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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

KNtN@G v`Rk r`j&-wWv @Q\nyŸ
vAc`@V h` a`Wm vAc`@V aX&`syK

b# @
2000 jnv` 31

jn`Žp L KNtN jnv` 27 vn hSpNq` @k`AS mNdly amw` kl r`j&-wWv @Q\n@Y eKsW jnpqy @pr r$ @s_X`g&@yN sm^QŽmWv, nv shœky @qs a`Wm |v`s@yN blNn` j`yK y Nw`r# k@L y. e@hW o@G v`Rk @Q\ny @qs c`r`K@yN blN@nt @p @Y iw` @vnS y. a#mk` wy b> @r~s p`t NryK mv` @pNmt o @kwrM uWs`h klW, jn`Žpvry`@G vcnvN @p @Y eKsW jnpqy g#„r# aRqyk g# pvWn` s# y.

KNtN lr#@V wm`@G kw`@V m Svryt g#l@pn pQ@qNyŸ "@pr kvr k@lk vW ap@G j`y @mvN @s_X`g&yK, sm`j gyK, aX&Nwr aRqvN @mwrM wWvyK, b`r wRjn @mwrM n wWvyK ekt m aW q#k n#w. ...m@G s@h~qr a#mk`@v, ap@G r`j&y q#N pvW@N @pr kvr k@lk vW p#vy`t vd` blg wWvyk y." Il<t a`@V q#nt m @h`>t r# p a`Rk jyhnyN l#SvK g h#m y; nv ߿y` 20 ynyK, ar# 30N @mt @VgvW m a`Rk vR[ny, ar# 30N am ߿y` mTtm, ar# 42kt pv }m vrt tt ayv#y aKwyN, a#mk` ih`s@Y a`Rk vR[n@Y زm k`l pC@Cqy yn` vs@y.

jn`Žpvry` Il<t k@L wm`@G p`lny N kr a# brL sASkrnv`qy K@p m @SW m a`p @vnS @n` krn bvt mhsAgw a#mk`vt shk m yŸ @my yn lQ@Q s#r b`l vcnvŸ "a yLp#n y q^v`qyN ivw qm`, `nsm m[&S}`ny y whr# kr g."

wv rtW kw`v kr @gn yQ @h@wm @m`#K pK;y y brL awy awh#r a# bvt wvW shkyK, @n` w` m N@N y. "livable" (vW y h#) yn vcny @vvt ap jn j`vN "liberal" (brL -- qhS) kr y eKw#nk kt v#r p`C kl o @p@nNnt m KPw y. py \wvR;@Y v# k`lyK l @v`AtN sAS}`w@Y bly q#r$ q^yv p#v# "brL" yn pqy aq @Q\p`ln apv`qyK bvt pWv m py q\k @qk l a#mk` @Q\p`ln@Y qnt p#Qm m#nN @pNM kr.

a#mk`v "mh nyN q#y y" q "@y~[ ar pnv` gw y" q KNtN y` @Y y. o@G kw`@vN aN@M qn lq mh nyK @YW Sv N@gN v#m aW@p`lsN lb`gW@WW "1835N p }m vw`vt a ap@G j`k ny @gv` m mt yN@n" y o N `v .

KNtN |w @y~jn` m`l`v ipW mt ptN gW kL, "mh` n" h` "mh` ar" b> wm kw` vcn`R}@yN m @n` gw y shkmt uWs`h k@L y. E @l` vcn m`vN@G Kw K@ytm pm. s#b$ @vW h` y`m`Rgvlt b#sgW kL o vd`W s#nM q`yk vcn ipW k@L yŸ "a@yN, ay". @k@S @vwW, o q o@G œ`vky q m#n#N q#n p, @k`AS mNdly o @y~jn` krn iw` @s`CcM sm`j shn pv` sMmw kr a#w# y @n` h# y.

a`rMX@Y kl sm^QŽy sh sm`j gy b> r`@Jr# mK vW, a[&`pny, @s_š& phkM, v# a`rK;`v, apr`[ yn` |n g#n kw` mt ptN gW vh`m, ak vs@yN m m @Y @vnS Nry. kl v @bN@N alAk`r vcn kp` @gn, E h#yt @v`W, o@G kw`@V s#< aR}y yv` g#m y. eKsW jnpq@Y sm`j wWvyN b>v KNtN ipW kl prm`qR lK;nyt yN pvWn` nr# y}`R}y q#k gw h#K@K et y.

a[&`pny b> |ny gw @h`W, uq`hrnyK h#yt, KNtN @pr-p`sL h` p-p`sL v#dsthN g#n q hh# r#vr#N@G av\&w`v g#n q kw` k@L y. @my vn` Q[ p`sLvl pvWn` mn`v h` vrlW r#vr#N <y q @qm`yNt smhr t ߿y`vN pyK krNnt @bn pLvl qslK; gnN qr#vNt n mt pvWn` phkM nw`v q b>v krn lq s>hn.

"ap@G p`sL yL@lN @nN pAvK brpwl @ls ablNv, ... W h` h#N prn , aNwR j`lyt @y`q` g#mt @n` h# wWvykt pWv a#w#" KNtN s>hN k@L y. q#N "@lR"vl r @k`t @bn ;&yN pN k`mrvlt gw v a#w# o y. ihl a[&`pny sMbN[@yN gw @h`W "pL qslK; gnN ihl a[&`pny s>h` yqM qr` gN@N iw` am`r#@vN y" o gW@W y.

wm`@G m vcnvN Swr kr l# @mm @g`rwr aRq@Y p@m -- wm` sm`j K@@Y L w#n @qN@N y krn -- KNtN@G a[&`pn K@y yvryN vn` @h`>tm v# v@h`W sA@Kw`Wmk y. Ev`t v#y vN@N @d`lR yn 4. enM a#yv#@yN yyt 0.2K pm. epmnK @n` v, r#vr#N @Svyt g#@M h` p`sL skr @M o@G @y~jn` "as`R}k" p`sL vs`, aR[-Qgk g`S ay krn p`sL @qnyN v# @M g` @y~jn` smg sMbN[ krn l.

@s_š& @Sv` aA\@Y, @s_š& rK;n a a#mk`vN sAš&`v h`r @k~yK (yn hwhK) iKmv` yn \`l m`nyK qKv` wm` blyt pW p ihl n#g a# bv KNtN gW@W y. @y~jn` krn nv yvryN@gN a`vrny v a#W@W qs lK;ykt @n` v# wry. @mm @s`CcM yvryN Mb` q#Kmt o uWs`h k@L yŸ "@M y @Q g#n w` blNn. ap lmN b>v @gn a# nv yvryN q smg eK @k`t gW kL, @mm yvryN apt a#mk`@V rK;ny @n` krn lq jny`@gN hw@rN pAvkt @s_š& rK;ny lb` mt id sls a#w."

a#mk`@V sm`j wWvyN b> @vnW aA\yN g#n @mN m, vySgw a#mk`vN b>v q KNtN k@L iKmN Ss` y`m y. @k@S v q o@G vcn nr# y}`R}yK b> qR\n m`yK lb` N@N y. "@M vn t ap@G v#yN pS@q@n@gN N@q@nt @b@hW spy` g#m b> |v`svNw shkyK n#w. @@vq&vr#N N yw @b@hW vRg v#@yN m uvmn` krn qs lK; gnN N@gN amhW v# sAš&`v Ev`t iw` v# l @gv. @pr r$ sAš&`vK a#mk`vNt aq wm v# n$yN@G @b@hW@HWvlt yqM @M brt q kr g#mt @B. @my a`qr@yN v q am`r#@vN krg#mt @bn iw` yqM shgw v#d."

@mm aRqyt n m s>h`, o QglyN@G ayb @s`CcmN kp` q#mt sh j`v`rMkr#vNt b shn mt @y~jn` k@L y. uq`hrnyK h#yt a a`q`yM lbn QglyNt, œ`m v#P s>h` m`kv a`Nv N @gv lbN@N em œ`m v#P myt b#@>NnN@gN m`kv k#@pn @d`lR 100t smvn p wvW @d`lR 100K pm.

v#d krn pLvl v#ybr h$L mt o kl @y~jn` q @M j`@Y m Ev` y. "@b`@h~ v#d krn @qm`@y~ wmN@G a`q`y@mN hw@rN pAvK -- hw@rN pAvK -- qr#vN bl` g#mt yqM kr" o y` @Y y. "@k`wrM mhN v#d klW ymK ir# kr g#mt oNt idK n#w#" o y. qs lK; gnN v#d krn jny`@G vn wWvyN@G @mm k`b`y`vt e@rv ot krNnt h# @Y vWmN p#yt @d`lR 5.15k <n avm v#p vs@yN v# kr @qn @ls @k`AS mNdl@yN iLl` m y.

lmN@G qw`v g#n kw` kl KNtN a#mk` lmN N@q@n@gN eK @k@n "aPp` n#v v#@dn" bv @pNv` . "m`y @q@qn` n lmNt vd` @mm lmN qw`v@Y g#mt @bn id pSnyN v# y" KNtN y. KNtN t ipW krn ym mK q? v#r krn yvr#Nt e@r q‡vM v#m . PpWkm ihvhy @Q\vlt o a# Ll ز k@L y; a# vr @Q\, ‹ sr pl`W, @dLt`v, a#mk` a`v`N s>h` @vN @kr# @|; @Q\ -- @Mv` eK @k`t gW kL r@tN s#ly @k`ts. r# a`k`ryt m, o@G qw`-@r~ s#l#Sm @Y @mm "nv @vl> @p`lvL" p`C krn @ls v&`p`kyN unN m s>h` b shn h` @vnW v` L m y.

"aq n am`r#@V v# n a@P j`@V wvW @k`tsK vN@N @g`N shy y. ... y<, gAvr sh @pr r# p a l gnN @g`Nt iw` kr wWvyK Rm`ny kr a#w." e@hW o@G pp`lny N a@h~ @k`t qm` @bn @g` l a`[`r h` @vnW shn`[`r @vvt m shnyK KNtN @y~jn` k@L n#w.

q#N a#mk` eKsW jnpq@yN spw` QŽ bvt pWv @bn a umv sh @@vr shgw apr`[ Ll g#n q KNtN kw` @n` kr @Y n#w. @k`lMbN usS p`s@L @v w#Mvl y y 15 y# lmy@G y` o h‹Nv` N@N y. ey py ar# py l @v w#M M X`gyN ekK pm. v`Rk @Cwn` ud @tKs`S mr` qm l# k s` g#n q v@y~AG mr` qm l# smAky` b>v q k`@g~, @l`S a#NjS sh @vnW ngrvl @v w#Mvlt lK k j`kyN sh a`y`-a#mk`vN h` @qV qr#vN g#n q o s>hN k@L y.

"asNn-asNn," o y. "eKsW jnpq@Y vys 15t a qr#vN awr @v phrvN vn h mrn sAš&`v a@nW k`Rk rtvL 25k smSw sAš&`v @mN nv nyK y" o y` @Y y.

jn {`wk @v w#Mvlt yN pvWn` sm`j aRqyt KNtN@G r @Y, @p`y sh a m` vdvd`W \KmW m y. otW -- o@G kw`v b> p|c`W mrn X`g p#v#W m`[& c`rkyNt h` vW pW v`Rw`kr#vN @r`WwtW -- @SW m @n` v#t k`rny nM @M s` pm`n ivbv n# cNdWvy jn`Žpvry` wm`@G kw`vt lrN s>hN kl Nqr h` sm^QŽmW sm`j gy vK bvt pW kr a# bv y. eKsW jnpq@Y wy o yn wrMm a`|cRyjnk nM p`sLvl pLvl h` v#dplvl yr# @v w#M q#N s`m`n& wK bvt pW @bN@N mN q?

@mv# prSpr @r~[ KNtN@G kw`v r` p# . blNn wvW ev#NnKŸ KNtN yn p q#N eKsW jnpqy @pr kvr k@lkt vW vd` a b`r wRjnyNt n nM, gN p`lnyt p v#m t yqM wm aW ayv#y @Lšn@Y @y~jn` krN@N mN q? @mm r`j& wWv @Q\n@Y -sl a`rK;k pQ[yK vR[ny mt yn qhS gnnK @vN kr wbNnt @y~jn` k@L mN q?

KNtNt vW o@G pBkN r#Q[v`Nt vW m`[&-pNwyNt vW r`j&-wWv @Q\n@Y r` p#r @g`S {ww` h` k`r q#k g#mt @n` h# @bN@N o@n`N awr @p_Qgk h` pK;v` {ww` @k`wrM u vW oN y @qn`m ekm @Q\p`ln h` sm`j S}r@Y @k`tS vn s` y. oN kr#Nt vW a`Rk uWp`w@Y b`r @pmt yN h`r` bl` mtt yN pvWn` rn pN {ww` pK;` kr b#mt uvmn`vK n# s` y. KNtN@G @Q\ny nm# r<p$mt yN mhjnw`v vmt amwrv wmNm vg#m q @n` av .

a#mk` @Q\p`ln@Y qv@S @Q\p`lny sm`j |n b> avAk s`kCc`vK mN m p`@H amwk kr q#m aW @qyK @n` @V. e@hW @|;@yN m py q\k @qk l gN p`lny a#r w#N ptN, m`[& (wmNt uvmn` p) hr#v` g#m, v&`j r<p$M sh v`c`l, @Q\p`ln wy y y lbn @qy l @prkltW vd` iSmWwt p#n @B.

KNtN blyt p#mW smg mh [np @Q\p`ln pK;vl gmN mg qnt gmN krn @Vgyt ap`kv @b`r# mv`@pNm q u @B. v`Rk r`j&-wWv @Q\ny l pK;vl v#@dNn` r`pWm sh vAckWvy b> w`pm`nyK bvt pWv a#w.

py s@Y KNtN@G r<p$m @Q\p`ln kt, vw`vW bvt pvRwny @M sNwy b> @m`nvt qR\ny k@L y. o@G @Q\n@Y s$m aA\yK m mv` @pNmK q @b`r#vK q y. [ av\&w` @vlt (interest groups) -- psrv`N, Sv`N, wr kNd`yM, hq`v -- r# @ls q#Ky aAg cln h` iyV [ QglyN g#l@Y E E w#Nvl r>v` w#m mN kLwb` m s#lM kr . }m a`Ry`v (jn`Žp@G >) asN i>gw W@W kr#N q jn`Žp N nm ym kr s>hN kl W@W kq n# mt k#>y W@W kq yn` @Q iSm @k`t @p@nn p kLwb`m sA[`ny @kr#. @v@nkK wb` y mv` @pN l amw` "mm obt a`q@R" y @w`L m#m q KNtN@G kw`@V aAgyK @ls kLwb`m kr .

kw`@V yM kl` @y~gyK nM E vn` ih`s@Y @m@wK a# @k`tS @vl> @p`l ihlt n#m > v#@tn p vK @n` krn bvt @v~L yt shk vn awr m as` n s`m`n& jny` vm s>h` @p` a[&`pn |n, v#yN@G |n sh @vnW sm`j |nvlt wm` av[`ny @y` kr a# bv a#<#m q @V.

y}`R}y pRnv m k^ m q d kw` @qdm q l`X r<p$M q yn @Mv` plL mhjnw`v@gN mN m @y~ h` rsk @Q\p`ln pQ[yk lK;n@y~ y. @Q\p`ln pQ[y @p` mhjnw`v@gN @vN krNn` ag`[y, Lb#s @bN@N eKsW jnpqy l sm`j asm`nw`v lm y.

e aAg k`rvN @vN kr gW kL, KNtN@G kw`v k jnghn@Y ihl yyt 10 @h~ 15t v`Rw`gw @s_X`g&yK aW kr Nn` q\k @qkK g#n krn lq v`k&yK y. @my vn` mh sAgw [`ykyNt, b#Akr#vNt, mh m`[& @m~r#Nt, @k~p pNwyNt, mh` a`@y~jkyNt sh @m`#K sh pBkN @qpK;@Y m iNn` oN@G @Q\p`ln @SvkyNt, uWsv p#v#Wy h# kr#n.

kMkr# pN@Y vn wWvyNt e@rv eLl a# Rqy h`ry e mSwk `Py aWkr @gn a#W@W @v~L @Y @k`tS vn`kMvl S bmvn ihl n#m . us`vl aдhy q m`[&yN bly q l#b (@m`#K h` pBkN) @qpK;y N pvWv`@gn y lbn sm`j @vW eLl kr l#b a#W@W @k`tS @vl> @p`l ihl q#@M w arnt y; emN sm`j@Y ihlm vrs`w @k`tSvlt vd vd`W \`l [ny @g`d gs` mt y. KNtN @qs`b` q#k g#mt py hSpNq` S @l` @l`KkNt nM r`j&@Y wWvy vn` @k`tS @vl> @p`@L wWvym y v @h`W ey a\@y~KyK @n` @V.

e@hW @v`Atn@Y qRw jRjrWvy sh aN[Wvy srlvm @pNM krN@N, av`Ry@yN m el@x a# avs`n Nv @myt vd` @b@hN m vP shgw v a# bv y. @m a#y |nyK @BŸ y @s_X`g&@Y N @pWwt n#g n a#mk`v @mwrM @g`rwr sm`j |n m`l`vk glhnyt h pv nM, kL @n`y` @h~ kL p av`Ry@yN m @v~L @Y sm@PK;k l > v#@tn kL rt @m`n wWvykt a#q v#@T q?

aq`l @vnW

KNtN kMkr# N b>v @l~kyt @Q\n` pvWvŸ
e@hW a#mk`v l kMkr# aN b> wWvy mK q?

2000 jnv` 15

13 y# lm@y a#mk` us`yk m#@M @c~qn`vt vrqkr# @k@R
1999 @qs#MbR 03

KNtN h` pBkNvr# a#mk` l& pQ[y @rl`hrnyt ek< @v
1999 @qs#MbR 02

V@y~K kwNqryKŸ PpW sh @p`@h`sW lN s>h` @vnm @l~k
1999 oK@w~bR 23

v&`j `G[ny sh a#mk` @k`tS @vl> @p`@L n#m
1999 a@™L 12


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