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@j~ b` @Qy a`@y~jkyN aQq` g#mt yvr @p`@r`N @v

pl` @r~ (kLkt`@V t v`Rw` kr)

kLkt`@vN @l~tR 50K a$w rcK nM S}`n@Y py jnv` 17 q` "@bAg`l@Y gmN arn" yn m#N p#v#W @qykt aŽk j`v`rMkr#vN h` r`j&@Y n`ykyN gnn`vK sMbN[ Smk mh a#m @j~ b` btr @bAg`lyt @Qy a`@y~jkyN aQq` g#m s>h` sk @vnSkM m`l`vK y`Wmk mt sp} k@L y.

v@y~v^Q[ St#Nv`y` @mm `Nw r`j&y @Q\ a`@y~jn s>h` @k`wrM q`nM q yNn wK@Sr# @k`t klmn`k`r up@Q\k m#KNS sh sm`g@M @y~w aN aqRk`R ipW kl v`Rw`vt s`[y c`ryK q#Ky. em v`Rw`@V s>hN b`[`vN awr v&`p^N s>h` k`lsthnK n#km, avs`nyK n# -@rl`, p`lk ktvlt kMkr#vN a#  g#m s>hN kr . 1995 , enM v`Rw` l# a# avs`n vR;@Y btr @bAg`l@Y n# S n sAš&`v jr`T `Nwyt vd` hwr hm`r nyK y. a`Nv v&`p^N b>v g#t eK kvN s>` @qn bvK yn nW, E kvt oB@B @q`rvL gnn`vK @bn bv s$m @qn` m q.

m#KNS @y~wy`@G pdy @Y btr @bAg`ly wm jyhnvl Mm @k`t gw W@W iNy`@V @s `Nw @n` v q-a`y`@V "a`Rk v&`yN" bv y. hLy` @p@`@kkL kRm`Nwy v# mh` v&`p^N gnn`vK m ӵm m kl h#K@K a`Nv, v&vs`ykyN h` kMkr#vN awr sN[`nyK mN bv q m#KNS sm`gm y` @Y y.

avs`n vs@yN em v`Rw`v av[`rny k@L btr @bAg`l a`Nv pn`k @n`v Ply @vnsK a# kl bv .

a`Nv s`[y c`r q#Ky bvW, a`@y~jkyNt wpK; y bvW gW @j~ b` sMRn m s>h` asMRn v#d mh` r`yK ir#v @bn bv q gW@W y.

k`Rk a`r`L a#  gsn v#dktvlt wm a`Nv akm# bv @h@wm p#h#v m k`\ k@L y. (FrNT lN @pbrv` 12. 1999) @bAg`l@Y a`@Vk v` av` b>v sSwr v`Rw`vK ipW mt @@[Ry m mN @j~ b`@G a`Nv `Nwy lt eNnt bl` n a`@y~jkyNt mt q, wmN h` "v`m`Ak @prn" l eKv n hLkr#vNt q @|;@yN m kMkr# pNyt anr# a#<mt q uWk .

r#yL @k~ 2,500K vn`, \`l a`@y~jn v&`p` 18K a#rmt yn bv @Vqny kr a#w. @y~@k`N g^^P, ;`N iNdSS, aMj` @mN, #K@sy`R, l`RsN h` tR@b~, ph`R R sh NS}`N vR @kkL yn sm`gM btr @bAg`ly l a`@y~jny mt q`nm k`\ @k`t a#w. iNy` M@k`l sm`g@M sX`p (a) nv grT f#KtyK arxn bv k`\ k@L y. @tLMS sm`g@M X` cN, r$pv` v#dsthN s>h` r#yL @k~ 100K @y`qNnt q`nN . Mb`vl eS@sL vRLD v# @n~q`AgnyK ӵmt q o q`nM y. rt l 1991N @m`b a`@y~jny Qgk `G[n@yN yyt 3K @mm qL m`ny @s`CcmK pmnK bv q (jr`ty yyt 19K q, mh` r`y yyt 18.5K q a`kR;ny kr g) @my q#nt m @l~ky r` `G[ny <` yn @Krl@Y St#Nv`N@G "v`m j`wN a`Nvt" a`Sv`qy.

iNy` St#Nv`qy sh a`Rk sASkrn

q\k gnn`vK S@S iNy` St#Nv`@y~ @Nr#@G @k`AS a`N@V j`kv` a`Rk v&`p^y jns m mw pqnM SvyA rKw @vwK q "aŽr`j&v`qyt e@r prK" @ls q vgvRnn` klh. e@hW iNy` [@N|vry 1991 SvyA-rK;n@Y @vw aWh#r qm` j`w&Nwr l& arql N yw "nv a`Rk @vw" v#l> gWh. vsr nN p 1994 btr @bAg`l@Y "v`m @pr" St#Nv` a`Nv @Q\ a`@y~jn a`kR;ny kr g#@M nv k`Rk @vwK k`\yt pW k@L y.

@s~yT sAgm@Y St#Nv` p`lny >v# @s~yT r`j&y Š y p, wmN@G @vnW j`w&Nwr sgyN @mN m iNy` St#Nv`@y~ q wvwvW qnt m`r# h.

a`Rk sASkrn v#l> gWh. @s~yT sAgm@Y > v#@mN p, @vnW j`w&Nwr sgyN @mN m, iNy` St#Nv` v`Rk pK; sM@Mln l "m`KS @lN v`qyt" @k`y v#m awh#r @n` q# o E awrm iNy` a`Rky @Q\yNt vs` w#m s>h` uQ@{~;ny q @n` klh. @k`ST pK;@Y (m`KSv`) 15 vn pK; sM@Mln@Y sMmw kl @y~jn`v y` @Y j`k sAvR[n@Y šWvy av @Q\ w`K;ny h` a`@y~jn rt lt a#m agy krn bv y.

@M awr "a`Rk sASkrn-vlt", kMkr# pNy rkr w#m s>h` r`@v~@G @k`AS p`ln sm@Y (1991-95) v`Rkv eK n bN[yK (kRm`Nw h` @vl>`m mN vs` q#m) k#>mt St#Nv` v^Wy svlt y. r`@v~ a`Nv v# p [@N|vr

eKsW @pr a`NvK a#tm s>h` [`n @pq@Rr# v#@D @y@N q St#Nv`N m y. iNy` @k`p@Y iNܺW Pw Sv@Q\ kt X`r a#mv q, @k`p (m`KSv`) pK;y tN t q @qn lq sh@yN Kv l# eKsW @pr a`Nv @Jy blyt p#m v#l#Kmt y yn s`@vN a`vrny v

a`Rk sASkrn @VgvW klh. @m@S St#Nv`@y~ j`w&Nwr b#A N yw a`Rk s#lM iNy`v l y`Wmk mt p`lk pNyt uqV h. St#Nv`N [@N|vr

a`Rk sASkrn vlt @h`‰N m pK;p`v bv qW bl lW S}ry sh j`w&Nwr a`@y~jk@y~ oN@G i>t @kr# "@r~[w`" m#nN vth` gWh.

iNy` p`lk pNy q j`w&Nwr a`@y~jk@y~ q b`@G pK;p`Wvy g#n stt pWh. btr @bAg`ly l q\k @qkK S@S S}`vr p`lnyK pvWv` @gn y`mt o smWm agy klh. oN ov @kwrM agy k@L q yW 1996 iNy`@V agm# ry X`r gNn` @ls ot a`r`[ny klh. e@hW [@N|vr iNy`@V }m "@k`ST" agm#y` @M X`g&y, @k`ST (m`KSv`) pK;@Y m[&m k`rk sX`@V v# cNqyK mN v#l#K. e@hW @k~pyt pW @j~ b` mh` @eh`k v#QqK m g#n wm pK;y l r#Q[v`Nt QŽ@Y @q`S p#v y.

btr @bAg`l@Y v`m @pr a`Nv

St#Nv` n`ykWv@yN v`m @prn 1977 btr @bAg`l@Y bly gW@W j`w&Nwr [nv`qy q e iNy` @k`ts q Vr @Q\p`ln h` a`Rk aRqyK m#N gmN krN y y.

v`m @prnt blyt p#n gw h# @Y kN @k`AS a`N h y p`lny yt@W h` nKsLv` n#m sm@Y s#kkr#vN v[ mr` Rqy @ls j`wN aN mRqny kl w l y. blyt pW St#Nv`N š p`lny v`m v`G hrx q, @Q\v` stN p` q mN bl@Y Š gW@W y. E awr m[&m @k`AS a`N@V @vwt al w idM -sASkrnyK q y`Wmk @k. kMkr# pN@Y @r~[y wmN @vwt @y` s$m t m "vWmN r`v l apt iyt y`mt iw` brpwl m` pv" y wRk m St#Nv`N@G r#Qq y. e@hW sw&y nM "vWmN pQ[y" l pvWn` m` pr`jy kl h# mgK pvn bvW, E s>h` pvWn` v&vS}`vt @n` v s#b#N m sm`jv`qyt k#pvN av\& bvW y. e@hW St#Nv` sm`jv`qyt sr# @v, o @s~yT sAgm@Y, n@Y h` yTn`m@Y, wmN@G sm`jv` r#Q[v`N qs qhS gnN mrnyt pW klh. iNy` St#Nv`@y~ wm j`w&Nwr sgyN N sm`jv`N mr` q#m K shgw klh.

"a`Rk sASkrn" a`p h#ry @n` h# y q Ev` q Ev` smg en ߿y` kPp` M gw y q iNy` St#Nv`@y~ y` p`. a#Ww vs@yN o -@s~yT sAgmy a`qR\yK @k`t gWh. e p#v "sm`jv` @vl> @p`l a`Rky" agmny kl y y` yh. @j~ b`@G k`\y @mm a`kLpy m ġ„ kr. "s`Mq`k kRm`Nw h` r`j& aA\@Y kMkr#vN \`l vs@yN @q`Tt q#@mn w l nv aA\yN, @|;@yN m @pT@r~@kkL v# aN n#@gn en kRm`Nwvl ߿y` Rm`ny av\&y" o y. Qgk a`@y~jn a`kR\ny kr g#m s>h` r#yL @k~ 500 iKmvn mh` a`@y~jn eN ek @vn m slk` b#mt wm` q`nM y o y . b` eKsW jnpqyt q @r~y rtvlt q @g`S @Q\ a`@y~jn a`kR;ny kr g#mt uWs`h k@L y. wm pK;y l r#Q[v`N \Bq kr vS o "ap @Q\ a`@y~jnvlt y n#w#, oN eN@N l`b g#mt bv a#Ww y. iN apt q v` lb`gw h# y" @V y.

vcnvlt m` @n` y`vNt @Q\ a`@y~jkyN EW g#Ny @hN kMkr# pNk h` n`gk PpW jny` mw h`ry u krn l.

kMkr#vN h` ڱN mw h`r

1990 gnNvl l ptN v`m @pr a`Nv, [np@y~ h` v^Wy s @|;@yN m St#Nv` n`ykWv@yN v^Wy s q kMkr# pNyt e@r h`ry u klh. b`t` spW, dN@l`P tyR h` T kMhL \`l gnnk argl r` @~ v^Wy s n`ykWvy a@y~gyt lK @kr#. K@t~y` T @m~@L kMkr#@v~ @k`py, @k`p (m`KSv`) iNy` @k`Asy sh @J n`ykWv@yN v^Wy svl n`ykyNt \`kv phr Nh. m`s gnN p @n` lb`, kM N k$ pmnK lb` @M kMkr#@v~, p`lkyN v^Wy s n`ykyN@G sh`y lq bv q#n yh. 1993 oK@w~bR 30 em @m~@L m k` pSv`N nm# kMkr#v` mh aLl` gW @p`y ot m#@rn @wK phr N@N y. g<t krn lQ@Q y yn lq o@G ml r#r wvmW @s`y`@gn n#w. @mm {`wny @k@R mhjn @r~[y a# kl St#Nv` a`Nv y` @Y pSv`N aW adAvt @n` gW bv y. @M awr St#Nv` pK; @qk pSv`Nt e@r @b`r# md g#mK a`rMX klh. @M b>v pK;nyK kl m[&m oW @r~v (a) pSv`N @p`y N aW adAvt gNn` lq bv k`\ k@L y. e@hW St#Nv` a`Nv @p`y a`rK;` krN h# nM @c~qn` us`y i@Y oP krn @ls a sA[`nyt y` @Y y.

1993 @qs#Mbr@Y y m v^Wy svlt e@rv k#LlK g# k@n~y` @m~@L kMkr#@v~ wmN@G m nv syK wn` @m~l aLl` gWh. avt gM 87N a`[`r lW @mm v`l` g#m ar#QqK pmn p#v. a@Y @p`y @m@hy a`Nv @m~@L kMkr#vNt phr elv` qmN avt gMm`nvl oN@G shkr#vNt q phr ;nyt pW klh. 1995 @n`v#Mbr@Y b`t` spW kMh@L ayM kMkr#vN v#d vRjny kl kL @k`p (m`KSv`) h` b#‹ a r`j& @LkM, av b`t` kMh@L @m`n m vRjnyK vW @n` ivsn bv q vRjkyNt phr @qn bv q k`\ k@L y.

1996 ms bJ bJ T @m~@L p`lkyN kMkr#vN 10,000K @l`K aT mt N kl kL btr @bAg`l @p`y, D a#K;N @f~RS (a`REeF - @Vg y`k` blk`y) q eKv @m~lt a#v kMkr#vNt phr b@lN m eyt a#q q#h. @mm a`REeF blk`y St#Nv` p`lkyN N Rm`ny krn lQ@Q vRgv`qyt r#Q[v y` y. @m~l avt v`svl kMkr#vN r#Q[Wvy q#K kL @p`y oN v`svN @q`Tt q#mt wRjny k@L y.

ur# @bAg`l@Y St#Nv`@y~ kRm`Nw yN@G EjNwyN @ls v#d krN @W v ӵm s>h` @g`N@G idM aLl` gWh. u@R pRg`n` 24 @Q\@Y St#Nv`@y~ PpW @g`N idMvN elv` wr# p@H @h~tlyK q, @m~tR @RS p}yK q m[&m pNyt h` [npyNt @|; ngryK q @g`dn#mt y` klh.

1996 @n`v#Mbr@Y St#Nv` p`lny v`hny @VgvW @k`t, kLkt` ngry mt y PpW K@;~ kMkr#vNt h` @v@lN>Nt e@rv \`l h`ryK eLl kr oN ngr@yN plv` h#mt uWs`h k@L y. @m qhS gnN @k`p (m`KSv`) m#r@y~ @p`yt a`[`r klh.

sm`j @Sv`vNt h`r

py vR; ph l @l~k b#A@V an p St#Nv` btr @bAg`l a`Nv @sš&y, a[&`pny, v`hny yn` shn`[`r kp` g`S ihl q#M@M y.

a[&`pn g`S nAv` a#w. `}k h` Qk p`sLvl 50,000kt aŽk r#vr#N@G rPp` @B. gMvN yyt 40kt aŽkv bly n#w.

r`j& a`Nv @Q\ a`@y~jnyNt shn m v#vW m PpW kMkr# @g` jny`@G vn w v#v#@yN @h. kRm`Nw yN kMkr#vN@gN kp`gW aR} s`[k arqL r#yL @k~ 200K m a`p @n` @gv` wb` gWh. a`N@V kMkr#vN h` r#vr#N qsqhS g`nk aR} s`[k arqL v`m @pr a`Nv N m @gv` n#w. @m &127;lyK @ls @b`@h~ kMkr#@v~ q r#vr# q y ns` gWh. wvW @b`@h~ œ`k@y~ s`N@N y yh. smhr r#vr#Nt kLkt`@V vl <` k$mt y.

sASkrn gtm @gn y`mt St#Nv` shn

aw@Y @mN kMkr#vN@G p#W@W n bvK mv` p$mt vW q#N St#Nv`@y~ unN @n` @v. oN unN [np y`m`Rg y`vt q#m g#n y. `Nw r`j& a`N@V a#mvr@y St#Nv` @w~ @c_q m v`m @pr a`Nv, @k`N`Wkr#vN N, @k`N`Wkr#vN s>h` pvWv`@gn y lbn @k`N`Wkr#vN@G a`NvK y oN unN [np y`m`Rg y`vt q#m g#n y. lK;ny k@L y. @j~ b`@G @y cNqN b` btr @bAg`l@Y mh [np@y. o wm j`v`rM a`rMX k@L o@G y` mh a#m bvt pW pv y.

@|;@yN m 1991 nv a`Rk pWy y`Wmk @mN h` @s~yT sAgmy >v#@mN pv iNy` [@N|vry `@Qy r`j& @ls Š y`m a`rMX y. @Mv` p`qn@Y @g~ykrny N g`mk bly lQ@Q y.

q#N ݶ@M m@G @b`@h~ r gmN kr n iNy` St#Nv` pK; [ `Nw r`j&vl g#@tn - Š y iNy` j`k [@N|vr@Y av\&w` uCc`rny kr.

@j~ b`@G n`ykWv@yN St#Nv` a`Nv btr @bAg`l@Y [npyN@G av\&w` s>h` @p mt rcK ipW @Y @M av y. o @j~ b` rcK a`@y~jkyNt N @p`@r`Nv i mt ipWv . @pbrv` 18q` @k`p (m`KSv`) N sAw r`j& @Svk Ek`bQ[ k@V 13 vn sM@Mlny a#m @j~ b` kMkr#vN @hl` @V yŸ "smhr @SvkyNt wmN krn @Q g#n unNvK n$. epmnK @n` v o @vl`vt v#dt @n` e. p`qny q @n` kr." o@G k`\y g#n r`j& @Svk sAgm@Y @LkM @r~ cQ @m@S yŸ "kN o kw` k@L s`q h` q‡vM g#n y. @mvr o kw` k@L wkr m q‡vM g#n pm."

mh a#m@G @vw av y, @p`S a#m XTt`c`Ry v^Wy svl r`j& pm`n bN[yK a#rmt ywv nt @pr n @V a`Nv aŽ`ny kr N@N r`j&y l "vgM rw v^Wy sv`qyt" id @n` w#mt y@v. `Nw a`Nv "a`@y~jkyNt wvW" bv @pNv` N o rcK sM@Mln@Y a`@y~jkyNt N sp}@yN pb` y`mK nM @n`m# bv av[`rny k@L y. (q S@TSmN. @pbrv` 22, 1999)


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