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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

a#mk` m#vrny
aL @g~R@G uQ@{~;nyŸ a#mk` brLv`q@Y mrn l`py

@DD @n`RW
2000 @n`v#MbR 6

@mm vs@R m#vrn uQ@{~;ny l m`[& pNwyN v#@yNm v&lWvyt pW kl |ny @Y, wmNt \`l v`yK lb` @qNnK wm @y~jnyt hrv` g#mt aL @g~Rt p#h#vm @n`h#v a#W@W a#q yNn. a#mk` eKsW jnpqy vRwm`n@Y @pr @n` r$ @s_X`g&yK N gmN krn kl @m`K a@PK;ky`@G pr`jyt a#Ww v\@yNm pvn id s`Mq`k kLpn`v uLlA{ny krn @syK @p y. enM, "@h`> k`l@Y " bl@Y n pK;@Y a@PK;ky` jyhny kr. @b`@h~ t bl@Y n pK;@Y a@PK;ky`@G pr`jyt av` shgw a`Rk wWvyN s^vm ptv l#@B. 1920, 1932, 1960, 1976, 1980 sh 1992 bl@Y pK;@Y pr`j@Y @pr a#<mK @ls p#v @gn yn @h~ n#nM m$w avsN avp`wy p#v.

@mm yt p#h#vm @vnS avS}` a#w. m#vrn pl s$m tm @vl> vyt ar$ @n` @V. s`rny vn a`RkyK ym pBkN pK;@Y @HqyN 1912 [vl mNryt p#n g#mt LsNt h# k@L y. @k`y` Q[@Y m`vw sMbN[v p#v aw^Py 1952 asNhvR@G jyhnyt uq k@L y. wmN jy` @jnrLvr@yKy yNn ot uqV wvW s`[ky. t sm`n @lsm, yTn`M Q[y @j`NsN hMPF@R pp`lny apR@Y @hmt sh 1968 KsN blyt pW mtW .

@k@S @vwW Q[yK @h~ @|;@yNm gw h# r#Q[v`@y n# wWvyk @g~R uQ@{~;ny @b`@h~ @sN v`l lb` avsN @Rš`v @qst am`r#@vN a#N@N mNq?

[np m`[&yN N ipW krn |@L;ny a\y @n`g#„r#y. ey @y`v a#W@W jnyw`vt vl kpn @g~R@G eK @h~ wvW Qgk g lK;nyN @k@r y. @mm K;nyNt yM mTtmk sw&w`vK y h# nW, vd`W g` sm`j sh @Q\p`ln y`q`my pRnv vth` g#mt @mN s#p@yN@N iw` a q`ykWvy.

@g~R@G uQ@{~;n@Y asq`yk SvX`vy sMbN[ vd`W k k`rn` @m`nv` q? plv m`[&vl av[`rn`Wmk (sh yLlNm |n @n`krn) upkLpny slk` blŸ @my sm`NwrnyK n# @s_X`g&mW k`ly. @mm k pqy m`[& mwy pqvNnN@G a\Nm l&my vrs`w wWvyt vd` y}`R}@Y -- vd` sARn sh g#t shgw -- ġ„vK vN@N mq vs@y.

py q\ky l rK;` sAš&` v# a#wW Ev` @pNvN@N pvn sm`j-a`Rk wWvyN@G eK aAgyK pm. a#mk`vN@G a bwryt 1990 gnN a`Rk aSrX`v@Y sh a`w@Y q\ky. y`Wmk sm`j sAkLpyK @ls ߿y` a`rK;`v ar#qhN a#w. uQ[mnyW smg v#P mTtM pvN@N yNw. @k~ sAk&`w v#d krn pL n@Y a# awr h wWvykt n mt @bn h#y`v g#n @n`sNNv . K;kv @q`Tt q#mK @Kqv`ckyk [`w`v a#L kr g.

PpW y nM kr a# a#mk`vN yn 40kt v# skt k sm`j av\&w` -- @ldt @b@hW, @h`> a[&`pnyK, vyst y kl a`Rk rKww`v -- lb` g#mt ar#y. a`Rk@Y phlt y`mK -- Iy` "m^ pwnyK" vW -- kMkr# pN@Y a\y aSr SvX`vy K;kv @hqrV kr a#w.

a#mk` eKsW jnpq@Y sm`j a`Rk @k`N@Q g#n g#„r# X`g mk sNqRX@Y l` s#l t @g~R uQ@{~;ny n a# aRq@Y a#Ww @HN iSm @V. vN vr @k@rn v&`j-jnw`v` Cc`nM ym eyt kMkr# pNyt ipW mt @m`nyMm @h~ y`m`RgyK n#w.

@g~R@G gL g# l`v g#n @b`@h~ @Q y` a#w. vd` wn mwn |@L;k@yK y` @Y, "wmNt ipW krn lq ym |nvlt p`@H @kN, iw` p#h# r# mt up jn`Žpt @n`h#k..." nW @mm lK;ny gl` eN@N Qgk as`R}kmN @n`v @m`K pK;@Y k prSpry. v#d krn a#mk`vN@G a`rK;ky` @ls @p mt qrn uWs`hy wm v&`p`r aд`hkyN@G s#k y r# mt a# k av\&w`vK sm< g#@T. wm p`lnyt N a# @k`N@Q bl krN@N @g~Rt wm k@T @qp#W@wNm kw` mt y. "sm`j rK;ny a`rK;` m" @h~ a[&`pny m g#n krn @{~;`k` @p`@r`Nvl lVvt "l& vgm" g#n Cc k`\nyK kr l#@B.

@mm g#tv @g~R smg a`rMX vK @n` @V. a#Ww vs@yNm o@G uQ@{~;n@yN k`wvN@N a#mk` brLv`q@Y Gg#S š`qn@Y avs`n avŽy .

a#mk` @Q\p`lny g#n pK;`@vN n kv@r @h~ qNn` @qyK nM brLv`qy py vsr 20 a#lw k#w vcn -- XyAkr "eL ar" -- kp` q# @qyt @Q\p`lkv sm`n @qyK bvt pvR}ny a# bv. j`k mTt@M wnrK s>h` ipWvn m @m`K a@PK;k@yK wmN brLv`@y @ls ann& kr g#mt @@[RyyK n#W@wm mN @pNM @k@rN@N sm`j sASkrn v#d@vlK s>h` S}`vr pqnmK [@N|vr @Q\p`ln@Y r`v l n# bv.

@my @SWm aW vR[nyK @n` @V. a#W@wNm brLv`q@Y aRqy @r`nLD gN 1980 jyhny mtW -- @my a#mk` @Q\p`ln@Y [`n h#r#M lK;yK @ls @b`@h~ t sh v#ryt h‹Nvn QŽy -- vd` @pr nykt y l#@B. ih`sy sMbN[v @k@rn pK;`k` X`g mN @p yN@N, sm`j sASkrn@Y gw h# upkrnyK @ls a#mk` brLv`q@Y š`qny vn \wvR\@Y pl q\kyN qKv`m v yn bv. [@N|vr vnw`vK @ls brLv`q@Y Rvl w#n nM [@N|vr l`X pQ[yt gw h# m`vN iKmv` yn sm`j g#tvlt s‹M ipW mt a# @eNy @n` h#y`v .

brLv`qy, j`wNv`q@Y prm`qR\yNt XKy k`\ kr ym, nW X`w@Y [np pN@Y p`Kk av\&w`vN@G vd`W lJj` rw a`rK;k@y bvt @h a# bv 1930 gnN m#q @ a#mk` qR\nv`y` @j~N @V gW@Wy. @V@G avAk Sv`sy @Y @k@S @h~ brLv`qy, [nv`qyt a# wmN@G @eh`k ytW@mN g#l @gn g#„r# sm`j sASkrnvl |v`sy vnw`vK @lst wmNv n#vw `nvW kr g a#w y` y.

1930 gnNvl o@G @Lšnvl @p`@V qNnt @bn a`k`r@yN @V k`\ k@L, "j`wNv`q@Y @Kqv` kd` v#mt @Hv vN@N [np l& a`ywn yt@W, Ky, a`Rk K@@Y m`rw Qgk y`vW smg upm @ls ann& m, yLlN@G m qhs s`K;&`W mt m`r`Nk @ls sr# m y -- ey sm`n`Wmw`v s`K;&`W mt m`r`Nk vn @h. id S}`vN@G av&`j sm`nw`vt h`q`yk s` ey @b`@h~ @qn`@G Kyt h`q`yk @v."

pN mw pqnM sm`j Plv@Y y`m`Rgyt r#Q[v brL sm`j sASkrn@Y S}`vr y`m`Rgyk q`R\k pqnM m kr g#mt @V q#r$ yWnyN as`R}k y. eKsW jnpqy @qvn @l~k Q[yt a#mW sh [`n aŽr`j&v` blyK @ls ey pvRwny mW smgm a#mk` brLv`qy mNm g` SvX`vyK aW kr gW@Wy.

@s~yT sAgmyt e@r wl Q[y smg aWv#L b#>@gn wm rt l q @k`STv`N qdyM m amw m brLv` v&`p`r@Y q gmn a\y n`tk`k`rv k`\yt pW k@Ly. a#mk` brLv`q@Y @y~wyN @Q\p`lkv sh QŽmyv amw kl r qdyM um@V p`ky @Y y a`k`r sm`jv` sh -[@N|vr @r~[w`vN@G ym a`k`r r$pyN eKsW jnpqy l, @|;@yNm aN ӵtv l# k`Rk K@@Y s l, ytpW m sh qdymt lK m.

1950 gnNvl sh 1960 gnNvl L av`kM v&`p`ry sh brLv`qy awr sMbN[w`v g#n s>hN krN@N nM mwK kl vN@N v`Rk @vNmt e@r argly @Y @m`K pK;yt e@rv bv. a#mk` @Q\p`ln@Y k#w k`rnyK nM, 1960 gnN ag X`g@Y pv` @m`K pK;@Y j`k uQ@{~;nyN pqnM @Y ur# brLv`N sh q vRn @Hq v`qy awr aQ[ sN[`nyN bv. @kn pp`lnyt p`lny mt @n`h# mhjn argl p#n n#m mN @mm sN[`ny kr q#M@M y.

@kn {`wnyt pv NdN @j`NsN wm "@T @s`s" v#d@vl yW k@L y. nW @j`NsN N ipW kl sMp`qny @y~jny k@L brLv`q@Y nRvnyK @n` v e avs`n Sm. @j`NsN@G "ڱ bvt e@r Q[y" yTn`M Q[@Y @g`rK y. @j`NsN N k`\yt pW kl @m`n m ilKkyK vW sr`@Y n#w. a#mk` @Q\p`ln ih`s@Y py ar# 30 aW @V @j`NsN pp`lny N k`\ kl a@PK;` pmnK @n` v ey h‹Nv` N |w v#d@vlvL pv` pBkN sh @m`K pp`lny N m`lv ykr q#m .

@m`K pK;@Y @Q\p`ln kK;y @@v;k sm`j-a`Rk vnw` -- yLlNt m pl@vN, wm vrs`q pqnM a# sm`j v&h@Y @m`nyM m @h~ @vnSmK ny`t a‹@k`l @ls slkn @qkl` S}ryk a@W vd vd`W a`Rk bly sh vSv sA@KNny m -- m N N kr a#w. @m`K pK;y v#d krN@N v&`p`r sh l& vA\`ŽpN@G upkrnyK vs@y. @m`K v#d @v@L n&Wvy, wm a`Rk wWvyt sh av\&w`vt av`q`yk blp$mK a# krn @m`nm yvrK vW p`lk kL N @n`ivs l#m sMbN[ qR\ky.

avs`n |@L;n@Y , @g~R@G "gL g# l`v" pN n@Y sh ot v#d mt bl@k a# m`vN@G k`\ny.

aq`l @vnW

a#mk` jn`Žpvrn avsN v`qy sh iN anr#v
@g~R wr<`vs`ny kr` g`tN y

2000 @n`v#MbR 14

a#mk` m#vrnyŸ
av`kM pnwt e@r bRm`N@G Q[ Q[y

2000 oK@w~bR 20

aL @g~R aN @s`y` gW jnw`v`qyŸ
a#Ttn` sAS}`vK plL pN vryt n @q

2000 oK@w~bR 18


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