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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

a#mk` jn`Žpvrn avsN v`qy sh iN anr#v
@g~R wr<`vs`ny kr` g`tN y

b# @
2000 oK@w~bR 21

oK@w~bR 17 q` \`Nw p#v#W avsN jn`Žpvrn v`q@Y up jn`Žp aL @g~R@G cNq v&`p`r@Y @Q\p`ln vtkm sh g` K g#M iSmWwt a`@V y. @my vn` bA@k`@l`Wkm mN, @n`v#Mbr@Y o@G pBkN r#Q[v`y` vn @j~J dB. t jyhny kMm b`r@M sA@y~jny.

y b @y~jn`vN @p`@h`sNt a \`lv shn s#l@sn bv v^wv gNn` W rK;ny @n` yn 44K jny` n rtk "j`k @s_š& a`rK;n s#l#Smkt pRnv r#Q[" y k`\ krNn` W r#Q[v`yt n @qn @g~R, plL kMkr# jny`@G sm`j av\&w`vNt, yM arN @h~ b#r#Mv s‹M lb` @qn kLpyK ipW mt asmW y.

@M bv p#vm, @m`#Kvr#Nt @Q\p`ln up@qS m b>v @h~ t vd` "m^ y`" @ls @g~Rt @Q\p`ln sh@y~gy m b>v k`rn`vK @n`@V. @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady av[`rny kl p m, wmN awr mn mw@Hq n q, a#mk`@V p`lk S}r@Y uvmn`vN a`rK;` krn pK; @q@K m @Q\p`ln aRqy sh w bv, 2000 m#vrn v&`p`r@yN qR\ny @k@r.

@k@S @vwW, m`[& l |@L;n @vvt plvn nr#m amn kw`vlt r#Q[v, @Q\p`ln Mvlt yN pvn sm`j bl@Vg sh y`q`myN q @|wv m @g~R k>@R @blnWvy q ms` b#m av\& y.

@Q\p`ln aRqy

o@G cNq v&`p`ry L@L m p, a<hr#v`q` v`qy l q @g~R@G ihl m uWky @Y, m`[& l l mhjn mwy Rny krNnN ph mW @g~R pp`lnyN bs`[n r`j& brLv`q@Y nr`gmnyK shN @n` vn bv a#mk` p`lk ihl wTv s#nmW y.  j`k @s_š& s#l#Sm @hl` q$mt c`r @ls, "a`Nv mN @k@rn" @s_š& a`rK;nykt wmN q r#Q[ bv @g~R k`\ k@L y. "d` a`Nv" sh l& ny @v@vN @p n bvt n#vw n#vw shk kr p#vm, o@G "m[&m pNk v#d krn pL"vlt @k@rn @h`r-jnw`v` a`y`cn` M mN m p`@H aSvX`k, EW g#Ny @n` h# @Q bv qh` qKv.

v`qy awrr p avS}`vk m @g~R, eK@k~  @p n g` pWN smg sh@y~ mt e@SW @n`m# nM y ev`y`t q@nN phr eLl mt blvW uWs`hyK q# y. @tKs`S a`Nk`ry` @ls N v`Rw`gw mrn qNdny p#nM sAš&`vkt n`ykWvy m b>v  @pNM kl a`dMbrk` bv @™K;kyN aN a@y @Vcnyt lK kl t, @g~R c`r q#K@Y rj@yN @k@rn mr`q#M b>v @G r#r# v`Rw`v b>v yM @h~, @VcnyK @mN v#l m m. @vnW ay "sq`c`r`Wmk @n` " pt, r$pv` v#dsthN sh sAwy b>v knSsLl pl kl t, @h`D mw a`N@V q# yvryN eLl @M p#r wRjny o y k`\ k@L y. t yqM b>v k`rn`@V , y ayv#y @y~jn` mN, @G @y~jn`vN @mN @qnyktW m`nyK @pNtgnyt @vN kr a#w# @g~R pM@p~ g#@V y.

m`[& pNwyN sh mw mM mN, @m`#K a@PK;ky` "v`" y s`m`n&@yN g#@nn, @mm v`qy b>v @g~R sh o@G up@Q\k@y~ p#h#v m s`qyt pWv . @k@S @vwW. @g~R@G r#Q[v`y`@G \Kyt av, s gnn`vK S@S m@D e @bn cNq v&`p`rykt eN @l` s#nmK lq @n` h#k.

@G b pWy aŽkv jnghn@Y [nvW m wTvt v`q`yk bvtW sm`j a`rK;ny p`R|kv Qgkrny @M o@G @y~jn`@vN avs`n@Y shn kPp`vK @gn EmK @h~ pQ[y bA@k`@l`WmK vn bvtW @g~R ipW krn @c~qn`vt r# mt  a@p`@h`sW y.

e@hW, b#r#M sASkrnyN @gN @w`r @g~R m`@Y sASkrn, cNqq`ykyN L @k`tsK awr yM s#b$ uQq`myK jw kr a#w# @p@nNt n#w.

yLlt mW vd`, "blvNwyNt e@r" jnw`v@G ry` @ls @g~R krn mv`p$m yN pvn p#h# prSpr@r~[yN wm v`yt @y`q` g#mt  smW y. o y @m`#K wr<kr#v` "aŽk yqMk`" brLk`ry @ls qKv` ذN gt m phr N@N y. @g~R@G c`ry @Y. @fdrL ߿y` 300,000K kPp`@V W 50 ar#Qqkt p elƒ ql j`k p`qn@Y avm mTtmt, @fdrL yqM a @M W y k`v s`K vs@yN ipW krN @c~qn`vt v#rkr# bv k`\ kr m y.

y ayv#y @y~jn`, bl`@p`@r`W vn v`Rw`gw ayv#y aKwyN mw pqnM kr vn awrv`r@Y, a`N@V yqM kp` h#mt a@PK;kyN @q@qn` e@nk` smg wr< v#@M kr#n, pK; @q@km qKn`Ak sm`j pWy qh` qKv.

n` 90K r` p#r# v`qy l  N qs vrkt @n` a v`ryK m kl a@nK [`n @Wm`v @Y, wmN, j`@Y agvr l "@n~Kk @M sh a# Ll ز @M" pK;` sASk^y avs`nykt @gn eNn` @v`AtN "tSwry" bv y`p$m y. jn`Žp L KNtNt pK;` @ls @q~;`@y~gykt lK@mN g#N Cc yT v&`p`ryK @m@wK r$ @ls @gn y pK;yk @k`y osvNn`t @mm aRv gRw k`\y mt h#y`v lb` N@N, @m`k` @lVNS Ak apc`ry sh @Q\p`ln mNnyK s>h` pBkN v$ym m mt @g~R qKvn y mw gnN b#mt t h#m s` y.

@pr v`q @q@k @mN m @m q wm wmN@G pK; b>v yM m @h~ s>hN mN a@PK;kyN @q@qn`m v#l m, Q-pK; my b>v Lv p#r pvWn` mhjn l h'v g#m. 1998 @k`NS m#vrn@Y mh` pr`j@yN @n` v#ry h# @ls k`\yt pW kl` , pBkN @k`Ns@Y qKn`Ak n&`y py @k@r, @|;@yN m, KNtN@G [vl mNry @prl` q#@M v$ym @k@r pvWn` mhjn @r~[y gW kl  qKvn l$km vd` ph@vN vth` gw h#k.

e@hW, @g~R @m`#K pK;@yN sh KNtN pp`ln@yN wmN rSw kr wb` g#mt krn v$ym b# b#Lmt vd` v&`l @ls @p y. @g~R 2000 m#vrny, KNtN-@g~R vsrvl v` s#l@kn a`Rk vR[n@Y @m@wK @n` r$ s`R}kWvy urg`n jnmw c`ryK @n` @V y q# @S y` n wrM rkt, wmN KNtN h` sm`gm@yN a$W kr wb` g#mt @g~R aqhS kr @gn . p#v#W v`q @nN ekk vW @g~R, KNtN g#n kt @hl @Y vW n#w.

pBkN @k`Ns@Y v`Rw`v b>v vn mhjn @k~py ur`g#mt @g~R yWnyK @n` q# y. o @q~;`@y~g mNny b>v pmnK @n` v, @k~ gnN a#mk`vN @k~p` kr y`vK vn, 1995-96 l @pdrL a`Nv ay krmN g#N, t pBkN k}`n`yk VT NC sh o @gn y "a#mk`v smg @k`N`Wv" nM @vw b>v q vw y.

KNtN smg Ek`bQ[v cNq v&`p`ry @gn y$m @g~R N K@p kr l#m W k`vn wvW kr#n. @mm a`S}`ny KNtN q a# [`n @p@L @m`#K n`ykyN@G @r~[yt a#w. KNtN iw`mW jny @m`#K @Q\p`lny` bv qNn` o cNq@Y rn`Wmk kMkr# pNk cNq lb` g#mt @g~Rt a# ekm avS}`v vN@N o@G v&`p`ry vWmN jn`Žp smg h# wrM spv sMbN[ m bv |v`s kr.

@q~;`@y~g QŽy sh pBkN @k`Ns@Y smSw v`Rw`v b>v @mN m KNtN a@W N wb` g#@M o@G aŽ`ny q ek h` s`m& y. @Mv` m`[& mN k`w qKn`Ak mhjn mw smg sp @M v$y@M amm @v. o@G cNq v&`p`ry b> mmK kl @h`W @p yN@N, ey evN uWkyN@gN aXv l#b a# bv .

@g~R a@g~S@V y wr< sh`yky` @ls @s@nT sk @j~\P bRm`N @w~r` g#m, pBkN @q~;`@y~g uWs`hyt sh@y~gy N y bl@Vgynt qkl p#h# shny. @lNS h` sb>w`v b>v KNtN QŽ@Y @hl` }m L @pl @m`#K p`Kky` bvt pW@vN bRm`N y Svr$py sthN k@L y. Sv`n  @knW St`R@G mR\n@Y uCc avS}`@V @s@nT sX` gRXy l bRm`N kl rsvW kw`v, pBkN n`ykyN, Sy` l[Rmv`N sh @fdrL aŽkrn@Y @k`tsK N sA[`ny kl, g` v&`p`kyN N qL s#p wk` @m@hmK j`w mt uqVk`rk y.

wmN ذN gt m jnmw mMvl ppN g`tNnt t, m`sy ag X`g@Y @m`#K sM@Mln@Y jnw`v` m`@Y kw`vK krN, @g~R y m#vrn v&`p`ry MmN a#rmt w#W k@L y. a`Rk asm`nWv@Y v#mt sh sAgw uvmn`vN a`Žpw&y q#mt e@rv jnw` Kg#n g#n kl o@G a`y`cny yM c`ryK a# k@L o@G r#Q[v`y` abv` yn @ls cNq @RTv ihlt osv.

e@hW }m r$pv` v`q@yN pv m`[&y N o p#h# h`rykt lK awr @g~R,  smg @qvn v`q@Y o@G jnw`v` Cc`nm \`l @ls awh#r qmN sh p|c`Ww`p@Y sh WphN @M Svr$pyK gN c`r q#K y. @my jnm`[& @Vcn Ll m#dmt a@p`@h`sW awr o@G jnmw cNq m`ny wv rtW a kr q#mt @H y. avsN v`q@Y @g~R, "mh` a`N" r#Q[v`y @S k`\ krn awrv`r@Y m y jnw`v` Svr$py y @gn Emt m`n b# y.

oK@w~bR 17 h@V t @g~R ayv#y ny s>h` y k#pm y whr# mt imhW w#wK q#r#@V, oK@w~bR 19 q` V @y~K @k`@l`My` srs@Y kl @Q\nyk , ayv#y aKwyN "ms` @gn yqM mt", j`k ny a`p @gv` q#mt sh a`N@V \`lWvy a mt n @q. t X`Nd`g`k @LkM sh q#nt @g~LDmN f#KS a`@y~jn sm`g@M sX`p @r`bT r$N N h‹Nv` @q l#@mN anr#v "mh` a`Nvl gy hm`r bv g#m yhpW" y @g~R k`\ k@L y.

em n@Y m o @r` O @d`nL r$pv` q#K@m @p awr @m`k` @lVNS smg KNtN@G h`qkm @hl` q#K@K, "mm o@G Qgk v#r @hl` @v. mm y e@S kr" y@vN k`\ kr.

@g~R@G EW g#m nM, @lNS apc`ry sh @q~;`@y~g QŽy cNqq`yk bwryk m@n~X`vyNt blp`n q#v#Nw vgM X`ryN bv y. e@hW, KNtN q a#lW @m`#K pK;y smSwyK @ls qr` n @mm aqhs @Q\p`ln mNnyt g#„N m hL m`[& sAS}`pn@Y m q^yt smg` v. @mm kr#n b>v l mwy sh jnw` m@n~X`vy awr asMbN[y, m r$pyN eqrV krN@N smSw @Q\p`ln sAS}`wy sh s`m`n& jnk`y awr mhW prwry .

mhjn as`qy v#@D

m#vrny @k@r jnw`v l p#r pvWn` uq`n X`vy l q em prwry ġ„ @v. N@v v`qy n#r @™K;k sAš&`v yn 37.7K awr ey plv# v`qyt vd` yn 9k wrM am. Qp`Kk myt vn jnw` sh@y~gy n`tk`k`rv gr` v#m, @mm sAš&` @Lšn, k`tR sh @r`nLD @RgN awr 1980 oK@w~bR v`qy n#r @™K;k sAš&`v vn yn 80.6 smg ss>` b#@mN m#n gw h#k.

awrr 20 ar# k`ly, kMkr# pNyt e@r akMp` rw h`r, bwr@Y t ihlm yyt 5 @h~ yyt 10 @vw [ny y @b y`m @mN m pK; @q@k m pvWn` qnt gmn q#k gw h# y. @k~ gnN kMkr#vN, @v@sN m, wr#n sh iw`mW ԫw sm`j wT pK; @qk m sh Ev`@Y a@PK;kyN @qs a|v`sy sh @@vry q^yN b#m g#n myK n#w.

mhjn m@n~X`vy m#n g#mt @g~R@G sh @m`#Kvr#N@G a@p`@h`sWkm @q~;`@y~g v&`p`r@Y q#v#Nw a#<M a`vrny kr q#@M q#vW yWnyK smg g#l@P. cNq@yN @W pW jn`Žpvry @h`r-my m`RgvN ivW m s>h` Tt`k`r v$ym b>v yM @h~ avAk wK@Sr#vK, eKsW jnpqy l j`w`Nk a`ywnyN g#„r# jr`RnWvy eqrV mt @qw# yNn g#n @m`#Kvr#, pBkNvr#nt a @n` vn mTtmN ypWv .

@j~J dB.  nM @Q\p`ln km N @qs`b`n l`p ps y sm`j n&`y py s<v` g#mt m`n bln, aNw qKn`Ak bl@Vg @Q\p`ln a`Žpw&y qrNn` pK;yK q aL @g~R nM @Q\p`ln @m@hMkr#@v N @qs`b`n pTt` g# kw` sh S @p`@r`N ps wmN sm`j asm`nw`v sh vrs`w šyN@G uvmn`vN a`rK;` m s<v` g#mt m`n bln pK;yK q awr wr<yK vn 2000 m#vrny l p#h#vN@N @Q\p`ln pQ[@Y gr` v#m .

aq`l @vnW

a#mk` m#vrnyŸ
av`kM pnwt e@r bRm`N@G Q[ Q[y

2000 oK@w~bR 20

aL @g~R aN @s`y` gW jnw`v`qyŸ
a#Ttn` sAS}`vK plL pN vryt n @q

2000 oK@w~bR 18

@j~RJ dBV. Ÿ a@PK;ky` aO @ls
2000 a@g~S 23

r`j& @qp`Rw@MNv "m#r r`j&" @ym aW h
nr#mWvy h` eKsW jnpq @Q\ v@w aRqy

2000 12

KNtN@G v`Rk r`j&-wWv @Q\nyŸ
vAc`@V h` a`Wm vAc`@V aX&`syK

2000 @pbrv` 08


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