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"qhS @vl>@p`l" y`m`Rgy
@l~k qw`v ihl qm

@l~k l& aRq@YW j`w&Nwr l& arq@L "v&hgwkrn" @y~gyN@GW plyK @ls @l~k qw`v ihl yN pv. m# ms avs`n@Y @l~k qw`v b> @l~k b#Av N W @kr# v`Rw`@vN @qn mg h#y @n` h# gmny ey .

@l`v r` nk a`q`ym @d`lR 1t a QglyN@G sAš&`v @mm vsr avsN vn t yn 1.5 iKmvw# gnN b#@L. 1993 avsN vrt krn lq gnN b#@mN pv qs lK; 200K @mm aNw qw` k`Ndyt v# @B.

v`Rw`v h‹Nv` @qN @l~k b#A sX`p @JMS @v`L@fNsN @m@S yŸ "py vsr @q@k l& y, qw`v phl q#@M ap@G bl`@p`@r`Wvlt h`ryK eLl k@L y. k klkt @pr ap |v`s k@L @l~k@Y @b`@h~ @Q\ l l< vsr 20 l qw`v adN phw v#@Ty yNn. m$wK vn r# m wmN qw`v@Y Ll @prl` q#mt stN vN N@N y# |v`s kl rtvL aq aW qN@N sNn h` m`k K kMk@t` k#v qw`v y s esm ."

j`arql N yW @kr# v#d@v@l pl @ls qw`v ihl y`m yMw`K rkt bv a#<M krn @l~k b#Av nW wm s@h~qr sA[`n@Y nm s>hN @mN v#l a#w. @mm v#d@vl vd`W m wN blp` a#W@W sm`j@Y phl m S}ryNt vn awr an`gw@Y vd`W s#lmWv @mm v#d@vl s#lM kl bv pmnK v`Rw`v y` . v`Rw`v N @k@rn gnN b#Mvlt av m v q emN @pNM krN@N @l~k b#A@V h` j` arq@L y`m`Rgyt pqnm spyNn` "v^w @vl>@p`l" pW mN qs lK; jny`@G sm`j @Kqv`ckyK Rm`ny kr a# bv.

iNy`v, w`lNwy h` q @k`y`v l qw`v s#ly @ls ihl @g`S a# bv v`Rw`@V s>hN y. iNy`v l @d`lR 1t a a`q`yM lbn jnghny, 1997 yyt 11k t 1998 yyt 19.9 qKv` ihl @g`S a#w. N aqhS @k@rN@N, lAk`@V jnghnyt a`sNn m`nyK -- qs lK; 20K -- "aN PpW " @k`tst a#Lv a# bv. @k`y`@V n`gk qw`v 1997 yyt 8.6 p#v py vsr l yyt 19.2 qKv` ihl @g`S @B.

qw`v ihl @g`S a#W@W l& aRq@yN s^v b#t k$ rtvl pmnK @n` @V. qnK @ls 1980 gnNvl qs lK; 300K iNy`@V @d`lR ekkt a@vN a`q`yM l# @k`ts @M vn t qs lk; 340 .

@b`@h~ p`@X~k X`Ndvl l phw v#m, @l~k @vlq`@M a vR[n @Vgy, h` avm`nyt X`jny l&yN sw rtvL mN eLl vn wr<y s` ak`@V an`gwy "yjnk" bv v`Rw`v y` .

r#y`@V, K@Rn@Y h` r#@My`@V vR[ny phw v#@tn awr qw`v ihl y`mt yw y. n#@gnr @r~p@Y smhr @Q\vl vR[nyK y h# v q smSwyK @ls @Q\@Y ql @Qy p`qn@Y vR[ny s^n mTtmt v#@t. m#q @prg h` ur# ak`@V Ek Qgl ql a`q`y@m vR[ny phw v#mt yw y.

qw`v phw @h@M h` a`Rk pp`lny b> a[&K; mkL @v~LtN wWvy s`r`A\ gw krN kl kw`vt av "1990 gnN avs`n@Y mvn @l~k y vN@N, n#@gnr a`y` aRqy iNy`@V h` aR[ shr` ak`@V PpW jn sAš&`v ihl y`m sh @r~p@Y h` m[&m a`y`@V oQqLm @H @k`t @gn gy a#nm."

j`arq@L y`pp`y @Lšn gw@V

j` arq@l Iy` v&hgwkrny mN @k@rn n`\y wvW v`Rw`vN p#h# @k@R.

@r`bT nm`N h` L vTNS N j`arq@L qWwyN @y`q` gN @yl kl v`Rw`@vN @pNM @k@rN@N vRŽw v&h`Wmk sASkrn a`Rk vR[n @RTv phw q#mtW @s_š& h` a[&`pny s>h` @k@rn yqM phw q#mtW @s_š& h` a[&`pny s>h` @k@rn y>M phw @hmtW j`w&Nwr nyk`r bv ihl q#mtW @H w a# a`k`ry .

e [`n @s`y` g#M @m@SyŸ

* vRŽw v&h`Wmk sASkrn y`vt @n` q# rtvlt vd` ey y`vt q# rtvl a`Rk vR[ny phw v# a#w. N vd`W m phr v# a#W@W ak` rtvlt y. v&h`Wmk sASkrnvlt @pr p#v Ek Qgl a`q`y@M wWvyt pWm s>h` @mm rtvlt vsr gnn`vK gw v a#w.

* ak` rtvl w`K;k av\&w`v vN@N @s_š&, a[&`pny h` sp`rK;`v v q j`arq@L v&h`Wmk sASkrn v#d@vl hrh` em K@vl yqM k#@P.

j`arq@l vRŽw v&hgw krn v#d@v@l pqnm vN@N j`w&Nwr `G[n@Y mt m`Rgy v^w m, yqM kPp`v hrh` a`N@V @rl` ĵL m, a`h`r h` a@nW mhjn av\&w`vyN s>h` shn k#m h` "Srs`r a`Rk vR[ny" b> ilKky ipW krN a`N@V v&vs`yyN Qgkrny m h` @vl>`mt h` a`@y~jnvlt pvn b`[`vN ivW m yn`y .

v`Rw`@V s>hN vn p vRŽw v&h`Wmk sASkrn v#d@vl y`vt q# rtvl 1991- 95 qKv` v`Rk Ek Qgl a`q`yM vR[ny n& vn awr a@nW ‹ rtvl ey yyt 1. vRŽw v&h`Wmk sASkrn y`vt qm` a# shr` ak` rtvl Ek Qgl a`q`y@M phw v#@M s`m`n&y yyt 0.3 .

@l~k b#A K@pnyNt av ak` rtvl Rw a`q`y@m phw v#@M aR}y vN@N em rtvl Ek Qgl a`q`ym 1980 gnNvl l p#v wWvyt p#mt vsr gnn`vK gw v a#w yNn.

v&h`Wmk sASkrn @y~jkyN y` N@N emN b`r ny m`ny avn bv. en @mm K@@Y pv` j` arq@l sAš&` @Lšn mN @pNM @k@rN@N vRŽw v&h`Wmk sASkrn v#d@vl y`vt q# rtvl ny br v# a# bv . qnK @ls aR[ shr` ak`v sMbN[@yN gW kl 1988 ql j`k p`w@yN yyt 58Kv p#v ny m`ny 1996 yyt 70K bvt pWv a#w.

a[&ynyt av 1997 h` 1998 l ak` a`NvN j`arqlt l# a# Q[ qL m`ny @d`lR yny iKmv. e@S vW ak` ny m`ny yyt 3N ihl @g`S @B.

@mm wWv@y sm`j a#<M Mb`B@V n`tk`k`rv qR\ny @k@r. 1980 gnNvl yyt 1k a`Rk vR[nyK sw Mb`B@V "a`Rk vR[ny M@M a#rm" s>h` 1991 vRŽw v&h`Wmk sASkrn y` mRgyt a# y.

emN a`Nvt l& <y k#mtW, b @RT a mt h` l& @vl>@p`l @rl`hrny mtW y. p`qn aA\yt p#v a`rK;`v ivW @kr# awr œm @vl>@p`l "@rl`hrny" @k. pl s#h# y.

1991 h` 96 awr p`qny yyt 14N sA@k~cny y; Rw ql @Qy Ek Qgl p`wy yyt 5.8N phw v#. 1991 h` 95 awr Rw ql @Qy p`wy j`arq@L eLly yyt 18N ihl y @vvt yyt 1N phw v#.

"p`qn aA\yt a`nynyN@gN lb` N a`rK;`v phw v#m, mhjn y>M kPp`v h` œm @vl>@p`l @rl`hrny N@N ߿y`v ihl y`mt h` Rw v#P phw v#mt y. 1991-96 awr p`qn aA\@Y ߿y` yyt 9N q Rw v#p yyt 26N q phw v#. @M awr p`@X~k l gnN aN a`h`r l s`@PK;v @Vg@yN ihl n#m s` vd`W m h`ryt lK @Y y a`q`y@mN \`l pq`syK a`h`r s>h` v#y krn gMb> jnw`v y. a[&`pny h` @s_š& q @mm k`ly l @ls š`qny y."

a[&yny m` @kr#@Y, @|;@yN m a`y` l& aRq@yN pv, j`arq@l v#d@vl b> @VcnyN ihl y q, @Pn rk sASkrnyN @n`m# bv s>hN kr. j`arq@l klmn`k`r a[&K; mkL k#M@d q a`y` aRqy, h‹Nv l#@V, "@vSvl`gW a`Rv`qyK" @lN bv @m mwK kr g#m v.

 

aq`l @vnW

@r~ q@L agy v#m L aRqyk Ww
1999 11


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