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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

eLI a`[`rkr#@vt rK
m`KSv`qy sh / lAk`@V j`k |ny

tR mNDS
2001 m`R 10

@m phw plvN@N, / lAk`@V ur# h` n#@gnr @Q\yN l @vnm r`j&yK s>h` py vsr 18 r` stN vN n @qml Il`M K @k` sA[`n@Y (eLI) a`[`rkr#v vn eS@K nM w#n#Ww`t spyn lq @k`tS @qkN W @r pl @k`ts . eS@K@G y, / lAk`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y (ssp) [`n @LkM @J dyS sh eSa`R awr vm`r#vt qKvn lq c`ry. eLIyt h` e iqR\nyt a@Vcn`Wmk sh@y~gy q#Kmt ssp asmWm sMbN[@yN eSa`R @Vcn ipW @k`t .

wvW eS@K,

o@B I@ML @Y s>hN @b`@h~ kr#, @J dyS N q#ntmW sSwr`Wmkv r# spy` a# o@B sgy` -- eSa`R -- @G @Y s>hN kr# nr#Cc`rny m. ob N @n` wk` hn lq, @h~ ym b#r#MkmN @n` slkn lq @h~ kr# y r @M aR}yK mt @n` @p@N. @p`@V j`k |ny sMbN[@yN h` @|wv eLIy sMbN[@yN j`w&Nwr @`TSv` v&`p`r@Y a`kLpy, yM sSwrw`vN ipW @kr# hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y j`w&Nwr k@V k`\yK @ls "ssp sh / lAk`-Il`M sm`jv` sh`NvK s>h` argly" yn m#@yN 1998 @qs#MbR 1 q` pl sthn ob @q@qn`m y vgK @p@nNnt n#w.

nW eK ak kr#nK mm n#vw s>hN krŸ m`KSv`qy pqnM a#W@W, kMkr# pN@Y @eh`k av\&w`v mw p`qkv kMkr# pNyt Sv`n iqR\nyK sMp`qny m mw y. eb#N, a@P |@L;n pqnM vN@N pNy mw s vRgy, j`y @h~ jnv`RkWvy mw @n` @V.

@lN v#r @ls vth` gN, ob |v`s krn bv @p@nN@N, m`KSv`@y@G k`Ryy, eLIy v# @bMv` kNd`yM ps bdg`Nn m @h~ oN p`v` @qn bvK @p@nNt @B nM j`k v&`p`ryN n`ykWvy g#m y yNn . nW m`KSv`@y@G arn @myt @b`@h~ @vnS ek; enM @vnm r`j&yN S}`w m @n` v sm`jv` @vW mw sm`jy Rm`ny m s>h` j`w&Nwr kMkr# pN@Y Ek`bQ[ @Q\p`ln v&`p`ryK @g`dn#m . e kRwv&@Y @k`tsK @ls, y a`k`r@Y j`k dnyN m`vt pW m a# kMkr# pN@Y sh ԫw mhjnw`vN@G y j`wNv` aN s>h` a stN vN@n. ey @n` Wv kl h# vN@N apt pmn.

1998 j`w&Nwr k k`\@yN sSwr`Wmkv qKvn lq, sm`j |ny h` j`k |ny awr sb>w`v b> kr#n m`KSv` v&`p`ry l زk`n ih`syK a# sARn ek. vn yv@S L k`l@Y p#v# @k`N@Q l @lN sh @b`L@;Kvr# "SvyA-Rn ay" b> stN p`y yt@W stN v#n`h. E vn t wv` sh aR[-wv` p`lnyN p#v, p^ @g~l@Y @b`@h~ w#Nvl [nv` @Q@p`l sb>w` yNwM m@vN p#vn` pm. r#y`v l, a`Rk vR[n mTtM e@nkt @b`@h~ @vnS jnv`Rk kNd`yM @b`@h`myK mw s`Rv` wN@Y p`lny p#v#. @lN@G @vw eLl @Y, s`Rv` d`k` p`ln@yN Rm`ny krn lq ev`kM jy g#m sh j`N awr [@N|vr n`ykN@G ahs pr`jy m s>h` y.

@lN p#h# kl p SvyA Rn ay "@|[y" iLm. @b`L@;Kvr#N @vnm r`j&yK s>h` stN kl bvK iN aR}vW @n` vn awr, j`N mw r#y`@V hny pvWv` @gn y`m s>h` X`w` krn lq v[k sh As`k` yvrvlt pK;@Y @r~[y emN k`\yt pW @kn. @M av @lN, r#y`@V @h~ eS@t~y`@V l#TyNvr#N@G @h~ aN kvr @h~ jn vRgyk, [ [@N|vr sh [@N|vr n`ykWvyN @k@r a@Vcn`Wmk yK @y~jn` @n` k@L y. ywv m, @mN@Kv`Nt e@r @lN@G R{ v`qyN @KNŒy av[`rny @Y s`Rv` Ek`Žp p`lnyt e@rv anvrw arglyK @gn y`mt @h~ j`k j`wNv` ar S}`w mt @h~ j`k [@N|vryt a# @n` h#y`v y.

@`TS vd`W r g yn gmnykt el#„. o@G @n` nvn Plvy b> n&`@Y p#h# k@L, kMkr# pNyt, v#@nn [@N|vryt e@r @Q\p`ln arglyk ԫw mhjnw`v@G n`ykWvy n` g#mt h` blyt p#mt h#v` pmnK @n` v ey i kr g#@mN anr#v srlv [@N|vr j`wNv` kRwv&yK i @mN @n` nv a# bv ; j`w&Nwr R[n pN@Y [@N|vr @r~ argl@Y a@y~jy @k`tsK @ls [@N|vr @Q@p`l sMbN[w` g#„N akRmn& mt kMkr# pNyt bl @k@r a# bv .

j`w&Nwr k k`\@yN p#h# kl pŸ "j`k dnyt e@r argl@y v#qgWkm @h~ hw`v emN a@h~ @n` @V. e@hW, kMkr# pN n`ykWvy yt@W ԫwyN@G Plvv` sN[`nyK S}`w kr g#mW smg, a@nW y j`wNv` kRwv&yN @mN m, j`k dny a@h~ m q j`k [@N|vryt sh aŽr`j&v`qyt e@r nv sm`j pRy`yK s>h` @k@rn argly lt ukh` g.

"t lv, sm`j K@yN @vN @k`t gW j`k Ky @Q\p`n awy. iNy`, n sh a@nW w jny` N wm j`k Sv`nWvy s>h` @gn y arglyt sh`y @qn awrm, @`TS, 1940 hwr vn j`w&Nwry @v@vN yN @m@S anr# a#< yŸ "m`q p# j`k r`j&yNt Sv`n j`wNv` vR[nyK wv rtW a@PK;` kl @n` h#k. gr` v#@tN pvn [np m@yN vtl# sh aŽr`j&v` prSpr @r~[yN l ptl# pg` r`j&yN Sv`nWvy av`Ry@yN m aR[-}&`my vn awr, aX&Nwr pN @r~[yN@G h` b`r dnyN@G blp$m yt@W Ev`@Y @Q\p`ln wNyN @n` v#l#Ky h# p mhjnw`vt e@r Ek`ŽpWvyN bvt pWv a#w -- R@Y "mhjn pK;" wNy n@Y @v~Nt$ny @mvN y; @ht n iNy`@V g`NŽ@G wNy q t sm`n v a#w.""

@k`N@Q rw y@vN s>hN kr "@qml K argly" s>h` y}` vs@yN a@Vcn`Wmk sh`y q mt ob krn a`y`cnyt @lN@G @h~ @`TS@G @vw smg kvr @h~ sm`nw`vK @n`m#w. It sm`nw` @s`y` gw h#K@K, m`KSv`qy @v@vN wm` @p N@N y y` gN e l[Rm p`v` N ay@g. pg` [@N|vr rtvL l [@N|vr n`ykWvyNt, vhLmy agw m s`[`rkrny m s>h` @lN@G "SvyA Rn ay" b> stN p`y ;ny kr p#r @mN@K n&`yN nRvny k@L St#Nv` wNy . [ ߫kL vnw`vN aw "SvyA Rn ay", [ @bMv` v&`p`ryNt a@Vcn`Wmk sh`y lb`m s>h` @y`q` g#@nn sm`nv` pqyK bvt pW a#w.

@lN@G k`l@yN @mt j`k v&`p`r wv rtW ph` gw y. wm r l @J dyS p#h# kl p, p`qn@Y @g~ykrn@Y blp$m yt@W @mm j`k K v&`p`ryN k g lK;n g`d @ls @vnSv pv. eLIy q a#v E yLl wm aŽr`j& @r~ sh sm`jv` Cc`nM aW h#r a# awr wm`@G m r`j& k#b S}`w kr g#m s>h` E @h~ @M [`n blyk @h~ blyN@G aд`hkWvy lb` g#mt v^wv m uWs`h g. a`pSst, @M yL@l~ j`w&Nwr a`@y~jkN@G r`k#mt "wm`@G m" kMkr# pNy q @q.

eLIy b> ssp [`n @Vcny vN@N "j`k argly awr mg p`v`m" sMbN[@yN @n` v, wm @vnm r`j&y b> k`w ar mN m jy gWw q, amhW @qml bwr@Y av\&w`vN sr`mt ey asmW vN@N y yn kr#n sMbN[@y. ڱN@G h` kMkr# pN@Y vn wWvyN ihl q#m s>h` @h~ q#@vn j`k sh j`wNv` |n s>`mt eLI n`ykN krNnt yN@N mK q? oN q ak`@V EeN@yN m#q@prg eLO@vN @k` @ls @vnS vN@N q? q#nt ur# sh n#@gnr @Q\yN vW vn AhlN sh @qml kw` krn SMvr#N @k@r on@G a`kLpy mK q?

eLI n`ykWvy @mm |nvlt r# s#pmt asmW y. mKs` q yW, ev#NnK, "@qml j`@Y y pNN" @y~jny krnv` @vvt oN pqnM N@N, eLOv sh EeNy @mN, [@N|vr r`k$m wv rtW iyt @gn y`m s>h` aŽr`j&v`N smg g@qvkt m`n blN n p [@N|vr wTvK mw y yNn eqrV kr a# @h.

eLIyt sh@y~ kMkr#vN, @g`yN, ;&yN sh a@nW mhjnw`v iw` iKmN m, kk p|c`Ww`pyN aW ‰ a#W@W, j`w&Nwr l& `G[nyt a`Rk vs@yN q, [`n blyNt @Q\p`ln vs@yN q, pRnv m ytW vn [np @qml Il`myK l "j`k Sv`nWvy" @Q\p`ln awyK b#V y.

@eh`k |n

@k@S nW, o@B I@ML yt r# s#p#@M m@G arn vN@N, srl @ls o@B aqhSvlt sh@y~ q$ @lN@G @h~ aN kvr m`KSv`@y@G @h~ y awN @s`y` gw @n` h# bv p#h# m @h~ a@P l[Rmvlt ob agw m s EW g#Nmt uWs`h q#m @n` @V. m`KSv`qy, m`KSv`N @h~ eLIyt a@Vcn`Wmk sh@y~gy s>h` b`[` krn q^my @p`y @ls wrmK s`v @ls ob slkn "pN argl@Y a`k^y" s>h` obt k#p kl h#K@K aLp k`lyK b#V a# wrN p#h# kr a#w.

nW, eSa`Rt @vnS @ls ih`s@Y r`j[`y lt ob @@[Ryy upqv`@gn a# a#w. e@S @mN, q#vWv @h~ @n` q#vWv, m`KSv`qy sh pN |@L;ny K@p @M Plvv` a#<M vd`W Rn @ls r`vrny mt ob smW @B. / lAk`@V ih`sy, "vRgy" h` "j`y" a`œ@yN y aR} k}ny @mN @`TSv` v&`p`r@Y v`Rw`@v @b`@h`myK ivw q#m h` k^w mt amwrv [ @qml sh Ahl vRgv` sh a`gk v&`p`ryNt @n` p#v g glK;n a`@r~pny mk q ob @y g.

o@B y`mk M qNd @ls "vRgy" X`w` @mN avs`n@Y ob, n#g N@N @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`ryt y`k` gyn Ahl S@v`Wwmv` q^v`N@G @b~Tvtm y. avS}` pyk ob nr#Cc`v y` n k aqhs nM, @`TSv` v&`p`ry "Ahl @b_Q[ a@PK;`vN j`wNv` s`ry smg bQ[ mt @Kqy @ls asmW y" yNn . Ahl @b_Q[ a@PK;`vN @y~jny krn v&`p`r h` QglN @ls ob h‹n` gN@N 19 v# sh 20 v# yv@S @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`ry sh "wm`@G m y`m`Rg oS@S w`n& p`lnyt e@rv stN v#" ang`k [Rmp`l v# QglN y.

E smg m ob y` N@N, "ym @qml aŽr`j& @r~ v&`p`ryt a`rMXy s#p@V a`r#gM n`vlR v# @qml @Q\`r`N .... em v&`p`r, @n` v#l#Ky h# m` sw sh @n` s$@hn Ev` v q av\&@yN m g y... nW Ev`@Y r$p`k`ry (@h~ mt SvX`vy) mN @`TSv`N Ev`@yN ivw h#r@Y nM h` oN@G pN argl a`k^yt Ev` ym a`k`r@yN @n` g#l@N nM Ev` s`[y aN sMbN[ kr g#mt oNt @n` h# @Y mNq yNn iN p#h# @v."

iNpv, "klrvn p|c`W-wv` wWvy -- vWmN Q[yt N v`Rk g#m -- @k@r `}kv bl p$ kr# nK" sMbN[@N sm@PK;n@Y @ymt ob gmN kr. "(a) Q-j`k pwk Ey r`j&yK blhWk`r@yN a#tm. (a`) @mm as`[`rn v&vS}`my mt a@y~g mt sm`jv`N asmW m. (i) j`k nRvn v&`p`ryN @qk pvr` g#mt sm`jv`N a@p`@h`sW m."

@vnW vcnvN v @h`W, vWmN @Lv# Q[yt @Hv Ahl h` @qml vRgv` v&`p`rvlt agw mt @h~ v`Rk @Rš` mw d` / lAk` pw k#b m s>h` uQ@{~;ny mt sm`jv`N "asmR}m ". ob qR\ny krN@N, vRgv` kNn` N @l~ky @qs b#@M kvr uWs`hyK v q av\&@yN m y}`R}y u yr# krn bv .

ob s>hN krn v&`p`ryNt aŽr`j& @r~ SvX`vyK @bn w`K rt, v&`p`ryN av\&@yN m apg` q#KmN y; w`n& wv` blp$mt e@rv Sv@Qy p`lk pNN@G wWvy sh sASk^my a`WwM a`rK;` kr mt k#p gW@W y yNn a @pNv` @qN@n. [@N|vry, sm`jv` v&`p`ryt e@r ihw q^v` lyN blg @ls bq` v#l> g#@mN an`vrny k@L kvr @h~ g arglyK yW mt wm`t a# Rn @n` h#y`v .

1940 gnNvl sh 1950 gnNvl l , @`TSv` v&`p`ry, jngnv`qyt h` vRgv`qyt e@rv @n` nvn Plv n&`y mw pqnM pNmy iqR\ny s>h` uQ@{~;ny @mN Ahl h` @qml kMkr#vN@gN s#ly S}ryK wm` @vwt n` gW@W y. e as`R}kWvyt @Hv nM, ob q#N sspt @y~jn` krn @vWvlt oN agw m . 1950 gnNvl lssp Ahl vRgv`qyt e@r argly yv@rN yvr aW hN / lAk` qhS pK;yt (/lp) agw y. @mm @Q\p`ln ph`@Y sNwy g#N@N 1964 m` bNd`rn`yk@G [@N|vr a`Nvt a#@m. @mm p`v`m @H@vN kMkr# pNyt r g yn pl p`kyNt n mt awr eLI sh j@p v# vRgy mw pqnM sA[`n p#n n#.

nRvn v&`p`r

av`Ry@yN m j`wNv` sh g y@vN ob Swr krn / lAk`@V L v&`p`rvl SvX`vy mK @Y q?

19 v# yv@S ag X`g@Y , evkt w`n&@Y wyK lAk`v l @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`ry p#n n#@N, lAk`@V @Q\p`ln h` a`Rk wy, w`n&yN sh oN N vg` krn lq iA ugW, Sy`y v#l>gW N N p`lny mt e@r y`vK @l. @mm v&`p`ryt n`ykWvy sh sh@y~gy l#@N [nvW Ahl idM yN sh v&`p`kyN @w~mS amry, smN @p@Rr` a@BvR[n sh @q`N @DD @Hv`w`rn v# ay@g. on@G iqR\ny @Y n#vw awy kr` y n#m. @mm nRvkyN wmy a`Žpw&yt e@rv gRjn` kl awr oN@G Kg#n k`w k@L w`N yt@W wm sm`jmy wWvy sh vrs`q a @b_Q[ r`vy, n vA\vN, Ahl ugW QŽmN sh v&`p`kyN a` sm`j S}ryN@G uWkyN y.

p k@lk ang`k (Kvk h` y awr m#wWvy) [Rmp`l nM a`gk n`my @y`q`gW @Hv`w`rn @mm v&`p`r@Y k q^v`y y. o, AhlyN@G bN[ kw` sh 6 v# yv@S mh` vA\y v# @b_Q[ p`N}vN ukh` gW kr# mw pqnM v, AhlyN vn` ur# iNy` a`RyyN@gN p#vw eNn`W Q[`g@M a`rK;kyN @ls "M@LCc v#NdLvr#N" (@v@hr h`r, q`g#B vnsNn`N) N n`\ mt }m @mm pw p`r`syK bvt pW kl` W "aQy vRgyK" bv k`\ @k@rn q^v`qyK v`W k@L y.

o w`n&yNt e@rv sq`c`rmy arglyK @gn yN QŽ@Y @m@S yŸ "a` uq`r AhN N @kV krn lq q$ aq n @qV sm`j q&`@V blp$m yt@W ivs` l#@B. aN, arK, m[&s`r, gAj` sh a@nW vss, N @k@r a# krn ph`gw blp$M @n` wk` gMvl @bq` h#@R. @p_r`k h` @eh`k vRgyk sNn, lp, @s_m& a`Ry qr#vN, S p`ny krn, gvmS n }&` q^k, k$qr @q@y@G aLw`ryt k#p @k@R. kvr k`lyK a@h~! kvr k`lyK @mm a[RtX`vy lAk`@V pv a#W q?

nRvn v&`p`ry `}kv eLl @Y w`n&yNt e@rv vn awr v^w @qml @r~ SvX`vyK @n` n q, e vRgv` g lK;n @qml kw` krn SM jnvRgyt e@r h`rvN E vn tW k`\yt pW n. 1915 [nvW AhlyN N @mm SMvr#Nt e@rv sA[`ny kl AsnyN@gN @k k`lykt p [Rmp`l @m@S yŸ "Ahlnt, Q[`gm @n`m# nM y y`m vd`W y. w`n& l[`N Ahlnt @v w#y h#k. oN eLl` q#y h#k. n#w@h`W @vnW On$m @qyK kl h#k. nW s$m t m SMvr#N h` AhlyN awr @@vry pv a#w."

1930 gnNvl @b_Q[ nRvn@Y shkr#@v~ TlR@G a`Ry` @Wvy b> v`Rk n&`yNt sh n` jRmyt v^wv m sh@y~gy Nh. lAk` kMkr# pK;y kl sh @k`lx l v^Wy s sA[`ny kl E.I. nAh, sm`jv` lAk` smsm`j pK;@Y (lssp) v#@dn ahs pr`jy m s>h` q iNy`@V @Krl `Nw@yN lAk`vt @gn a` kMkr#vNt e@rv vRgv`q@Y ӵt vd vd`W @y`q` gW@W y.

nAh@G vW pw ry` 1936 pl yk @m@S s>hN @V. "a`Ry vRgy` ph`@yN qv` g#m s>h` @vW y`Wmk kl TlR v#, mh` @@[RyyN h` \KyN W r n`ykWvyN sh adpl N@gN s#MlW [Rt kNd`ymK" Ahl vRgy`t av\& y. ry` em kl`p@Y m @vnW yN @QkyN smg v`hm whnM @k@rn n` @y~gy sh "a`RyN sh a`Ry @n` vNnN awr @k@rn v`hyN@gN upn l@m~ Xy`nk @ls kvr @h~ cwyN @w`rvNn`h." yn @QyNt e@r TlR@G k` amw@yN v pl @kn. m@vN p#v# sm`jv` v&`p`ryt nAh v# qKn`Ak a[my smg @k@S g#l gNn q? Ahl-@b_Q[ S@v~Wwmv`q@Y uQ@{~;kyNt e@rv 1930 gnNvl sh 1940 gnNvl gW l[Rm`Wmk @Q\p`ln a`S}`ny lssp n`ykN N aWh#r q#mt on@G pk`n @Q\p`ln ph`y b> Mm.

1939 lssp n`yk @k`LN a`R q Lv` iw` rvq&v bNd`rn`yk@G Ahl mh` sX`v g#n anr# a<vN @m@S p#v yŸ "Ahl mh` sX`v aNwr`q`yk @ls Plvv` sA[`ny. @Q\p`lkv pg` mhvr pl`@wN sh phw rt l @Xqy vd`W blp`n @Q\vN @h`>m c`ry l#m yn kr#@nN m e a`y`cn@Y SvX`vy p#h#v @p@N. @vnS v`w`vrnyK yt@W ey „r# f#STv`q@Y @Qy Svr$py @y~jny kl v ; nW pvn wWvy nM, n`ykWvyK @n`m#km, @Vg@yN pvn sm`j pqnm sh @eh`k bl@VgyN@G SvX`vy yn kr# mw ey pr`jy mt yw m y. kvr awN v ey RmW krN@N [@N|vr g`Wv@Y wvW r$p`k`ryK pm."

ob N mhW @S pssn @qml nRvn v&`p`ry, k @Q\p`ln \`vny av s#l kl, q@N wm Ahl @b_Q[ sgy`@gN @vnS m> vs@y. "@qml @Q\m`mky" @ls ob a`c`r krn, a`r#gM n`vlR, [Rmp`l @mN m, w`n&yN N wm w p`lnyt KvK @ls vg` krn lq, Sy`yt h#r wTNt e@rv sMq`k @qml N@G av\&w` k mt yWn q# y. ;n` blp$Mvlt aš @k@rN Sy`yt r#Q[v, Nv`q@Y s`r[Rm a`rK;` @M a`S}`n@yN v`q`Wmk o, wm`@G m a`gk r#lyK a`rMX k@L y. o@G N} pyK m N l pQ[@Y v#qgWkm av[`rny kr. eK / l`Ak ih`sy, n`vlR h` "N nRvny" g#n wm aqhS pl krN @m@S sthN @k`t a#wŸ "@k@S nW, o N n`ykWvy s#p v&`p`ry, (N) @l~k sMmwy \KmW kl awr l pQ[@Y q^dX`vy ĵL mt ymK k@L n#w."

Nv`qy c`ry m ar kr gN n`vlR@G ag`k@y~ sv pp`ln s@v (Nv`qy a`rK;` @M sAgmy) nM sA[`nyK u@R sh pv @k`lx q S}`w klh. e k# @p@nn ag`kyN @q@q@nK -- y`pn@Y [nvW plk @s`@h`rN vn @p`NnMblM r`mn`qN sh @p`NnMblM ar#n`clM -- p k@lk v@N k# @p@nn @Q\p`lkyN bvt pWh. n`vlR@G sh@y~g@yN w v&vS}` sX`@V s`m`ky bvt pW r`mn`qN, sRvjn cNq ayt r#Q[ @vN q, n NN@G vrs`q a`rK;` krN q, w`n& p`lnyt wm w pK;p`km qR\ny krN q @w@M m gr#kt @Y y. w pp`lny @v@vN krn lq @Svy @v@vN r`mn`qN sh ar#n`clM yn @q@qn`m w`n&N@gN nT pq l#h. ob N @g_rv@yN g lbn "ym, @qml w @r~ v&`p`r@Y" pN SvX`vy ey .

qhs

Ahl h` @qml @Qy p`lk pNN sh w`n& p`lkN awr "qhS" g@qvt e@rv @`TSv` v&`p`ry gW a`S}`ny anq`l @qyK @S slk` ob N ivw q#@M. o@B @qml j`kv` a`S}`nyt av l[Rm`Wmkv ak kr#n vN@N Q-j`y vn mw blhWk`r@yN atvn lq Ey r`j&y. "em vkv`@V @`TSv` v&`p`ry N Il`M sh / lAk`@V eKsW r`j&yK b> k#>m @n` m k`ryK @n` @Vq#" ob h' ng.

em k`ly l @vN @qml Il`M r`j&yK s>h` blg v&`p`ryK @qml mhjnw`v awr @n` w yt@W Il`M / lAk` eKsW sm`jv` r`j&yK b> stN p` esm b> k`rn`v srlvm m @n` y. E vn t @qml [np @Q\p`lnN v#@N Sv`n @qml r`j&yK b> kr#@N pmnK @n` v, Ahl sgyN @mN m smSwyK vs@yN qhs b> kr#n sMbN[@yW y.

iNy`@V w @r~ arglyt n`ykWvy N g`NŽ, @Nr# h` a@nW [np @Q\p`lnyN @mN @n` v / lAk`@V on@G sgyN@gN kv@r vW m blg k`vK r<p$@V n#w. w @r~ arglyt n`ykWvy N@N, q-@r~ uQ@{~;n @H@vN 1940 @r~ wWvyt pW @k rhgw aN v#d mt bl kr l# lsspy . 1942 bN[n`g`r@yN p#n iNy`vt pl` y lssp n`yk@y~ hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y, @`TSv` v&`p`r@Y, \`š`vK @ls iNy` @b`L@;K @lNv` pK;y (eLa) ӵvN lssp smSw iNy` pK;yK @ls n#vw ` klh.

obt av, w`n& lAk`@vN @vnm r`j&yN @qkK Rm`ny m b> kr#n kvr @h~ m @n` kl w yt@W pv` 1940 gnNvl sm`jv`N@G kRwv&y y v @N em iL@M vd`W Srs`r aQvk`Wvr#N bvt pWm y. @mm, aqhs iNy`vt @yv@h`W, o@B a`S}`n@Y wRkny av eLa n`ykN kl v @N p q\kyN k`|ry, pNj`by, wLn` sh Is`n g [ r`j&yN p#n n# mK n# Iy` qhS v&`p`ryNt g#l yn aN w`n& iNy`v k#bvlt kd` q#mt @prn g#m.

@mm kr#n apt wvW yvrK iyt @gn y` h#k. / lAk`@V @b_Q[ h` N nRvn v&`p`ryN@G smg h` mt @`TSv` v&`p`ry "kng`q`yk @ls asmR}" @Y nM, @vnm pSw` r`j&yK b> iLmt sh ey ipW kl SM gy v# jnv`Rk v&`p`ryN "j`wNv` SvX`vy" h‹n` g#mt @n` h# m sMbN[@yN q ey @hl` q#y @V. @M av w`n& aŽr`j&v`N N v`Rk kl@k~l`hlvl y qhS gnnK jny` y y`m a# e y p`kW swv upmh`Qpy, v`Rk @Rš` mw, pS}`ny h` iNy`v @ls @bq` @vNmW, m`KSv`N@G \As`vt lKy v n. yLlt p, u@R N Il`myK sh q@N @b_Q[ / lAk`vW S}`w krN w`n& aŽr`j&v`N / lAk`v l q E h` sm`n @qyK k@L nM o@B iqR\ny sMRn mt ey q pq`nyK v a#w.

@`TSv` v&`p`ry ev# Plvv` v`hyNt rvq& @lst evk r#Q[ y. eLa n`ykWvy pqnM @Y, / lAk`v l pmnK @n` v smSw upmh`Qpy r` kMkr# pNy eKsW m s>h` pK;yK @g`dn#@M iqR\ny mw y. lAk`@V @vnm j`k r`j&yK a#tmt lAk`@V [npyN smg sh@y~v w`N gW Nv k#lƒ shgw upmh`Qp@Y wm av\&w` a`rK;` kr g#m s>h` @m@hM s @y`q` g#@nn a`rKw k>rK S}`w @M arN g l#vK bv o @pNv` Nh. "a`y`k aLStryK (ayRlNwyK), kL y iNy` Plvyt e@rv aŽr`j&@Y a`rK;k aTt`lyK" @ls / lAk`v pW kr g#mt w`n& m`n bln ar# eLa y p#h# k@L y. "lAk`@V t iNy`@V hqvwt S@w~lyK eLl m s>h` w`n&yt id s#lm u@qs` aLlS lb` g#mtW, rwL mtW l`Ak [@N|vry aw&Nw@yN m s# p#h# " @`TSv`@y~ k`\ klh.

/ lAk`@V sh a@nW S}`nvl elx gW qh@S sN[`nvl v&`j SvX`vy eLa N @pNv` . @my srl @lsm, wm av\&w` bl`y` g#m s>h` aŽr`j&v`qy N -- a`Rk vs@yN [`n blyN mw mN y#@pn h` @Q\p`lk vs@yN ont awv#kM krn -- j`k [@N|vryt r`j& bly pvr` m. wm k`\y mN eLay @m@S p#h# k@L yŸ

"oN N aWpW kr@gn a# nv wWvy qhs @n` vnv` pmnK @n` v s#b#N m w`n& aŽr`j&v`qyt lAk`@V a# vhL b#vl nv h#d g#SmK q @V. ey vn` e k`v y`Wmk @M, w`n& aŽr`j&v`qy s Žmy iyt @gn y`m... lAk`v l w`n& aŽr`j&v`q@Y av\&w` pp`lny @M kr ktWw mN m p`@H @Qy r`kn pNN awt pvr` @B."

@mm @plg#S@M ζn SvX`vy lAk`@V @|;@yN m k# @p. .eS. @Sn`n`yk v# [np pN@Y @y~wyN, @`TSv`N @k@R v#@dn sh@y~gyt vl k#m s>h`, qhs b> s`kCc`vNt a# @Y avs`n @m`@h`@W pm. [@N|vr pNy wm @Q\p`ln pK;y -- eKsW j`k pK;y (a#Ny) -- ӵv` gW@W pv` @eh`k aR}yN gW kl avs`n W@V -- 1946 -- y.

eKwr` ih`sy @mm sNwy Swr k@L @m@S yŸ "@Sn`n`yk @v@vN, [1947] [vl \`l`@V [lNdN w k`Ry`ly] p#v# s`kCc`vN @gn @Y O.I. nlk [r`j& mNn sX`@V am`w&vry] . a@nW @VckyNt amwrv v`m`Ak bl@VgyN N @y`qn, m@yN v# vNn` dnyt @Sn`n`yk sh o@G sgyN n n bvtW on@G @Q\p`lk glv` g#m shk m s>h` @d`yN wWvy K;kvm lb` m q#N h h` bl@k a# av\&w`vK y yNn g#nW p#h# av@b~[yK [vl \`l`v l p#vn."

qh@S v&`j SvX`vyt sh w`n&y N ptvn lq v&vS}`vt @r~[y qKv vS, pvr` @M uWsv vRjny kl eLa @k`lx g` v@q`r @Y p#v#W @r~[w`vkt mhjny`t k#>M k@L y. k#>mt c`r qKvN S 50,000K @qn`, kMkr# pNy N a#N a`Nv slk lbN@N vrs`w p`lk pN@Y aN@Wv`kyt @n` av bvt @Vqny k@L y.

ob N a<vn @Qt pwv, |wv m k j`wNv` iLM l[Rm`Wmkv m m @H@vN @`TSv` v&`p`ryt, qh@sN pv, kMkr# pN@Y -- Ahl h` @qml @qvRg@Y m -- s#ly ag`kWvyK @g`d ng` g#mt h# y. a#N a`Nv N lK; gnnK @qml v kMkr#vN@G rv# ay a@h~ mt N kl @m`@h`@W y`pn@Y @qml [@N|vr@Y @k`tS ey amw kl w l, em Plvv` rv# pnWvlt eLa blg @ls r#Q[ @vN "r`j&y, j`yt sm`n y awr, j`y vRgyt sm`n y y" yn f#STv` l[Rmy a#Ny N X`w`@V @y`qvN n bvt anr# a#< y.

m sMbN[.

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/ lAk`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;y, eLI a`[`rkr#@vt r# @q
2000 oK@w~bR 13

Q[y h` sm`j asm`nw`v avsN mt sm`jv` v#d@vlK
sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y m#vrn k`\y

2000 oK@w~bR 08

sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;y mh m#vrnyt wr< kr
2000 oK@w~bR 08

j`w&Nwr a`rK;k
uQ@{~;n@Y jyhny @qml jny`
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ssp sh /lAk`-Il`M sm`jv` sh`N sAgmyK s>h` stn


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