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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

/ lAk` a`Nv eLIy smg s`m s`kCc` s>h` ar a

@K. rWn`yk
2001 a@™L 13

@n~R@V r@T a\N Gg#S m#hWmN iKv, / lAk` a`Nv sh @bMv` @qml IlM K @k` sA[`ny (eLI) 18 vsrk m^g L Q[y avsN @M s`kCc` @qst gmN krn bvK @p y. @k@S @vwW, p`R|vyN @qkm, y a`[`rkr#vN rsk m sMbN[@yN @V\M shgw @vN s`kCc` a`rMX m Gg#Sy h# Rv-@k`N@Q gnn`vK av[`rny kr a#w.

eLIy @Vqny kl Ekp`R|k stN r`myt c`r q#Kmt m`s gnn`vK S@S K@p @mN pv, @p` @pr a`Nv, avs`n@Y, s`kCc` s>h` wmN q`nM bv n pykt @pr @Vqny k@Ly. vWmN s`m y`q`m@Y pl @ls "iw` s#ly gyK" aWpW kr@gn a# bvW s`kCc` @k@rn bvt wm` "Xv`" vn bvW, @Q\ a#m lKmN kRg`mR a@™L 3 q` p`R@MNvt p#vy.

eKsW j`k pK;y (a#N) n# |nykt r# @ls @M @k aqhS q#Km @kr#. @p` @pr a`Nv 1995 @bMv`Nt e@r Q[y y ptNg#@mN p eLIy smg s`kCc`vlt elm b>v @kr# vd` |w k`\y ey y. a@™L ag vn t wmN n vkv` h` Swr @Vqny krn bv kRg`mR p`R@MNvt p#vy. eLIyt @qn shnyK @ls, o h#<@Y, a`Nv eLI pp`lny yt@W pvWn` @Q\vlt pnv` a# a`Rk sMb`[k ĵL @k`t a`h`r h` o_;[ pyK s>h` avsr @qn bv.

kRg`mR@G @Vqn@yN n nkt pv, / lAk`@V @n~R@V w`n`p @j`N @vSTbRG v@N u@R eLI p`lny yt@W pvn vN kl`p@Y mLl` eLI n`ykyN hy. s`kCc` y`q`my l , eLI@Y @Q\p`ln aA\@Y n`yk eS. wL@CLvM s`m s`kCc` m s>h` "aw&v\& @k`N@Q" gnn`vK ipW kl bv v`Rw` @V. y sNnQ[ ev`kM nwr m, @mN h` iN[n s>h` avsr l#@bn p a`Rk sMb`[k wv rtW ĵL m sh eLIy mw pnv` a# a`N@V whnm ivW m Ev`t a# y. "a @m`nm wWvyN yt@W vW @r~ sA[`nyK @ls s`m s`kCc`vNt shX` @n`vN@n," y wL@cLvM p#v bv eLIyt pK;p` t#ML@nT @vB ad@Y pl k`\nyk s>hN y. mhvr @b_Q[ jy S}`nykt @b~Mb h`ryK eLl @mN pv Ahl S@v~Wwmv` kNd`yM @gny uQ@{~;nyK m[&@Y 1998 a`Nv eLIy whnM k@L y.

@mm Rv-@k`N@Q s` s`kCc` b> bl`@p`@r`W aLmt id a# nW, wL@cLvM@G aqhS q#KM, lAk` hq`v u@R y`pn aR[Qp@Y ašNd h`r @gn yQ m`s hwrk Ekp`R|k stN r`mykt al mt bl @k a# eLI stNkr#vN aSv#@M eLly sw n @Br`g#@M upmyk l @pNM kr. s`kCc` ph @M eLly a#v g l# wv r yvrK @ls, eLIy / lAk` @s`Lq`vN h` n`k XtyN gnn`vK qhS kr @B.

m$w m`s gnn`v l y t bly q enN yM s`kCc`vk g@q @M wm h#y`v q s#ly aN vR[ny kr @gn a# a`Nv, s`kCc` a`rMX mt id sls` g#@M a@PK;`@vN eLIyt wvW shn gnn`vK q`ny kr a#w. eLI >yN 10K qhS @k@rn bvW sNnQ[ hq` Ahl h` @qml aW ar# uWsv sm@Y a@™L 13 q` t n hwrk k`lyK l stN r`mykt alv kt krn bvW bq`q` a`Nv @Vqny k@Ly.

lAk`@V jn`Žp cNŒk` m`rAg, Q[y avs`nykt @gn Em s s`kCc` arxn @lst eLl kr a# s#ly dnykt n p` . a`Rkv gW kl, a`Nv n N@N, py a@™L h` m# sm@Y hq`v eLIy aN pr`jyN gnn`vkt lK@mN anr#v a`[ @v@vN @kr# q#v#Nw yqM q @H @k`t@gn Rm`ny b#r#M aRqykty. a`rK;k yqM r#yL yn 52 t yn 83 qKv` ahs ust n# awr, a`Nv a`[ l g#m s qL @s`y` g#mt ny gW b#N vw` aRqyK Rm`ny y. @p` ap`k yyt 26 qKv` M@M ihl n#. a`nyn kPp` @k`t @Q\ my i kr g s, mh b#Av r#yl p` @vNt id h# awr e plyK @ls, ql avm`ny mK h` @Qy l gnN ihl y`mK y.

y vs@R mh m#vrn@yN pv yNwM atv` g# adm`n sX`gy l v#@dn a`wNt q m`rAg n . bq`q` ayv#y cNq mmt @pr`v, It cNqy lb`g#m shk kr g s, y sX`g hLkr#vN @q@qn -- / lAk` SM @k`Asy (/l@k`) sh lAk` kMkr# @k`Asy (dBV) -- smg h s`kCc` p#v#Wmt a#yt y. em pK; @qktm amwr a#m wnr# q`ny mt a#yt bl @kr#. aw@Y krn lq ey`k`r @gMvl plyK @ls / lAk`@V a#m mNdly @l~k@Y \`lwm a#m mNdlyK bvt q#ntmW pWv @B.

r@T @Q\p`ln h` a`Rk aS}`vrWvy @Q\ a`@y~jkyN@G pl`y`mt @H a#W@W @Qy v&`p`kyN nv a`@y~jn mt unNvK @n`qKvn w l y. e plyK @ls, @k`tS l qR\ky ašNdv v# @B -- jnv`@Y ql vs@yN 450k pmn agyt h` vsrkt ihw 550k agyt sNsNqn`Wmkv gWkl y s@Y smSw @k`tS l qR\ky 419K y. eLIy smg s`kCc` mN @Q\ a`@y~jkyN y rtt p#mt mW @k@r a#w# a`Nv mAl`sghw bl`@p`@r`W @v.

a`Nv s`kCc` iyt @gn y` y mh v&`p`k@y~ av[`rny kr. m`R 22 q` v&`p`k sX`vk ipW @kr# v#d@vlkt alv oN kt @n`krN@N nM, @p` @prnt vW pK;@Y a#Nyt vW mh v&`p`kyN @vN m#vrn arqlK bl`@p`@r`W y @n`h# y lAk` v`j mNdl@Y () sX`p cN jyrWn anr# a#<y. em v#d@v@L adA iLM l#S@V aAk ekt @N Q[y avsN m.

m`rAg sh eLIy yn @qp`R|vym sMykt el@xn @ls [`n @l~k blvN @vN eLl vn dnyt q n @q. v@N u@R h` n#@gnr @vnm @qml r`j&yK s>h` vn eLI@Y iLmt wmN r#Q[ bv eKsW jnpqy h` @r~y sAgmy n#vw n#vwW s>hN kr a# awr e@hW E smgm oN s`kCc` @qst @k`lx a`Nv wL mt q kt kr @B. oN@G [`n uWkw`v vN@N, ur# / lAk`@V q#N p#v#W@vn Q[y, a`Rk h` @l~p`k av\&w`vl v#qgW n`yK bvt q#N y pW@vN @bn iNy` up-mh`Qpy aS}`vr mt y h#y yn k`rn`v.

k#rT al@Y-sh-@k~@V ty

[`n @l~k blvW eLIy sMbN[@yN k#rT al@Y-sh-@k~@V tyK @gn @B. em sA[`ny whnM krN w`n&y m$w eKsW jnpqy, / lAk`v, iNy`v sh m#@Ly`v smg eKy. w`n&@Y @mm y`v lNdn@Y ӵ eLI@Y j`w&Nwr lS}`nyt e@r wRjny. wmN iNy`v l eLI s`m`kyNt e@rv yvr g#mtW y n`k r sAc`r ihl q#mtW -- enN, eLI@Y s#pM m`Rg wRjnyt lKkr h# bvtW -- id a# bv iNy` a`Nv blg @ls a<v` @B. E smgm, @k@S @vwW, eLIyt s`m s`kCc` l a`snyK q el@xn yM sMyK l y`kl`pyK q q`ny kr @B.

@pr @n` r$ yvrK wbN, / lAk`@V eKsW jnpq w`n`p a$ LS m`R l y`pnyt sAc`ry @k`t e mhjn Swk`l œvn`g`r@Y @qml jn sX`vK amw` kw` k@Ly. l eKsW jnpq a`S}`ny nr#Cc`rny krNm, o blg @ls a<v` @Y, eLIy s`kCc` s>h` q`nM @v@w`W em sA[`nyt e@r y whnm ivW mt @v`Atny q`nM v a# bv. "eLIy j`wNv`, @Q\p`lk, cNd-@n`vn sA[`nyK bvt pvRwny kl h# q?" y@vN wm`m n# Cc`nM |nykt r# @qN LS @m@S p#vyŸ "ey e@S kl h# nM, eKsW jnpqy a#v, ey (eLIy) a@\~Xnm Svr$p@yN q#k a# ayt sh e up`yNt r#Q[ ayt, wmN eLIy slkN@N @k@S q yNn b>v y slk` b#mt v a#w."

eLI@Y m$wm iLM m`rAg a`Nv ar# wWvykt @hl` a#w. On$m k shnyK, s`m s`kCc`vkt @ls e@r @vN eLIy tmy @ls ag` q#y y av[`rny krn hl ur#my v# Ahl aNwv` pK; @vN a`Nvt e@rv @r~[w`, av`@M wRjny m kr. smSw @k`lx @Q\p`ln sAS}`wy m Ahl S@v~Wwmv` q^v`qy mw @kwrM nM wN pqnM N@N q y @w`W, s#ly mTt@M @r~[w` mN wmN@Gm k>r# l @Xq a# y h# y @p` @prn sh a#Ny yn @qp`R|vy m yt pWv .

m`rAg, aNwv`N@G @Vcn vlk`@M yWn@Y @k`tsK @ls, y`pn aR[Qp@Y ngr gnn`vK aLl` gN. m$w m`svl, iyt y t h`ryK yW kr @B. a#y, eLIy whnM m sh emN @qml v`hL jnk`y @vN arqL h` @s a`[`r lb`g#mt It a# h#y`v vlk`@ml` w`n&y gW kWvy av yn @ls iLl` s jRmy, @nqRlNwy, @bLym sh Nsy a# @r~y rtvL gnn`vk sAc`ry krN, r`j&wNk uQ@{~;nyk q @y a#w.

wm`t av\& Rv-@k`N@QyN @w`rv s`kCc` p#v#Wm y jn`Žpy gtm av[`rny @k`t a# awr eLIy tmy @ls y wWvy \KmW krg s stN r`m p#h#vm @y`q`g a#w# y`p`N stN r`myK b>v slk` b#m pv` a#y K@p kr a#w. py vs@R, Ahl aNwv`N@G Ek`bQ[ uQ@{~;nyK m[&@Y, s`kCc` s>h` pqnm whr# @M eLl@yN ipW w bly @bq`h#@M p#@Kjykt sh`y @mN pb#mt a#Nyt bl @kr# w yt@W em p#@Kjy sMmw krg#@M y s#lM al`g#mt a#yt y.

s`m sMykt evN v&snyK aWm vlk`l s s`kCc`vNt a#Ny q a#krg#@M yWn q#@rN pv. a#N n`yk rL mAh @n~R@Vy` a`Nv smg s`kCc` s>h` a@™L 11 q` oS@l~ bl` y`mt yw y. @mm sAc`r@Y arn QŽ@Y k`\ @k n# vW, s`kCc`vN@G eLly v a#W@W, a#N@Y sh@y~gy h` smhr t s^ shX`Wvy lb`g#m y yNn p#h#y. @n~R@Vy` @|; @y~w eK @s`L@hM, lAk` a#kdK nm# @vB k`\nyt m$w @m@S aqhS q#KyŸ "/ lAk`@V wWvy av[`rny krN@N, e jnv`Rk g#tv s>`@m l` @p` @pr-a#N sh@y~w`@V av\&w`v."

s`m yWny s>h` lAk`v l sh@y~gy @g` @M w#wk @y@qN, iNy` mh @k`ms`S a@™L 4 q` a#N p`R@MN mNN kNd`ymkt y` @Y, iNy`v @n~R@V kWvyt wm Rn sh@y~gy @qn bv. @D rR p@Y a@™L 12 q` pl kv#yK a#Ny a`Nv smg sh@y~ @M av\&w`v av[`rny kr @N @m@S aqhS qKvŸ "s`kCc`my s‹mK hrh` Q[y avsN mt \`lwm b`[`v vN@N, ap qn p, eLIy @n`@V. It pwv, ap@G [`n pK; @q@K a|v`s kt SvX`vy."

@n~R@Vy` w`n`p vNyt kl y sAc`ry b> @w`rr# m`rAgt v`Rw` @k`t a# nW, jn`Žpy eLI@Y iLM g#n wvmW l vs@yN c`r qKv` n#w. @k@S @vwW, @p yn p nM, a#y e Cc`nMk` bv b>v @|;@yN KPwX`vyt pWv n#w. jn`Žpy "k`rn`v b>v v^w mnsN Kwv s`kCc`" kr a# bvW "[ kLp g#n @|; kNd`yMvl" aqhS q#ng#mt a#yt av\& bvW qKvN nm s>hN @n`kl a`N@V l[`y kl k`\yK a#@s~@YtD @S v`Rw`vk ut` qKv` .

/ lAk` a`Nv h` eLIy awr s`kCc` @V y y h# bvK @pnW, Q[y avsN kr@M ek<w`vK vd` ar# bv oP v a#w. epmnK @n`v, Ahl h` @qml S}r awr a#vn On$m sMyK, a\Nm aS}`vr vnv` @mNm, a# v a#W@W @n`v#l#Ky h# @lsm, vn r` kMkr# pN@Y h` ԫw mhjnw`v@G j`wN aN@G h` vn mTtMvlt eLl vn h`ryk yq.

aq`l @vnW

vRgv` Q[@Y br
j`a-@l~k b#A v&hgwkrn s#lM yt@W ߿y` qs qhS gnnK qA@gyt

2001 a@
L 20

eLI a`[`rkr#@vt rK
m`KSv`qy sh / lAk`@V j`k |ny

2001 a@
L 17

eLI a`[`rkr#@vt rK
m`KSv`qy sh / lAk`@V j`k |ny

2001 a@
L 06

@l~k b#Av sh a`[`r @qn rtvL / lAk` a`N@V n&`y py skS kr
2001 jnv` 19

/ lAk` rjy h` eLIy @k@mN s`kCc` kr` @SN@V
2001 jnv` 16

w`n& a#mvr@yK @k`lxt p#@n
s`m s`kCc` iyt wL mt r`j& w`Nk y`k`Wv@Y nv @VgvW mK

2000 @qs#MbR 22

@n~R@V @y~wy` eLI n`yky` h@v
n#vwW s`m s`kC
c` n&`y pyt a#lW kr g#mt aWhq` b#mK

2000 @qs#MbR 08

Q[y h` sm`j asm`nw`v avsN mt sm`jv` v#d@vlK
sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y m#vrn k`\y

2000 oK@w~bR 08


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