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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n: iNy` up-mh`Qpy

/ lAk` rjy h` eLIy @k@mN s`kCc` kr` @SN@V

@K rWn`yk
2000 @qs#MbR 22

@l`v [`n @p@L blvN@G dny yt@W, / lAk` rjy h` eLI sA[`ny, 60,000kt aŽk sAš&`vK mrnyt pW kl 17 vsrK r` vn l@gn @bn L Q[y avsN m ar @k`t gW s`kCc` @qst @k@mN @SN @vN .

"g#m sŠm ar @k`t gW @Q\p`ln s`kCc` (eLIy) smg @n` pm`v p#v#Wy h# y. p#v#Wy y" yNn @p` @pr rjyt h#@<n bv @Q\ a#m lKmN krg`mR p y s@Y a#< y. e@S v q, Rv @k`N@Q rwv s`kCc` p#v#Wy bv o av[`rny k@L y. s`kCc` a#rmt }m |v`sy @g`dngn v#d@vlvL gnn`vK yW kl bvt @M g#mt m#hWkr#v vs@yN y` krn @n~R@V rjy ipW kl @y~jn` o K@p k@L y.

@p` @pr a`Nv s`kCc` s>h` wm q`nm shN kr a# awr m, / lAk` hq`v, kN @M vR;y l eLI sA[`ny N aWpW kr gNn` lq @Q\ a`p aLl` g#@M arn a#v u@R y`pny aR[Qp@Y @m@hM gnn`vK yW kr a#w. hq`v py s aNw@Y y`pny ngryt n#@gnr @qN ӵ eLI p`lny yt@W pvn @Q\y a`p aLl` g#@M eLly a#v @mm ms l y @qv# a`mny y`Wmk k@L y. iN a# qr# stN a`N@V hq` XtN 12K q eLI stNkr#vN 30 @q@nK q mr#vt pW bv a`Nv k`\ kr a#w.

krg`mR@G k`\y, @n`v#MbR 29 n r ny W@wN eLI n`yk @VL@L X`krN N krn lq @Q\n@yN @k`N@Q rwv s`kCc` p#v#Wmt @kr# @y~jn`vt m`q q#K c`ryK y. "s`[`rn, Kgr#k h` apK;p` q @qml jny`@G @Q\p`ln al`;yN sNwRpny krNn` q s`kCc`my s‹mK a a@PK;` kr." y X`krN p#v y. "s`m s`kCc` s>h` Rv @k`N@Q vK ap @n` pnv" y q o wv rtW y` @Y y.

e@S v q, s`kCc`vlt @pr`v "q g#M ĵL kr @gn y$m sh jn wy s`m`n& wWvyt @gn Em" X`krN iLl` awr @my s`kCc`vl pqnm b> rjyW smg @M qKv` pvWn` mw@Hqvlt a#w. "wm qrq‡ tv` ty aWh#mt / lAk` rjy @p`lxv vS y hqw`v up@y~ kr gNn` @ls j`w&Nwr j`@vN" iLlN eLIy py s aNw@Y k`\yK W k@L y. @qs#MbR 21 n t a#r@xn m`syK l blp#v#W@vn stN r`myK iN pv eLIy N k`\yt pW krn l.

"j`w&Nwr j`v" @vw enM @l`v [`n @p@L blvN @vw, a`y`cn` m, eLI@Y r`j& w`Nk @v@W a`@Vk glK;ny. "/ lAk`v s`m@Y m`vw kr` @y` mt nM @w~N l a#W@W, r@T a`Rk av\&w`vN sr`ln j`w&Nwr rjyN aw y." y@vN X`krN y @Q\n@Y aqhS q#K y. eLIy j`w&Nwr rjyN@G "hqw`v" mw y mhW bl`@p`@r`W >@mN @pNM @k@rN@N, em sA[`ny a@PK;` krn ply -- enM m#q@prg plSn aŽk`ryt sm`n v@N ur#-n#@gnr @vN @h~ a vs@yN SvyA-p`ln [@N|vr @qml r`j& nTtK ӵm .

oK@w~br@y p#v p`R@MN m#vrn@yN pv, eKsW jnpqy h` @r~y blvW s`kCc` @Msy @vw el@xn @ls @p` @pr rjy h` eLIy @vw wqbl blp$M krN . @k`lx h` nvLy r`j&w`Nk kt bl m[&S}`n bvt pWv a#w.

py m`s@Y @n~Ry` @|; @y~w eK @s`LhM X`krN hm s ur# / lAk`@V q @prn hrh` @|; sAc`ryk @y. iN pv eKsW r`j[`@Y @y~j& @Q\ a#m tR @hN h` eKsW jnpq shk`r r`j& @LkM k`RL iNdRfW iN pv iNy`@V / lAk`@V sAc`ry kr @B. @n~R@Vy` yWnyt h` iNy`@V m#hWmt wmN qKvn sh@y~gy eKsW jnpqy h` w`n&y n#vwW whr# kr a#w.

l k`\ @y~g& p hqw`vK @pNM kl q r@yN ps s#ly mTt@M aW a#xM p#v bvt s`K a#w. a`N gnn`vK smg s`kCc` p#v#WmtW @M sy l @l~k b#Av mN p#@Y k#>vn lq a`[`r @qn rtvL 24k h` j`w&Nwr sA[`nvl iw`mW v#qgW Smkt shX`m s>h`W / lAk` jn`Žp cNŒk` m`rAg @n`v#MbR ms l t @r~p@Y sAc`ryk @y . "@b~[mW s^X`vyN" kr @gn y lbn s`kCc` @ls / lAk` @y~w @S n`yk .eL. S N h‹Nvn lq S@M "rj@Y a‡kM" av[`nyt @y` krN eLI sA[`ny smg s`m s`kCc`vlt @sn @lsW m`nv av`kM b> wm v`Rw`v kr gNn` @lsW @r~p` sAgmy @kN m / lAk` rjyt bl kr @Y y.

a`[`r spyn kNd`y@mN ذN gt m l&my a`[`r lb`g#@M mAl` shgw av\&w`vk / lAk` rjy @v . eLI hq` i@Y brpwl t pb$M gnn`vK aWŠmW smg m# m`s@Y a`Nv a`[ l g#mt \`l [nSkN[yK v#y m @H @k`t @gn a`rK;k yqM yyt 40kt aŽk m`nyN n#. l& @vl> @p`l y @g`S a# awr ey @H @k`t @gn @p` ap`w @b`@h~ @sN ihl @g`S @B. @Q\p`ln h` a`Rk aSrX`vy @H @k`t @gn py vR;y h` ss>` bln t @M vR;@Y L m`s 10 l @Qy `G[ny 9 nykt a`sNn m`nyN rN t @g`S y -- py vs@R r#yL yn 475t sNsNqn`Wmkv r#yL yn 3.2.

eLIy q @ls a`vrw wRjnyNt n . lbn vR;y t blp#v#Wmt yw wm nv Sw @r~ yt@W eLIy @r~ sA[`nyK vs@yN nM m g#n w`n& rjy slk` b#mt id a#w# y / lAk` sAc`r@Y @hN i  k@L y. lNdN, eLI sA[`n@Y [`n j`w&Nwr m[&S}`nvN ek.

wmN eLI@Y y`k`rkM nwr mt yvr g#mt id a#w# iNy`v m$w anr# a#< y. eLIyt wv` kNd`yM N / lAk`@V ur#kryt @h`r b @gn Em m` kr vS q iNy`@V v#qgW S}`nvl n`k hq` Xt S h` @vrl a`rK;k Ekk ӵv` a#w# py @n`v#Mbr@Y Sv@Q\ a#m l`L n aQv` iNy` p`R@MNvt k`\ k@L y. spl iNy` n`k vtl#mK v#qgW m t s#pM lb`g#mt eLIy s h#y`v mw brpwl @ls blp` a#w.

t agm# rV g`NŽ {`wnyt eLIy sMbN[ bvt @k@rn @c~qn`v mw X`krN aW adAvt @gn iNy`vt @gNv` g#m g#n y rjy wv rtW y` kr @gn yn bv q aQv` y` @Y y. @M kr#n sMbN[@yN / lAk`@V p hmt @n`v#MbR ms m#q X`g@Y iNy` l[`N / lAk`v bl` tW bv q o s>hN k@Ly.

[`n blv@wK @vn m @qml r`j&yK s>h` eLI iLmt sh@y~gy @n` qKv. On$m mK "@qml wr@Y al`;yN b#r#M @ls s#lLlt gw awr / lAk`@V @X_k ašNdw`v h` eKsWkm b> aLlA{y pWy kd @n` kl y" @r~p` sAgmy y m$w m k`\@yN n#vw av[`rny k@Ly.

eKsW jnpq h` @r~y blvN@G s#b$ uWkw`vNt @qml jny`@G h` aW j`N@G av`kM smg sMbN[yK @n`m#w; 1948 vR;@Y / lAk`v qhs l# q` t @M qKv` @mm av`kM p`g` qm l#b a#W@W E b> s#ly mTt@M j`w&Nwr @r~[yN @w`rvy.

k`|r@y @mN m / lAk`@v q oN@G arn vN@N v#@dn j`w&Nwr a`Rk h` @l~p`k av\&w`vN@G rAg yK vn iN up-mh`Qpy r` aS}`vrX`vyt y h# g#M avsN m y.

@p` @pr a`Nv, wm p`R|vy @v@vN ur h` n#@gnrt w SvyA-p`lnyK lb`m s>h` v&vS}`my @vnSkM @y~jn` kr a#w. bly m[&gw @M @y~jn`vy k ym`k`r@yN m Ahl h` @qml @k`tS awr bly @bq` g#@M v#d@vl. e arn vN@N a`Rkv n`\k` g#m avsN kr @Qy a`@y~jnyt mg s#lm h` E smg hL kMkr# pNy r`k$m . / l`Ak jnw`v@G -- Ahl @h~ @qml -- k j`wNv` av`kM h`  sMpNn vn wWvyN sMp`qny mt iN q`ykWvyK @n` v a#w. wv r g#mt pqnm spyN jnv`Rk @bM wv rtW @p`@h`sW mt em @y~jn`vy q`yk v a#w.

a@g~S ms l bly m[&gw @M @y~jn`vy sMmw kr g#mt m`rAg uWs`hyK q# y. enW @b_Q[ KN, jnw` K @prn h` hl ur#my N sA[`ny krn lq Ahl aNwv`N@G @r~[w` i@Y a#y ey iLl` aS kr gWw` y. iNp p#v cNq v&`p`ry l @p` @prn, v&vS}` @y~jn`vy h` eLIy smg s`kCc` n&`y p@yN ivW kr @gn a# bv av[`rny krN Ahl j`v` @k`tSvlt ud@g . @l`v [`n blvN@G h` rt l \`l v&`p`k @k`tSvl blp$m yt@W, m`rAg n#vw vrK h@Y m wm gmN mg @vnS kr a#w. eLIyt @m`n yM shnyK n @h`W, ey qKn`Ak Ahl kNd`yM @m@hyvn \`l @r~[w` Llkt @q a#w# q p`ln sX`gy l @bM v^w kr a#w# q a#y iw` @h`‰N q#n .

s`kCc` @n` pvWvn @lsW eLIyt r#Q[v Q[y Vr krn @lsW iLl` @p` @prn l @k`tS q#nt kLyL blN n bv @p@N. agm# rWn mn`yk wmN N @pr`v kl k`\nvN a$W@vN, s`m y`q`my a#rmt gNn` uWs`hyNt "aLpm`yN vW h` mt" wm` y` @n` krn bv m$w mhjn SmK amwN y` @Y y. eKsW j`k pK;y h` @qml pK; q rjy sh eLIy awr s`kCc`vlt wm sh@y~gy qKv` a#w.

@k@S v q eLIy smg s`kCc` @y~jn` @mN a`Nv rt p`v`@qN@N y yn @c~qn`v jnw` K @prn N ng` a#w. wmN 1987 iN-lAk` mt anr#v kl`K @mN, "mVm a`rK;` m" s>h` lK; gnN w j` mt j@p q`nM bv [`n @LkM LN Lv` py s@Y p#v Smk y` @Y y. j@p, 1980 q\k@Y agX`gy l, iN-lAk` @M Ž[`n yt@W / lAk`@V ur#kryt @gNvn lq iNy` hq` plv` h#mt @gn y v&`y`m@Y iw` qr# f#STv` m#r v&`p`ryK @gn @Y y. hl ur#my sMbN[@yN gw@h`W, ey @n~R@V rjytW s`kCc`vlt phkM s#p@M e y`kl`pytW r#Q[v @k~pk` @r~[w` m`l`vK @gn yN .

avs`n@Y s`kCc` a#r„n @h`W, j@p h` hl ur#my v# qKn`Ak aNwv`N@G c`ry gmny kr g#mt m`rAg @v@vN s`kCc`vlt shX`vNnN rNwr@yN m y urSvlt uN h# bl a#w.

aq`l @vnW

w`n& a#mvr@yK @k`lxt p#@n
s`m s`kCc` iyt wL mt r`j& w`Nk y`k`Wv@Y nv @VgvW mK

2000 @qs#MbR 22

@n~R@V @y~wy` eLI n`yky` h@v
n#vwW s`m s`kC
c` n&`y pyt a#lW kr g#mt aWhq` b#mK

2000 @qs#MbR 08

j`k ek sX`gyK @g`dngn @ls @y@qn dn@yN @p` @pr a`Nv @wr@p
2000 @n`v#MbR 21

m#vrny iSmW@W
/ lAk` jn`Žpy "ivryK @vNnm" Q[ krn bv @Vqny kr

2000 oK@w~bR 10

Q[y h` sm`j asm`nw`v avsN mt sm`jv` v#d@vlK
sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y m#vrn k`\y

2000 oK@w~bR 08


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Copyright 1998-99
World Socialist Web Site
All rights reserved

@n~Ry` s`m kw` g#n a#W@W @qy`vK
2000 m`R 23


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Copyright 1998-99
World Socialist Web Site
All rights reserved