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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

eLI a`[`rkr#@vt rK
m`KSv`qy sh / lAk`@V j`k |ny

tR mNDS
2001 m`R 12

@m phw plvN@N, / lAk`@V ur# h` n#@gnr @Q\yN l @vnm r`j&yK s>h` py vsr 18 r` stN vN n @qml Il`M K @k` sA[`n@Y (eLI) a`[`rkr#v vn eS@K nM w#n#Ww`t spyn lq @k`tS @qkN W @r @qvn h` avs`n @k`ts . eS@K@G y, / lAk`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y (ssp) [`n @LkM @J dyS sh eSa`R awr vm`r#vt qKvn lq c`ry. eLIyt h` e iqR\nyt a@Vcn`Wmk sh@y~gy q#Kmt ssp asmWm sMbN[@yN eSa`R @Vcn ipW @k`t .

Ahl h` @qml nRvn v&`p`ryN s`ry av@b~[ kr g#mt @`TSv` v&`p`ry asmWm @H @k`t "@mm sm`j bl@VgyN @qp#W@Wm avS}`v` @Q\p`lnN@G h@V @bln y. e@hN, Ahl @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`ry, }m p|c`W-w mh[npyN@G a`Nv (a#N) smg vdvd`W n@vQ e w#n g#m s>h` mn`@S S}`w lssp asrnv bl`y / lAk` qhS pK;y (/lp) nM nv [np @Q\p`ln pK;yK m y".

ob @qy`k`ryN s`vq& @V. }m@yN, eS.dB.a`R.. bNd`rn`yk@G n`ykWv@yN v /lpy p#n n#m, kMkr# pNy l lssp@Y v#@dn ahst [@N|vry q#K c`ry. @mm ahs 1953 p v&`Pw hRw`l@yN mn`v ġ„ y. evkt p#v# a#N a`Nv N shL l NnyN v# mt gW Nvt e@rv mh v#d vRjnyN h` kd s`P vs` q#m a# @n`@yW @r~[w`vN@gN mhjnw`v n# awr a#N a`Nv qN @hl` shL l v# @M Nv a`p h#rmt em @r~[w` v&`p`r h` @Q\p`ln uQ@{~;n smW y.

@qvv, lssp@Y asmR}w`v @Y "asrnv bl` Šm" @n` v, ey N kl v @N y# ob N up@qS @q lbn a`k`ryt av\&@yN m Plvv` v&`p`ryK @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`ryt j`wNv` sh g vRn a`@Lp krN eyt @w@Mm agwm . lsspy e@S @mN, /lpy h` bNd`rn`yk sMbN[@yN @pr krn lq @Vcn aWh#r qm`, s`m`n& kMkr#vN@G h` mhjnw`v@G a#S it /lpyt @Q\p`ln vrp lb` N@N y. @my vn` lssp@Y @VgvW ph`yt h` p`v`mt @y` Ssn b$m.

1953 hRw`ly, / lAk`@V p`lk pNyt blg @Q\p`ln kMpnyK y. \`l h` d` ngrvl q, srbq @Q\vl q vW s`m`n& v#dkrn mhjnw`vN h` a#N a`Nv awr p#v# mh` ag`[yW E smgm sm`PwyK @ls [@N|vr p`lnyt lsspy mN eLl wRjnyW @mm hRw`ly mN qR\ny y. w @r~ argl@Y m g`NŽ h` @Nr# v# @p_r#;yN / lAk`@V [@N|vr @Q\p`lnyN ekt q @n` y. em w l, Ahl n`gk sh gMbq [@N|vry awr sm`j pqnmK S}`w kr g#@M av\&w`v mw o @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`r@Y sMq`yN @vwt h#r#nh.

w`n& w p`ln@Y nK v@G w h` oKSfRD-a[&`pny lQ@q W, 1930 mh` Ahl sX`v ӵv` W, eS.dB.a`R.. bNd`rn`yk N 1951 /lpy S}`w krn l. e@hW 1956 vsr, N, Q[Wvy l#b vsr 2500K gwm @H@vN Q[ jyN vsr @ls l vs@yN nM m @y~jnyt gN, 1956 m#vrn@Y o N @b_Q[ nRvnv`qy /lp@Y @Q\p`ln @Vk`vK bvt pW kr g#@N 1953 hRw`lyt pv y.

w-@r~ sh sm`jv` v`k&A\ nN ߿y`v, @Sv`vN@G <km, sh p#r yn qw`v @H@vN Ahl @g` jnw`v awr v# p#v a@PK;` XAgWvy gs` k$ bNd`rn`yk iA kw` krn [np @k`tSvlt sh w`n& p`lny yt@W v` sls` gW @qml jny`t e@rv ey hrv` y# y. Ahl pmnK r`j& X`;`v vn @b_Q[ r`j&yK Rm`ny m l, AhNt aŽk`rvW vn "a`gk-j`wNv` sm`jv`q@Y" nv gyK uq` @k@rn bv bNd`rn`yk @pNv` N@N y. @mm @vW iyt q#@M o Sw^w @k`t @pNM k@L, Ahly`, "wm vRgyK" vn b#N / l`Ak ktvl Ahly`t vrs`w S}`nyK l#y y yn @b_Q[ nRvn v&`p`r@Y wRkny.

bNd`rn`yk N amw krn lq "Q[`gm p`v`m" nM @b_Q[ @k`;N v`Rw`v mN ihw Cc`nMvlt av\& rsk`rk sMp`qny @kn. e @m@S s>hN y. "q#N @mm rt l w a`Nvk r$p`k`r@Y q^\&my @Qk y gsK @n` n q, vsr pykt @pr w`n& hn@yN ĵL mt @pr`v t ytW @kr# l#b a`k`r@yN m w`n&N N @p~;ny krn lq p`, aKw ig#NM, X`w`vN, a#Bb#kM, WW sh qR\nyN@G aq^\&m`n ygN a wvmW ek @lN m, ytpWv . E aN sq`c`r`Wmk vs@yN ap wvmW btrt vhLv N@n."

@M v`Rw`v, h`rS}`n s>h` av`Ry@yN kl v œm k`RyyN@G v#dvsM pQ[y > @hm sh h`rS}`n sv idM pvr` g#m yn kr# sMbN[@yN w`n&N @hl` q#k n. Sy` sh @b_Q[ p`s#Lvlt arqL lb`@M vn asm`nw` @pNvN Sy`yt v# s#lLlK qKvn bvt a`Nvt @c~qn` kl v`Rw`v @m@S k`\ k@L y. "Sy`y Ah`sn@Y ‹v`, / lAk`v, aW p` b#> r#sy p` l a#w." aw v#r hgSs` g#m s>h` rjy mN arqL spy` ndW @k@rn, Ahl rjvr#N@G bly sw, Q[ \`sn kNlyK S}`w krn @ls v`Rw`@vN @y~jn` @k`t .

bNd`rn`ykt sh@y~gy lb` N @b_Q[ sAS}`wy o@G m#vrn uQ@{~;ny s>h` ngr h` gMqnVvlt KN tW kr y# y. agm# wn@R v#d b# /mW @j~N @k`wl`vl hAv gs l#@Y a, S @b`n iA kw` krn [np p#l#Ny @y~jny krn p` X`v@Y Ry @ls y. /lpyt, bNd`rn`yk pv` |myt pW kl a \`l jyhnyK aW y. o smg sMš s`kCc`vk @y w#n#Wwt o @m@S s>hN kl b#V v`Rw` @V. "m` wvW sgy, @mm Ahl X`;` |ny wrM mhjnw`v uQq`m kr aN kvr @h~ ymK mt @m@wK h @n` b#V q#ngNn."

bNd`rn`yk blyt p# vh`m l r`j& X`;`v @ls p#v# iAy @vvt Ahl pmnK r`j& X`;`v @ls S}`w k@L y. @my, wmNt yNnt @h~ kw` krNnt @n` h# X`;`vK X`w` krNnt blkrN @qml jny`t e@r brpwl @vnSkM mK y. Ahl, @qml h` iA yn m`[&yN @nNm ig#N@M @vw @vnS @k`t @b`@h~ p`sLvlt Ah@lN pmnK ig#Nmt bl @kn. 1960 gnNvl l rjyt pvr` gNn` lq a`gk p`s#Lvlt q @my L @kr#.

1958 y rj@Y @SvkyNt Ahl nw` pK;nykt n mt bl @kr# awr, pK;n@yN asmW @h~ pK;nyt @p m K@p kl ayt œ`m g#mt bl @kn. r`j& l[r@Y h` t@Y lwl @b_Q[ q&`lvN eNnNt shk krm @m arn y. hq` @s`Lq`vN@G v#@pN av`Ry@yN kp`gNn` lq qLvN p`w @b_Q[ sAgmyK hq`v l S}`w @kn.

@qml jnw`v@G @r~[w`vNt r# @qn lQ@Q vRgv` {`wn sh r`j& mRqnyN@g. vRgv` uNm`qy ug#N@M [`n k`RyX`ryK i kl bNd`rn`yk, Ahl aNwv`N a@PK;` kl wrM rt y`mt asmW w l @b_Q[ KvK N 1959 o {`wny kr l# y.

lssp@Y c`ry

1950 eLa smg Ek`bQ[ lssp r$kv /lpyt r#Q[ @vN e Ahl-pmnK @vwt e@r l[Rm`Wmk a`S}`nyK gW@W y. eK X`;`vK m krN wvW X`;`vkt @vnSkM @mN [@N|vry v`Rk g#mkt sh Q[ykt pqnM qmn bvt lssp p`R@MN mNvr# anr# a#<h.

"(Ahl h` @qml) X`;`vNt sm`nWvy lb`m, ap |v`s krN@N, ap j`@Y qhst sh e sArckyN@G eKsW X`vyt m`vw bv . e@S @n`m# v @h`W @M d` r`j&y l @qkt ir# @L v#@rn d` r`j&yN @qkK p#n n a#w." yNn @k`LN a`R q Lv`@G anr# a#<m y. Ahl vRgv` m#ryN@gN @qml jnw`v sh on@G vhN a`rK;` m s>h` @k`lx smhr @Q\vl lssp wm wr#n sA[`n k`kv bl g#Ny.

nW /lp uQ@{~;n@Y dny yt@W p`R@MN @Q\p`ln r`vt sh Ahl S@v~Wwmv`qyt lsspyW agw mt ptN gW@W y. Q[`gm sMbN[@yN e a`kLpy @q Svr$pyK g. lssp qr` aqhs Q[`gm "Qgk k`rnyK" yNn r`j&@Y m#hWmt e@rv y@m@G qhs a`rK;` @M aR}@yN v#r y. e@hW, @mm y, r`j& kt sMbN[@yN Q[`gm vdvd`W k`v# g#m @Vcny mt pK;y asmR}m vsN @M kvryK bvt v#v#@yN pW y. r`j&y h` a`gm @vN @M av\&w`v m`KSv` h#m tmW av[`rny klh. 18 v# sh 19 v# \wvR;vl @r~py l p#n n# j`wNv` PlvyN a`gk |v`syN @n` slk` yLlNt sm`n wWvyN shk m s pNnr g#Nn @vw @Y ey .

p`R@MN mNvr@y eN.eM @p@Rr` v# smhr lssp n`yk@y~ @nk Q[`gm a#qm aW @n` hlh. m`KSv` pK;y sh kMkr# pNy l q&`Wmk sm`jv` sASk^y s>h` vn argl@YW a`gm @tkW Qgk k`rnyK @ls @n` s#l. m`KSv`, kvr @h~ a`gk v[ Asnykt @r~[y qKvn awrm, On$m sm`jmy d`vN iv shgwv X`r gNn` @ls ugNvNn` q av\&w`vK p#n nN@N nM sm`j pvRwnyK s`K;`W kr gw h#K@K kMkr# pNy sh ԫw mhjnw`v mN @n` v aŽw`Wk blyN mN yn q^y v` qKvNn` q a`g@M sh dv`q@Y ym r$p`k`ryNt kv m r#Q[ @v.

lssp@Y @Q\p`ln ph`y, sMbN[@yN vgv vN@N lsspy pmnK @n` @V. ey hwr vn j`w&Nwry l mkL p#B@l~ sh aRnST m#NdL N n`ykWvy @q l# avS}`v` vnw`vN y h` ably lQ@Q y. @qvn @l~k Q[@yN p [@N|vry y a# kr gW S}`vrX`vyt q kMkr# l[r@Y k`w \Kyt q agw @vN p#B@l~v`@y~ kMkr# pN@Y @h~ @`TSv` v&`p`r@Y kvr @h~ Sv`n @Q\p`ln k`RyX`ryK K@p klh.

"E E r@T k`\yt pW @k@rn mhjn v&`p`ry smg y}`vs@yN bQ[ m" k#>M krN p#B@l~ av[`rny k@L E E rtvl aŽk`rvW St#Nv`, sm`j j`wNv` @h~ [@N|vr j`kv` n`ykWvyNt hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y \`š` agw y y yNn . /lpyt h` Ahl-@b_Q[ v`Rkv`qyt lsspy vdvd`W agw m mN / lAk`v l @mm q^y k`\yt pW y.

lssp n`ykN, avm vs@yN a`rMX@Y , / lAk`@vN tSwr |n sMbN[@yN sMX`v& a`S}`nyK gW n, oN p#B@l~@gN h` m#N@dL@gN @n`‹ awr, m`KSv`qy a`rK;` m s>h` 1953 S}`w @kr# hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y j`w&Nwr kvt kvr k@lk vW @n` b#‹. p#B@l~v` eKsW @LkM mNdly h` lssp awr p#v sb>w`v pqnM @N "@l`v \`lwm @`TSv` pK;y" @ls lssp ojv#mt lV vs@yN lssp, bNd`rn`ykt h` /lpyt vdvd`W v^wv agwm sMbN[@yN eKsW @LkM mNdl@Y a`Rv`qy lb`@M avS}`v` shvnyK mw y.

1964 bNd`rn`yk@G v#Nq„v N ӵvn lq /lp a`Nvt a#@mN lssp@Y @Q\p`ln r$t`y`m g#Nn. lssp@Y nv am`w&vr#N@G }m y`v @Y [`n sA{ n`ykN@G a`Rv`qy lb` g#m s>h` pNsLvlt bdg$m.

@qml kw` krn v kMkr#vN@G aN a`rK;` @M wm زk`n @vw aW hl lssp oN@gN @b`@h`myK iNy`vt tmA m s>h` bNd`rn`yk sh iNy` agm# \`S awr a# @kr# mt sh@y~gy .

1970 /lp N n`ykWvy @q l# a`NvK n#vw blyt p# p Q[`gm r`j& a`gm bvt pW @k@rn h` n#vwW Ahl, r`j& X`;`v @ls whr# @kr#n v&vS}`vK @kMpW krN @k`LN a`R. q Lv`, 1940 gnNvl sh 1950 gnNvl wm`m h` @Qvl s^ r#Q[y s>h` @p @Y y.

1970 gnNvl bNd`rn`yk a`Nv N j`Nt @vnSkM @M wvW yvr pyK gNn` l. |vq&`l l Ahl N@G bwryK shk @k@rn @k~t` myK h‹Nv` N awr @qml jnw`vt e@r kt "krny" mN ey wv rtW whr# @kn. a`Rk@Y r`j& aA\@Y @M h` sm`n yvr g l#n. a@wN jns krn lq @vl> sAS}`vN ihl klmn`krn Ahl kw` krn @b_Q[Nt -- @qml kw` krn kMkr# bl a#yK n v# K@@Y pv` -- nmn l. a`N@V ny s#p#M sh v`hn sh sN@Vqn ywl phkM @g`dn#m eLl @kr#@NW @qml jnw`vt e@rv Ahl v&`p`kynt v` aW kr m s y. eLI@Y ym sMXvy v# a#W@W @m s @qml N nRvn v&`p`r@Y a$w awy l @n` @V.

bNd`rn`yk@G @vW mN v`Rk a`wNt @wL vW @kr# awr, em @vW mN a@PK;`XAgWvy, a`gk h` v`Rk @Rš` @G @m@hy. @mm v`w`vrny l nv @Q\p`ln vnw`@v~ mvNnt h. m`l l @vnSkM M sh @qml pK;vl sMv` a`kLpyN @H@vN a@PK;` XAgWvyt pW u@R h` n#@gnr @qml jny` stNk` @bMv`qyt vdvd`W @y` h. [@N|vr @fdrL pK;@Y wr#n aA\@Y s`m`kyN awN eLIy awr @vN @qml Il`myK b> iLm @v@vN ey Swv` h`r a`rMX k@L y.

r@T q pl`@W q t sm`Nwr y`vyK y. aw@Y gMbq mhjnw`v@gN s#ly @k`tsK oN n r#r# wWvyN@gN g#l g#m s lssp h` kMkr# pNy @k@r |v`sy wb` yh. @k@S nW, q#N lssp, ߿y`v h` p#r# qw`v sMbN[@yN vgv a`N@V m @k`ts. mhW @S klr# gMbq wr#n@y~ wm |nvlt pNmy s‹mk \k&w`v wv rtW @n` @V m`Ov`q@Y, k#S@~v`q@Y h` Ahl S@v~Wwmv`q@Y aCc`r# sMœnyK jnw` K @prn (j@p) @vwt a`kR\ny h.

vRgy mw pqnM @mm [@N|vr v&`p`ryN@G v# y jnyWvy sMbN[@yN [`nv vgv W@W, wm sm`jv` l[Rm ivwlN, [nv`qy N Rm`ny krn lq sm`j aRqyt wm`@G m pNmy s‹mK ipW krn kMkr# pN@Y Sv`n Plvv` v&`p`ryk vR[nyt mA@pW a#r$ lssp .

lssp@Y sm`jv` iqR\n@Y pqnm mw @qml h` Ahl @qvRg@Y m ԫw gMbq mhjnw`v@gN s#ly wTvK wm` @vw n` g#mt kMkr# pNyt a# h#y`v 1953 hRw`l@yN qR\ny @kn. Ahl-@b_Q[ v`Rkv`qy v#l> g#m mN lssp shk kr N@N em sm`j wTN eK@k~ [`n [np pK; @q@K n#nM eLI@Y h` j@p ahst ytW kr g#m .

j`w&Nwrv`qy

y avsN mt @pr wvW v#qgW kr# @qkK m mt id @qNn.

y [@N|vr j`kv`N @mN ob q m`KSv`q@Y j`w&Nwrv` stN p`, sMRn@yN m y @n` h# @w~y`vN @ls av`@vN slk` @m@S y. "Il`M sh / lAk`@V eKsW r`j&yK" yn ssp stN p`y l g#Bvn "g`Mr i q#Km" s#kv m W k` vn y. epmnK @n` v y av&`j sm`jv`@y~ "q a`y`@V eKsW r`j&yK" b>v n q a# pmnK @n` v smhr t eC.. @VLS @mN "eKsW @l~k r`j&yK" b>v q n q a#w. iNp ob apv EW gNvNnt uWs`h gN@N kvq` @h~ Il`M-/ lAk` eKsW r`j&yK s`K;`W @V nM ey y h#K@K S@@v r`j&yN @qkk r`j& w`Nk s`kCc`vl plyK @ls bv .

yW ob |nyt |t vn a`k`rym eqrV m. obt @my iw` d` vcn hrxyK @ls @p yNnt h# vW ssp N ipW krn stN p`y nM q a`y`@V eKsW sm`jv` r`j&yk @k`tsK @ls Il`M sh / lAk`@V eKsW sm`jv` r`j&yK yNn . "sm`jv`" yn pqy aWh#r q#@mN @h~ a#lW @mN ipW @k@rN@N e@nkt aw&Nw@yN @r~ iqR\n, y`m`Rg sh argl@Y m@VqyN @qk. smhr t sm`jv` pqy o@bN Ķ yNnt a#W@W ahMb@yN y h#k. nW iw` avm vs@yN @h~ eN @pNM @k@rN@N @qml Il`my [nv` q sm`jv` q yNn bvt ey w#y WwK @n` @V y yNn .

@my vd`W k |nyK smg b#Š pv. sm`jv`qy S}`w kl h#K@K g`d Plvv` n#M m. / lAk` v@N @h~ vd`W L aR}@yN iNy` upmh`Qp@y @h~ eKsW sm`jv` r`j&yK my h#K@K ob @y~jn` krn aNqN Sv`n h` sm`n r`j&yN S@VCc` y`m`l`vK hrh` @n` v, @p` pN iLM vt` [ X`;` kw` krn, [ a`gk pM sw, [ jnvRgvl kMkr# pNy h` ԫw mhjnw`vN Ek`bQ[ @k@rn Plvv` argl m. e@hN ssp stN p`y vn`, Ahl h` @qml kMkr#vN@G Plvv` y`vNt mg @pNvNnN s [np j`k r`j&yN awr r`j& w`Nk s`kCc` s>h` r`vK @n` @V.

eKsW @s~yT sm`jv` sh`Nv p#n n#@N 1917 Plv@Y jyhn pvWv`@gn y`@M h` g#„r# @M @p` arglykt a# a` [ j`k pMvl kMkr#vN h` @g` wTN@G Ek`bQ[ n#m. em w l j`k @bMv` vnw` p#n n#@N nM Ev` av`Ry@yN m q# g` @k`tSvl sh [`n blvN@G uL a#m smg b#Š p#v b#V mhjnw`v Lv q#k gWh. wv r p#vv@h`W, kMkr# pNyt r#y` Plv@Y p#v blg a`kR\y bly @s~yT sAgm@Y @Q\m` iKmv` p#r @Y j`w&Nwr pm`nyk sm`jv` r`j&yN awr L sh@y~w`v@Y \k&w`v qR\ny kr.

R[n pNk j`w&Nwrv`q@Y m`KSv` iqR\ny @w~y`vK vnv` @vvt ey pqnM vN@N [nv`qy N @l~k a`Rky q#v#Nw, aNwR sMbNŽw smSwyK @ls Ek` @k a#w yn s`[ky mw y. py q\k @qk @h~ n l, pgnk sh sN@Vqn K@yN jyhn mw p`qn@Y @g~ykrn sNwy y`Wmk m @H@vN [ rtvl kMkr#vN vdvd`W aNwR-pr`yWw wWvykt pW @k a#w. wm`@G v`Rk @h~ a`gk pm mK vW wm ߿y`, v#P h` @Sv` @k`N@Q Rny @k@rN@N j`k @k`N@Q mw @n` v j`w&Nwr @vl> @p`l mN b#V / lAk`@V kMkr#@v~ iw` @h`‰N q. sMRn @w~y`vK vN@N, vWmN / lAk` r`j&yt @vnS kvr a`k`r @h~ "Sv`nWvyK" [@N|vr @qml Il`mykt s`K;`W kr gw h#k yNnW evN r`j&yK kMkr# pN@Y sh mhjnw`v@G vn wWvyN vR[ny mt v#r smW@Vy yNnW y.

eK avs`n kr#nK.

eSa`R @mN m, eLI@Y y`m`Rgy sh iqR\ny ssp N @Vcny m @H@vN / l`Ak p`lk pN@Y sh hq`@V aw \KmW v a#w# ob q @c~qn` kr. ssp v`Rw`v b>v kvr @h~ vg X`gyN @w`rv sh s`K m`yK @n`m#v, u@rN h` n#@gnN r`j& hq` vh`m a`p k#>v yn ssp k#>m @n` wk`, ob @c~qn` krN@N q kl`p@Y hq`v mN p`lny @k@rn @Q\ l v#dkt m s>h` avk`\ lb`mW l m#vrn wWvy (gW pK;yK @ls m#vrn @k`ms`S @qp`Rw@MN@V y`pAy) sspt q`ny mW @kr#@N, ssp, eLIyt r#Q[ s` bv y.

@my m`KSv`q@Y a`rMX@Y t m, eyt e@rv avS}`v`N @y`q`gW wRky. enM @Vcny m g`Wvyt a`[`r m yNn . @`TSv` v&`p`ry @mvN md h`ryN @h`‰N q#n h‹n. St#N N @`TS "f#STv`y" @ls hAv gs l#@V, St#Nv` l[r@Y pW @Vcny m @H@vN TlRt v` aWvN@N y yn kr#n mw y. iKv St#N a`rMX kl k`kv n`\ @M y`q`m@Y {`wny kr l#@V qsqhS sAš&`w @`TSv`N pmnK @n` v, oK@w~bR Plvyt kvr @h~ sb>w`vK @h~ kvr @h~ nv& sh @Vcn`Wmk aqhsK kt @kr#v` @h~ y @qn`m {`wny @kr#. St#N@G yTn`M sArKwy, @h~A, eSa`Rt av a@Vcn`Wmkv sh@y~gy l#y , St#N@G yTn`M @g~ly` @h~A, aŽr`j&v`N smg o p#v#W up`m`r# g@q @Q\p`lkv @hqrV kl @`TSv`N h' m s>h`, 1940 gnNvl q em r@T k @`TSv`N yLlm {`wny k@L y.

hq` ivW m s>h` vn ssp k#>m sh eLIy b> e @Vcn aW @Q @n` @V. gW @Q\p`ln pK;yK @ls m#vrn @k`ms`S @qp`Rw@MN@V y`pA m s>h` ssp ipW krn lq ay#M pW q\k gnn`vK S@S K@p @mN p / lAk`@V rjy h@Y wm aqhs @vnS mt gW Nv b#Š pvN@N, @k`lx wN@Y v#@dn @Q\p`ln aRqy smg y. Q[y h` a`Nv sMbN[@yN v#@dn @r~[y ssp vt` n`gw m v#l#K@M m`RgyK ont av\& y. smhr t ssp l vs@yN g#m mN e @vWvl s#r b`l mt @h~ Rvl mt unN kry h# @Vq? @mm a@y~gyt r ssp n`ykWvy N, wm m#vrn k`\@yN sh wvW @b`@h~ mN spy` a#wŸ ey m#vrny @y`q`gW@W a`Nv @hl` q#mt, Q[yt r#Q[ mt, h` sm`jv` @vW s>h` argly iyt @gn y`mt y.

r@T q kl`p@Y @h~ @vnW On$m w#nk y`Wmkmt sspt a# h#y`v r>` pvW@N e j`wNy aN s>h` stN mtW kMkr# pN@Y sh ԫw mhjnw`v@G sh@y~gy n`g#mtW It a# h#y`v mw . wm s`m`kyN @p`S aW adA@vN q` g#mt pmnK @n` v, 1998 eLIy aR[-r`j& aŽk`ryK @ls y`Wmk vn vN @Q\y l wm s`m`kyN V@q@n blhWk`r@yN r>v` @gn m sMbN[@yN eLIyt e@rv q ssp uQ@{~;n yW k@L y. pK;y h' krmt h` yv#Qmt qrn uWs`h@Y lAk`@V r`j&y X`w` krn m@Vqym eLI n`ykWvy N q @y`q` g#m, p@M pvn pN ekvK qR\ny kr. @vnS a`S}`nyN @qkk t, / lAk`@V r`j&y @mN m eLIy q kMkr# pNy mw pqnM ssp@Y Plvv` iqR\nyt g#„N m hr# y.

ssp yM a`k`rykt / lAk`@V hq`vt a`[`r spyN@N y# p#v@sn o@B a#<m @qml jny` awr v#@dn ssp@Y ahs vlk`mt @g`w` a# k@~r pcy. e@mN m ssp @Vcn h' krm s>h` ey @n` s$@hN@N nM @vnW m @y`q` g#m KKw m q eN a@PKw y. smhr t ob N q$ evN a#<M a#w# ob @n` v` y h#k. e@S vN@N nM o@B pqnM rw @c~qn` iLl` aSkr g a#w# q, eLI p`ln@Y pvWn` @Q\ q a#lW smSw vn r` wm y`m`Rgy s>h` uQ@{~;ny mt sspt a# ay @k`N@Q rwv a`rK;` @M k`\yK ob W kr a#w# q a a@PK;` krN@n.

aq`l @vnW

eLI a`[`rkr#@vt rK
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2001 a@
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2000 oK@w~bR 13

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2000 oK@w~bR 08

sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;y mh m#vrnyt wr< kr
2000 oK@w~bR 08

j`w&Nwr a`rK;k
uQ@{~;n@Y jyhny @qml jny`
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ssp sh /lAk`-Il`M sm`jv` sh`N sAgmyK s>h` stn


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