WwNt mb` kr#n`rWn@G nv v`m`Ak @prn v^w a#w. a@nK awt nssp @Q\p`ln mNdl@Y @h~ m[&m k`rk sX`@V yN a#N@Y @h~ @p` @pr@N a@PK;k l#Svlt p#n gNn` avS}` q n#W@W @n` @V. py pl`W sX` m#vrn@Y sbrgv pl`W sX`@V rWnr SKkyt a#N@yN wr< kl p`l a#Ll nm#Ww` It kN nssp@Y @Q\p`ln mNdl@Y q l#< y a@y. @M @qŽ@yN m nssp@Y aX&Nwr @Q\p`ln m ihvh` y$m @pNM @k@R.

[np p`lkN@G @k`N`W av cNq mA@k`Ll@Y h` cNd y`vl @y m#rN @mN m ur#-n#@gnr vRgv` Q[yt sMbN[ @qml ԫw jny` m#d @lN aW @wW kr gW hq` l[`@y~ q nv v`m`Ak @pr@N a@PK;k l#S@V . g`Ll SKk@yN mhW uj`r#@vN wr< vn nN @g`dNn ev#N@nK @n` vN@N q?

nssp@Y n`ykWv@yN avN b#h# avS}`v` pK; pr# h` sA[`n pyK eK kr gW nv v`m`Ak @prn wm @Q\p`ln bA@k`@l`WX`vy kMkr#-ԫw jny`t vsA m ar# a#W@W e@ls y. 6 q` r`vy vW pw nv v`m`Ak @pr@N q pl`W sX` mh a#m a@PK;k `n @k`W@g`d smg kl sMš s`kCc`vk em sA[`n@Y a`r`k-w X`vy vhA kr g#mt qr lbn w#w shgw a#W@W phw q#K@vn p y.

r`vy vW o@gN @m@S ms` a#wŸ "smhr [np @Q\p`ln pK; pv` K@p krn lq [nvW v&`p`kN @mvr nv v`m`Ak @pr@N l#Sv yt@W wr< vn bv p#v@snv`. @|;@yN m hMbN@w`t SKk@Y. Ek pK;@Y i gmnt |nyK @n`@v q?"

nv v`m`Ak @pr@N mh a#m a@PK;k h` nssp@Y n`yky vn @k`W@g`d It r# @qN @m@S y` a#wŸ

"kr#W K@p kl` q yn k`rny v#qgW n#h#. @k@nK upn @k`t @M @l~@K kr#vW, smsm`j, / lAk`, @J, a#N yl` upN@N n#h#@N. sm`jy N E QglyN E E w#Nvlt wL krnv`. a Q[ qR\ny gW@w`W aAsk m`ry` h` s`p`@m`K@G @h`> m @g~ly` -- eq` sm`jy aAsk aAm`l @k@nK kl`. nW h`r#@v~ o mhn krl` rhW kl`.

"ob oy hMbN@w`t g#n s>hN k@L er`J g#n yNd @vNn a#. er`J yn Qgly` aq a@P l#S@vN iLlnv`. o py k`l@Y @p` @prnt \`l v#d @k`tsK kr @k@nK. nW @prn v#r yl` @Wr#M ar@gn o apt ek @vl` @ynv`."

[np g# m#ryN qmny @k`t oNt K;kv "@Q\p`ln av@b~[y" lb` @M ar# h`SkmK nsspyt h` e "v@M" @prnt pv. a`c`Ry mb` kr#n`rWn @mN m o ayn @sS@s~ q q#N y v`c`ly sNwRpny kr gN@N " b@n."

nv v`m`Ak @prn y m#vrn uQ@{~;n@Y š @Wm`v @ls v` qKvN@N "Q[yt, @l~k b#A n`\yt, a`N@V j`wN @r~ v#d@vlt e@r v" yNn y. oN m pvsn p t q l[`@y a@PK;k l#Svt @y`qv` a#W@W "Q[yt e@rv" h’ n#m s>h` y.

"a`N@V j`wN @r~ v#d@vlt e@rv" oN h’ ngN@N eb‹ y` @m@hy er`J v# a`N@V kt m#r@yK @y`q` @gn y. oN@G @Wm`v av bln t oN@G a@PK;k l#S@V, ap qNn` @lst, n#W@W "@l~k b#A n`\yt" e@rv h’ ngNn @l~k b#A@V l @y~w@yK pm.

mb` kr#n`rWn@G p#B@l~v`-m`[&k avS}`v` @Q\p`lny gmN kr a#W@W nM ph`ykt q yNn kvrt vW ek @hl` v#t y` y. nssp@Y @Q\p`ln pn`m@Y avsN &127;ly @my y @n` h#k.

nv smsm`j pK;yt m#r n`ykyN h` [np g#WwN@gN wm a@PK;k l#S rv` g#mt a#W@W ahM@bN @n` @V. kr#n`rWn@G "v@M" @prn m[&m pN@Y a@PK;` XAgWvyt pW h` Mw sm`j S}ryK wmN vt` kr g#mt yWn qrN . lKm vW pwt mb` kr#n`rWn spw` yn "nVv" nm# h$L@L aNwRgw@yN pmnK @n` v e ksd X`;`@vN q ġ„ vN@N o a`mNny krN@N nM sm`j S}rykt q yNn y.

kMkr# pN@Y @Q\p`ln Sv`nWvyt e@rv sA@\~[nv`, [np h` f#STv` sA[`n eK kr gW avS}`v` sN[`n a#t@M smWk@mN nsspy wrM ihN m iNn` sA[`nyK wvW n#w. j`kv` avS}`v`qy kr` pLlM b# lAk` smsm`j pK;@Y 1964 mh` p`v`@mN LmW v wr#n y`k`kN @ls It b#Š 70 [np sX`g@Y wN g# kr#n`rWn, v`@Qv n`n`yKk`r h` Ag jyyl` p#B@l~v` nv smsm`j pK;y atv` gW@W lsspy sm @pr a`N@vN @q`Tt v# k klkt pv y. @m`N@G @~ y`kl`p@Y uLpw pvN@N @`TSv`q@yN pl` y j`kv` avS}`v` p#B@l~v`qy l y. [np h`rvlt e@rv stN v#mt q`nM kMkr#vN, ԫwyN h` wr#nyN oN@G wX`v@Y ypt nM ih`syK kr` @vN@N q# h#q$y y.

aq`l @vnW

nssp 21 vn sAvWsry sh "v@M L @prn"
1999 jnv` 22


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