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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

aL @g~R aN @s`y` gW jnw`v`qyŸ
a#Ttn` sAS}`vK plL pN vryt n @q

b# @
2000 a@g~S 22

iW hSpNq` @m`#K j`k s@V y kw`@V , pK;@Y jn`Žp a@PK;k up jn`Žp aL @g~R, wm` kMkr# pNy @v@vN @p n ay sh "blsMpNn bl@Vg sh blsMpNn av\&w`vN"t e@r stNkr#v @ls ipW krN, wm r$pyt jnw`v` l`syK v`W k@L y.

wmN KNtN pp`ln@Y l& @k`Ns@VVv`q@Y m`vw gtm @gn y a# bvt b#Ak`r @l`KkNt y |v`sy whr# krN -- pBkN a@PK;k @j~RJ dB. @G @d`lR yn 1.3k b kPp` @y~jn`v sh ayv#y aKwyN j`k ny @gv` q#m s>h` @y`q` g#mt N @p`@r`N @hl` qN -- @g~R o@G a`y`cny om "v#d krn pL" @lst h‹Nv` gNn` ay @qst eLl k@L y.

r` nkt @pr`v jn`Žp KNtN kl kw`vt vd`, av[`rn@Y p#h# @vnSmK y. em kw`v KNtN@G v`Rw`v a`rK;` m. ey @pr @n` r$ @s_X`g&yK ‰n w^PmW rtk yK Nw`r# k@L y.

a@nK awt @g~R, "s`R}kWvy" b>v @m`#K l y`k`v @k@yN yv` q# awr -- v`Rw`gw ayv#y aKwy, uQ[mny phl q#m, yn 22k nv ߿y` -- "ap@G a`Rk vR[ny @prt @gn yn eNm vn Qgk aA\yt" sA\` mt @v@hs q#r$ nW o@G kw`@V i X`gy, v#d krn pLvl "argly" smg wmNvm ann& krgN, "pvR}@Y" @y~wy @ls q [n@Y sh vrs`q@Y "p#NnN"t e@r stNkr#v @ls q wmNv m Nw`r# kr g#mt k#p k@L y.

 cNq v&`p`r@Y K;k c`ry @Y "pN Q[y" a#Sm b>v @g~Rv @hl` q#m y. e@hW svt p o@G pl uQ@{~;n n@Y aL @g~R, "@p`@h`sW sh blsMpNn @|; av\&w`vyN" @hl` qN, S@k`Nn@Y jnw`vt wm m#vrn v&`p`r@Y arn, "a#mk` eKsW jnpq@Y jnw`v @hMbW a# bv m" y pvsN apt @mm @vnSkM av\& awr, @mm @vnSkm lb`g#m s>h` "a cNq @pTyt yN@n" y y jnw`v` Cc`nM ihl qm` g l#@V y.

@s_X`g&y sh sm`j sNw^Py, sm`j arglyt k#@rn a`y`cn` yL @Q bvt pW kr a#w# wRk krN smhr av`kr#vN @g`R@G jnw`v` v as`R}k @vw# an`v# yn awrv`r@Y @g~R,  iKmv` yn bvt @h~ sm @VgyN wr< v#@qn bvt @h~ vn a`rMXk cNq pl, blyt h` vrs`qyt e@r arglyK b>v @g~R@G kw`bh yM h'K ng` a# bvt qR\ky.

y s @Q\n@Y @g~R, "q#v#Nw o_;[ sm`gMvlt ytm" b>v  sh pBkNvr# @hl` awr "oN blvNwyN @v@v. ap jnw`v @v@v" y @V y. o mh v&`p`kyN@G @|w @k`tsK eLl kr gW@W yŸ "smhr t obt y k#m#W@wNm n#t @l` M@k`l k`ryN, mh` @wL sm`gM, @b@hW @k`Mp#, mh` psr ;kyN sh eCeMO y# mt v a#w. et o@B pLvlt vd`W @h`> wyK gw mt h# @v". kw`@V avsN X`g@Y @g~R, 1960 @m`K sM@Mln@Y @j~N @kn@G "nv @pr" @Q\ny @y`q`gW awr, "a@P @l~kyt nv wyK @g`dn#m" s>h` wr#n jny`t a`y`cn` k@L y.

@g~R, p`sL vcr, sm`j a`rK;ny p`R|yv @p_Qgkrny m, qL sASkrn sh vK p`lny s>h` uQ@{~;nyt r#Q[m sh gBs` ayt @@vm v# pBkN @vW @hl` @V y. "kd` v#@tn p`sL", a`h`r sh ym krn lq o_;[ awN ekK @w~r` g#mt blm @H@vN asrnX`vyt pW n v# rv#yN sh eCeMO... av\& @@vq& y`k`rkM amw m K@p m b>v o kw` k@L y.

ilKk kl ayv#y aKw@Y @k`tsN qL v#y krn, \`l @n` sASkrn m`l`vK o @prt q#@V yŸ m[&m pNk b kp` q#m, œ`kyNt yw o_;[ shn, rj@Y p`sL s>h` v#r @pdrL a`[`r, "@r~N@G" av`kM b> pnwK, eCeMO blwl m` mt, lN s>h` sRvv&` @s_š& a`vrny, lN s>h` sRvv&` @pr p`sL, lm` a`rK;ny L m, L kl pL v` sh @@vq& v` sh avm v#p ihl q#mK.

p@L vn`kM, |v`sy, y sh s`my

@mm sm`j sASkrn yvr smg ekt @v a#W@W, pBkN qKn`A\@Y, @Q\p`ln rhS @b@hW @m`#Kvr#N v#l> g#m ġ„ vn "pL vn`kM" sh "|v`s" y`k`vN sh r`j&@Y @p`S bly ihl q#@M @y~jn` y. 50,000k nv @p`Sk`r ekvkt @g~R \p} awr "@p`S qdymt @g`r# vN@G" aN b>v v&vS}` sA@\~[nyK s>h` @k@rn wm k#>m nr#Cc`rny k@Ly. @n~q`Sv`q kRm`Nw@Y AkWvyt sh cNdWvyt e@r @M n`m@yN, X`;n@Y sh kl`Wmk k`\n@Y aN b>v pl sA@\~[n@Y av`kMvlt yN vl k#@M pBkN sh o@G m up jn`Žp a@PK;k @s@nT sk bRmN@G uWs`hyN o Sr k@L y.

qL bQq mN m ivW @M pBk` s#l#Smt r#Q[ vn awr r m o em yv@R @\~[n iLl` . enM, @p`@h`sW m ej v#yNt h b v`yK y.

blsMpNn bl@Vgvl  blp$m b>v o@G ym kw` y , @g~R @tkW, @q~;`@y~g mNn@Y KNtN [vl mNry @prl` q#@M a`sNnyt m y, Sy` qKn`A\y, @pdrL aŽkrn @k`tS sh pBkN @k`AS n`ykWvy b>v s>hN @n` k@L y. y up jn`Žp @ls bRmNv @w~r` g#mt al @vN, @Q\p`ln mNnyK @prt @gn y`@M uWs`hyk @p~l` @j`NS nv sh @m`k` @lNS apc`ry @plx QglyN s#nm s>h` o y w#  kt @vn aN KNtN@gN rSw y.

@g~R@G sASkrn @y~jn` g#n nM, y`Wmk kl @h`W emN am wr@M kMkr# pN pLvN @k`tskt vW yhpwK v a# awrv`r@Y, "‹ bvt e@r Q[@yN" @h~ a[&`pn@Y @s_š& a`rK;n@Y sh v`s s#p@M aRqy sŠmt, ngrvl Gg# ph`y a`t h#rmt qrn yM p^l v$ymN, @h~ qNgw qw`v, v`s <y sh mNq@p~;ny a`y sŠ@mN @b`@h~ rS} y.

@g~R@G kv`r#vl SvX`vyW, o@G @y~w sASkrnvl r#X`vyW, (l wK@Sr# bq |v`svNw X`vy @m`@h`wkt p@sN w#vq) i qsvsr s>h` ilKk kr @gn a# @d`lR yn 4.6k ayv#y aKw@yNm @pNM @k@R. 2012 vn t j`k ny mN m ag` qmN ny a`p @gm s>h` @g~R N adktW v# m`nyK @vN kr a#w. o@G @y~jn`vN vkW, @p`@h`sN mw b v# mK @h~ a`Rk mA@p@W ihl t phlt [ny y @bq` h#@M yM a@nK a`k`ryK @h~ a#lW kr @n` g. o@G ym jnw`v` vcn hrxyN y m, jnghn@Y ihl yyt 10 amhW v# @k`ts d#h#gNn`, a`Rk vR[n@Y pl@y~jn aŽkwr asm`nw`vN @by`m b>v @g~R a@y~g @n` kr a#w.

oKdNtL @@t~yM a`ywny smg sp pL sb>w` a#, @v`AtN sAS}`w@Y p#mK vn up jn`Žp, @g~R pp`lnyk y av\&w`vN a`rK;` v a#w# shk m s yn gnN @g sAgw aд`hkyN@G @vl> q#NM pk`vN alAk^w \`l`vk t @gn, v#d krn s`@G mhjn n`yky` @ls kw` m, @g~R sh s \`l` @M @y~wvr# yn @q@g`Llm @n` slk` h#@Y y.

@Q\n@yN p s @y~w@y~, @m`#K pK; ih`s@Y \`lwm "a`y`s qL" m vn @d`lR yn 5.2K ek kl œN œvn`g`r@Y arqL ek @M sAgyk, sAgw @pWwkr#vN (corporate lobbyists), @h`D [n @VryN sh @l`S a#NjS sm`j@Y ihl wTv smg eK h.

@l~p`@Y s#ly @vnsK

e@hW e hkX`vy p@sk y , @g~R@G jnw`v` h#m o@G @kk`n m#vrn gnN b#MvN et @b`@h~ pp`k @gn y h# m#vrn @l~p`@Y @Q\p`lkv v#qgW @vnsK @y~jny kr. `}k m#vrn k`l pC@Cqy L@L m @g~R, jnw`v` stN p` vN vr W mW, KNtN vsrvl l& @k`Ns@VVv`q@yN sh ayv#y kPp`@vN v` lq ymK kmK a# sm`j wTNt a`y`cn` mW awr @q~lny y. k`ly l m o, y `}k v`y` vn t V jR @s@nT sk L #Dt, q@nN phr mkt @y@N p#r# @s_š& a`rK;n sASkrn s>h` #D@G @y~jn`v l&my @ls vgM rw y @hl` q.

@k@S v, mw mMvl ppN g`tN sh y qKn`Ak n&`y py vd` m[&S} "qy`vNw @k`NsR@VVv`" vSyN arn lq pBkN m#vrn v&`p`rykt n @qN, @n`v#Mbr@Y jyhnyK l#@M oN@G ekm avS}`v v#dkrn jny`@G L wTvlt a`y`cn` m sh oN@G eK@r`K a# klmt sh aw^Pyt wT m bv @g~R sh o@G up@Q\k@y~ gmny klh.

@k@S vW @my, v#d krn jny`@G sm`j v&snyN vdvd`W @n` slk` hN sh mh` v&`p`k sh iw`mW m vrs`w a`Rk wT@V av\&w`vnt wm pW v^wv ytW krN py 20 vsr gw kl [@N|vr @Q\p`ln sAS}`wym r` y`mt \k&w`v s a#<M sw Xy`nk upmy. @|wv m @m`#K pK;y, $NKN r$S@vLT@G nv y`m`Rg@Y tm wmN sh@y~ sm`j sASkrnv`qy p#h#v m @p@nn aN awh#r qm` a#w.

sAgw p`lk nw wTv sh e @Q\p`ln pK; @qkt m, kMkr# pN@Y sm`y Kg#nvlt @k@rn yM a`y`cnyK, wmNt p`lny kr g#mt @n` h# vn @r~[w` v&`p`ryK sh arglyK bvt pW@M anr g#n, qKvn y p#h#v @p@n. @g~R@G kw`vt @|[y y`v, pBkNvr#nt m` n#w. @l`S a#NjS tMS vW pwt av, "@g~R@G jnw`v` p#h#y sh s@V y @Q\n@Y KNtN n`q kl @b`@h~ @Q a#lW kr gW Svry awr prSpry @H@vN a@PK;` XAgWvyt pW ", "KNtNt spS} @Q\p`ln @l~p`ky"@G s>hN MvN @pN p, o@G jnw`v` h#m @m`#K pK;y l a`wN av` a#w.

nm s>hN @n` kl KNtN sh`yky, "y a`q`yM @Rš`, y pK;, Ek`Nw@yN m y pN" hrh` l<`m b>v KNtN@G kw`vt sA\` k@L y. a@nK awt @g~R, "@vnW vtW vd` KNtN h` @g~R N Rm`ny k@L y# vh# nv ir#mW cNq q`ykNt s^ a`y`cnyK krnv` @vvt p#r @m`#K Cc`nM sh sX`gy mw @k@Y y."

kMkr# pNk cNqq`ykyN@G Kg#nvlt @m`#K a@PK;ky`@G a`y`cn@yN, y h#K@K, @q~;`@y~g QŽy m`vkt pWmW smg b#s @n` y p`lk nw wTv a#lw @bM m pmn. jn`Žp wn@rN ivWv y p n p#vm @qst yvrK vn Sv`n y` @ls @knW St`R S}`pn@yN anr#v pW Qgly` KNtNv mR\ny m s>h` nv @|; yK l#S gw kr a#w# yn v^Wy, @g~R@G kw`v p#v n vW pWvlt k`N kr@mN @my EW g#Nn.

ihlm mTt@M @p`r b#@qN @bn mw@X@qyN awr, ayv#y aKw L kr gW a`Rk pWy b> a`r`lK @v. @pdrL sV mNdl@Y (a#mk` mh b#A@V) pBkN sX`p vn a#lN NSp$N a#, l& `G[n@Y š @y~wyN a#Sw@MN krn lq sm`j a`rK;n @n` vn qs ar# aKw@yN yyt 60kt a`sNn m`nyK, @d`lR yn 1.3K, a`q`yM b @RTvl skl`k`r kp`q#mK sw  s#l#Smt QŽ@Y @r~[y qKv` a#w. E @vvt o, eLl kl aKw@yN adktW vd` j`k ny @gv` q#mt @yq@M @g~R@G @p`@r`Nvt mn`p @v.

NSp$N sh kNd`ym @G @y~jn` ivbv n# sh arqR Ev` @ls kLpn` kr. yM s#ly wr@M sA@k~cnyN @w`rv @vl> uWp`wy gtm @vw# yn |v`sq` @n` vn upkLpny mw pqnM a# b#N, ayv#y eLlyN \`l vs@yN m aw`Wk bv o @h`‰N q. yLltmW vd`, @k`tS @vl> @p`lt `G[ny gl` Em pvWv`@gn y`mtW aw`Rk @vl> @p`l gtm pvWv` g#mtW vn oN@G bl`@p`@r`Wvlt aw&v\& ymK vn, @p_Qgk a`@y~jny s>h` `G[ny q` h#mtW, @p` ap`w phl mTtmk wb` g#mtW av\&w`vK @lst, j`k ny a m o q.

mh v&`p`kyN@G a@nW @k`tS, sm`j v&`p^ s>h` arqL s#p@M @pdrL a`N@V h#y`v wv rtW abl bl krvn amwr v`y q aNwR gw @k`tgW q#v#Nw h v`y awh#r q#mt yMm @HvK @n` qn awr @G b kPp` s#l#Smt sh`y @q.

@g~R@G jnw`v` h#m yN a#W@W mK q?

@g~R@G jnw`v` h#m, a`sNn m#vrn gnN b#M iKmv` y vd` k k`rn`vN@G k`\ny. @m`#K pK;y, e sASkrnv` aw@Y sh pN g#M smny @M R{ ih`s@Y a`X`v mw sm`j ashn@Y anr b>v pBkNvr#nt vd` sA@V y. v#d krn jny`t L a`y`cnyK @M @g~R@G rny, pN a`wN smhN m sh kp` h#m s, ekw#n pLvn vn wWvyNtW a`Rk asm`nw`vtW e@rv v#@dn sm`j uqhst wmNm agw mt @Q\p`ln sAS}`w@Y @k`tsK qrn v$ym @y~jny kr.

@k@S @vwW, jnw` bl`@p`@r`W ihl q#@mN @m`#Tvr# anr#q`yk d`vk @y@q. @g~R@G r#Sn` shgw myt v, jnw`v@G g#„rt q#@nn @k~py sh ԫw X`vy b> h#m k`\yt pWn @tk, em n&`&yK h` em gkyK sw y`q`myK a`rMX krv a#w. E ar#m, wr#n q^v`qyt @k@rn a`y`cnyK, smSwyK @ls @Q\p`ln sAS}`wy mw @p`l` pn @Q\p`ln @prk`Wv@Y y`q`mykt q`yk y h#k. p`lk nwt a# @mm anr#, @j~N eF. @kn@G sh NdN @j`NsN@G k`lyt vd`, pN @Rš` oS@S @b`@h~ @sN m v`Nwgwv a# sm`jyk, iw` v# y.

KNtN pp`lnymW blyt p#@Y gN h`  yt@W sm`j g`Wv@Y @q`@l`S vsrkt p, pBkNvr# @k@R p#v mhjn @@vryt a`y`cn` kr. KNtN v#d krn jny`@G a@PK;`vN ihl n#A@Y, yLltmW vd` sRvv&` @s_š& a`vrnyK p#nmt N o@G @p`@r`N@v. @m`#Kvr# -- oN [vl mNry sh @k`AS mNdl @qkm p`lny kl q, -- sAgwvl @r~[y sh pBkN @r~[y h@V @s_š& a`rK;n sASkrn awh#r q# t, mhjn @r~[y, @b`@h~ kMkr# @Q\vl cNqy p`C m kd` v#mk sh 1994 @k`AS m#vrn@Y pBkN jyhnyk r$p`k`ry gW@W y. @s_š& a`rK;n @v@W KNtN@G ytWmW pv pBkN sm`j pW v#l> g#mW Qp`Kk my b>v jnghn@Y L @k`tSvl klm a#l@m l` q#v#Nw k`vK i k@L y. @g~R jnw`v` a`y`cnyk pqnm mw @W pW v@h`W, m#vrn v&`p`ry l m @kr# a@PK;`vN w^Pw mt o qKvn @n` v#l#Ky h# asmW X`vy, kMkr# pN@Y plL @k`tS l sm`j ashn@Y sh @Q\p`ln @prk`Wv@Y Llkt @k`N@Q Rm`ny kr a#w.

sw& vs@yN m, m @n` vn @s_X`g&y b> kw`bh y m, 2000 m#vrny mw aRq@Y @M{ vl` wRjn`Wmkv e N@N, a`Akv gWkl, \`l vn @vl> <@Y sh e ply vn @d`lR aRqyk r$p`k`ry. @v~L @Y sm@PK;n @L @n` v#l#Ky h# y`m sh a`Rk pb#m @qst h@Y m h#m, yM rkt uWp`wy N s<v` wb` kMkr# pN@Y sm`j wWv@Y @@v;k ph`y ekr a#w.

@eh`kv, @k`mt lK p`lk S}r s>h` iw`m anr#q`yk k`l pC@Cqy uq`v@Y pvn wWvy oN pvRwny m sh nv sm`j @k`N@Qvlt oN m agwm iLl` n t y. a#mk` [nv`q@Y pK; @qN ekK vW eKvn yvs a`rMX@Y ev# skSmkt @h`‰N S}`ngw n#w.

@|wvm, @m`#K pK;y, $NKN r$S@vLT@G, h# t^^mN@G @h~ @kn@G sh @j`NsN@G pv` pK;yt @b`@h~ @sN @vnS sA[`ny. mh` v&`p`kyN@G vR[ny vn qKn`Ak a`Rk sh sm`j pWvlt q\k @qkkt v# klK S@S agwm, k@lk kMkr# pNy h` m[&m pNy l eyt mhjn pqnm š`qny kr q# y. ey l& `G[n@Y sh v&`p`r nw a@nW @k`tSvl @S m vrs`w ihl m[&m pNk S}rvl -- @h`dy, v^Wy s l[ry sh L av`kM sAS}`pny sh k sh a@nW jny` l iw`m vrs`w S}ryk -- pK;y bvt pWv a#w.

evN sNŽS}`nyK wmN jnw`v@G uvmn`vN @y~jny krn bv EW gNvN pN argly smny mt p#r @m`#K pK;yt vd` bl h#y`vN Kw y. @g~R@G kw`vt L c`rvN m sm`j sASkrny b>v b#r#M pWyK @gn y`mt @m`n yM @h~ yWnyK q#m pK;y l Šy`mk wWvyt mw@Hq uWsNn krv a# bv q#ntmW p#h# @k a#w.

@g~R o@G aN @s`y` g# jnw`v`qy r>v` g q n#w@h`W @m`#K pK;y a#lN @mN m tN q en dny h@V v&`j iyVv glv` qm q yNn @prq#mt h#y`vK n#w. QN@G evN h#mK, @y~g&w`vt sh bl@Y NnN@G dnyt sln p y @Q\p`ln y`m`Rgy skS kr gN vn v^WyK s`q` gW st a @qyK @n` v a#w. e@ls m @n`v#MbR m#vrn@Y ply @prq#m q kl @n` h#k.

@k@S @vwW, v#d krn jny`@G sm`j @k~pyt a`y`cnyK mt bl@k a#w# @g~Rt h#m m, kMkr# pN@Y \`l, Sv`n @Q\p`ln pK;yK vR[ny @M ;ybQ[ @k`N@Q Rm`ny kr a#, sm`j argl@Y sh @Q\p`ln @prk`Wv@Y nv k`l pC@Cqykt @y` vn q#v#Nw pvRwnyN klK S@S v#@dN bvt qR\ky.

aq`l @vnW

@j~RJ dBV. Ÿ a@PK;ky` aO @ls
2000 a@g~S 23

r`j& @qp`Rw@MNv "m#r r`j&" @ym aW h
nr#mWvy h` eKsW jnpq @Q\ v@w aRqy

2000 12

KNtN@G v`Rk r`j&-wWv @Q\nyŸ
vAc`@V h` a`Wm vAc`@V aX&`syK

2000 @pbrv` 08


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