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sm`jv`qy sh S SvX`vy b>v vm`r#vK

K MS
2001 m# 01

phw plvN@N sm`jv`qy sh a`Rk y`m b> ykt rK m#@yN @kr# vm`r#v b>v s>hN krN eM N evn lq I-@ML pwkt @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y kRw^ mNdl s`m`k K MS@G r. wmN "gy` @k`NsR@VV pBk`v sh @jfRsy` brLv`y" @ls h‹Nv` gN eM y a`rMX kr@Y @m@S k`\ krŸ "ob@G y `@g~crv y` a# n S vRgy`@G sw& SvX`vy g#m K@p kr. m[&gw s#lMkrny @n` @k@rNnK bv ih`sy @mN m vRwm`ny q @pNv` a#w. sm`jy qhS vn wrmt ey vd` @s_X`g&mW q @v". eM@G sMRn I-@ML pw K MSt r (iA@yN -- Reply to Nick Beams) m#@yN plkr @B.

ob@G I@ML pwt SvNw @v. mKs` q yW ey sm`jv`qyt sh sm`jv` s#lMkrnyt e@rv E @h~ @M a`k`r@yN rNwr@yN @prt qmn wRk wRk gnn`vK smg @p`r b#mt apt avS}`vK sls` @qn b#.

[nv` @vl> @p`l a`rK;` @M o@B wRky phw s>hN @Qt >@v. sw& k`\ny qhS @vl> pQ[y l pmnK lb` gw h# S SvX`vy sh qhs smg @n` g#l@pn @Hv s`@vN sm`jv`qy as`R}kmt yw y.

ob@G wRk@y arv @w~mS @jfRsN@G aqhSvN s#k a# @hN mm m@G r o@G aqhS mR\ny mN a#rmt aqhS kr. anr#v mm @r`nLD @RgN @vw h#@r.

@jfRsN@G sh a#mk` Plv@Y a@nW n`ykyN@G aqhS L a#q @N 18 vn yv@S QŽ @b~[@Y aqhS l y. iN @b`@h`myK, pv iA L Q[yt (1642-1649) @pr sh iKv iyt q# @Q\p`ln n&`yyN@gN vR[ny Ev` y. @mm aqhS ipW kl @Q\p`ln sNqRXy @Y, [nv`q@Y sAvR[ny smg ekt a$Š a` a`Rk sA[`n@Y nv r$p`k`ryN smg v# yn prSpr @r~[w`vt p#@nN p`ln@Y v#dvsMv` @h~ aWw@n~mk @h~ @Q\p`ln v&hy @prl` q#@M argly y.

17 vn yv@S pX`g@Y @j~N @l`K a kl @n` h# yM av`kM shyK -- wyt, qhst sh @Qplt a# ay -- h‹Nv` N@N y. @l`Kt av, s$m @sm o@G @p_QgkWv@Y sh h#y`@V prm akr# vn awr @Qplt o@G ay, wmN@G m œm@Y ply K Šmt a# o@G a@yN |pNn @v.

k#@Ny` @Q\p`ln n&`y`c`Ry .. m#KpRsN @l`K N vR[ny @kr#n @Q\p`ln sAkLp qhS @vl> @p`l p#n n#Am sh Qgk @Qpl ay smg a`Wyv b#Š p#v ar# @pNv` N@N y. sWwN m aw sm`jyN @Qpl b>v sAkLpn` vR[ny k@L y.

17 vn yv@s nv @qy @Y, [nv` sb>w`vN@G vR[ny h` b#‹ @|w @p_Qgk @Qpl vR[ny y. @pr p#v, y sh p^@y mLpl m;& vRgy`t @p`@V kr @M sAkLp@yN @ls Š @vN@mK @m aNwRgw y.

m#KfRsN @pNv` N ar# @l`K@G v#qgWkm v@Y, p`qn@Y nv my vR[ny mt @b`@h~ @sN aw&v\& @|w @p_Qgk @Qplt o q^v`q`Wmk pqnmK spy`m y.

"[nv` @vl> @p`l sm`jyt av\& krn nv a`k`r@Y @Qpl, enM, y sh `G[ny a#v y k`r v&my @QvL s>h` @|w , pvr` y h# @Q @lst @Qpl K Kw mt nM, am`n av\&w` sh [`w` l p#r v#dvsM @h~ c``l pN clnyNt vd` ihl |vmy ymK mw av`km >y v .

"|vmy pqnm "œmy" l @s`y` g#. s$m @stm o@G m œmy l @QplK y. e@S m, s@G œmy ann&y y @|wv o@Gm y yn l sw&y N av\& y @qy gl` a`@V y. @mm l sw&y @Qpl b> sAkLpy @|wyK @ls blg#N y. o@G œmy o@G m vn @hN, o@G œmy krn y q o@G œmy @yq@mN o eK S krgNn` `G[ny q o@G m vN@N y. @l`K, @Qpl b> brL sAkLpyt @KNy kl l[Rmy @my ." [ m#KfRsN, Democratic Theory, (j`wNy n&`y), oKSfRD v @S, 1990. 129-130].

yvsN anr#v, @jfRsN@G gy vn t @Qpl S p#v#W@m SvX`k @k`N@QyK y yn w&y @Vcnyt lKv . 1755 r$@s~ Q[ kl N awr asm`nw`v@Y sMXvy sh pqnm b>v @Q\n` k^@Y s` wm`@G SvX`k wWv@Y @Qpl akr @n` gW bv q, ey `c`ry vR[ny @M p`wyK bv sh @mm t`c`ry s` vhL X`vyt pW kl bv q p#h# k@L y. s`@G SvX`k wWv@Y p^y sh e mLpl vtW ayW @n` y; enM Ev` yLlNtm ayW y. @p_Qgk @Qpl S}`w m asm`nw`v@Y, apr`[vl, Q[vl sh S {`wnvl uLpw y.

a#mk` qhS k`\ny

a@nW ayt @mN m @jfRsNt q @mm c`ry g`d blp$mK a# k@L y. sm`n`Wmw`v, s`@G av`kM sh sm`jv`q@Y upw nM yL@l @DD @n~W @pNv` @qn ar# Sv`nw` k`\ny SvX`k aN b>v @l`Kv` n&`y @qK nr#Cc`rny kl` @n` @V.

"1776 prMpr`v mw @l`K@G y q#v#Nw blp$mK a# kl bv s#k y. e@hW @l`K wm L a`Nkrn@Y @qvn m y` yvskt a`sNn klK gw . S Nwn@Y s`AkLk p#M Sk @n` v Kw a`k`ryN Rm`nyt @pl@xn sh ġ„ krn ;y bQ[ y}`R}@Y blp$m yt@W @vnS vn @H@vN Sv`nw` k`\n@Y adA SvX`k a@Y n&`y gw m @l`K@G @qvn @M iw` v#qgW aA\yN `}kv @vnS y. @l`K @pNv` N SvX`k aN Wvy @Y wy, qhs sh @Qpl @h~ idM y.

"e@hW qh@S k`\ny l @jfRsN N h‹n` @q l# @@nsRk sh a kl @n` h# av`kM v@Y wy, qhs sh @s`Mns @s`y` y`m y. @jfRsN, @l`Kv` gw @mN ivWv @Qpl @vvt "@s`Mns @s`y` y`m" a`@Q\ k@L a#? @vns ewrM v#qgW n#w# y` p$m @n` @V. @jfRsN sh o@G sg@y~ wmN@G v`Am`l`, @|;@yN m evN rn`Wmk kr#nk @n` s#lL@lN v @w~r` @n` g#mt wrM oN@G g@Y @Q\p`ln Nwn@y r` @g`S yh." (@DD @n~W, sm`nw`vy, s`@G av`kM sh sm`jv`q@Y upw, iNtn#;nL vRkR KS. 11-12).

@n~RW @pNv` @qn p, @jfRsN yM a`k`ryk "@p_Qgk @Qpl sAS}`vt e@r `G sm`jv`y @n` @V". e@hW @Qpl b> ab`Žw ay wy sh qhs an@R @hy h#m b>v o q#vW y. ey aLpv p#vy y o q#r$ aqhst @Hv @my .

@k@nt o@G m œm@yN upn Qgl @Qpl, enM p`qn bl@Vg, qhs pvWv`@gn y`mt av\& y @jfRsN s#kv m wRk k@L y. d` @Qplk ay a`Nvl $r X`vyt sh a`Rk dny yn @qktm e@rv a`rK;ny. @jfRsN@G sAkLpy av vKk`r a`N sh blhWk` œmy yn @qN m qhSm @y sh p`qn m`Rgvl @p_Qgk ay mw r>` .

e@hW wy, qhs sh @s`Mns @s`y`y`m s>h` pqnm @ls @jfRsN d` @Qpl yN sh p`qkyN mw r>` pvn qhS @vl> @p`l sm`j@y wRknym p`qky`t @Qpl a krmt q o v#P kMkr#v bvt pvRwny mt sh p`qn m`Rg vd vd`W @q@n aw sA@KNny mt q av`Ry@yN m @H @V.

@k`@h`m nW qhS @vl> @p`@l pqnm mw wr<k`Wv@Y ilKky vN@N ey u@qs`m ey rS}` m @n` v wr<kr#vN n`\yt a#q @hl` @p_Qgk ay sA@KNny m y. j#fRsN mW @mm sNwN sh qhs b>v o@G qR\nyt e aNwr`yyN b>v q#vW y. a#mk`v @Qpl yN@G rtK @ls m ot av\& @Y @M s` y.

e@hW pm`n p`qny sh [nv` @p_Qgk ay @@nsRkv @n` p$@H. l`Xy @g`dgs` g#@M wr<k` argly mN jvy lbn p`qn bl@Vgvl vR[nym a@Y sq` sL vn sA@KNnykt @y` @v. v# v#@yN mh` pm`n vn p`qny kr @gn y s sm`j sMpW @y`qv` g#mt h# vn l& a`ywn -- b#A sh @k`tS @vl> @p`l -- m`l`vK smg m Ek`bQ[ v&`p`r sm`gM n#g a`@V |wv m p`qn@Y pm`v Qgl akr#v`@G pr`sy @b`@h~ @S iKmv` y`m s` y. @jfRsN@G k`l@Y kr# v&`p`k m@Y t 19 yvs ag q#v#Nw j`k sAgwyN@G n#g Em, 20 vn yvs m#q sh aq bj`k v&`p`r vR[ny, 21 vn yvs a`rMX@Y aNwR j`k sAgw n#g Em a q#k a#W@w.

@Qp@l k`RyyN@G pvRwny

@my @Qplvl k`RyyN@G pvRwnyK @gn a`@Y y. qhs, @p_Qgk kM smg eK @k`t s#l n&`y E E Qgly`t o@G m œm@Y plyNt p#v SvX`k ayW @mm av`km rKw kr lbn a`k`ry @p_Qgk @Qply yNnW mw pqnM y.

e@hW ay sA@KNny m sh `G[n@Y kr#vNt mt wm œm \Ky h#r @vn ymK n# jnghn@Y v# @k`ts p`qn bl@VgvN @vN m @pNM k@L @b`@h~ klkt @prm @p_Qgk @Qpl pvRwnyK hrh` y`m y. ey wv rtW QglyN wmN@G m œm@Y plyN rKw krgNn` sm`j y`NnyK @n` v, `G[ny N "a@nW N@G œm@Y" plyN l`X@Y r$p`k`r@yN rKw krgNn` y`Nny. @vnW vcnvN pvsN@N nM, @jfRsN nvl @p_Qgk @Qpl my a`rK;` m a`N@V r#kMvlt @h~ p`ln@Y aWw@n~mk r$pyNt e@rv Qgl aN a`rK;` mK @Y y# p#vy h# v q aq n @p_Qgk @Qpl (p`qn bl@Vg) a`rK;` m y jnghn@Y v# @k`ts mw q#v#Nw sAgwvl sh `G[n@Y vKk` p`lny @p`@V a`rK;` m y.

e@Sm @mm p`lny r#Q[ mw @n` ivs.

"qhS @vl> @p`@L" @r`nLD gN@G aWl`NK s`gry oB@B shk`v m`T w#cR "kLpyK n#w" y p#v t a#y ey r@PK;v v#r @ls vth` @gn y` y. `G[n@Y p`lny r#Q[w` @n` ivs. e@hW j`wNv`qy b>v @m aR}y mK q?

sWwN m j`wNv`q@Y s`rym v@Y @w~r` g#mt a# ay . kLp y`m`RgyN awN @w~r` g#mkt jnghn@Y v# @k`t@S ay . @k@S @vwW kLp n#, qhS @vl> @p`l a``vN hrh` y`vt q#@mn `G[n@Y l`X av\&w`vNt ytW kr l# vRwm`n sm`jy l @my kl @n` h#Kk. @k`N m wvW @ a#mk` j`wNv`y@G k`\y @gn h#r p`N@N nM "jnw`v N jnw`v s>h` jnw`v@G a`Nv" ɵwly mN v#n @n` y` p#vm shk mt @g~y pm`@vN [nv`q@Y aWw@n~mk p`lny @prl` q#m av\& y.

@M s>h` @Qp@l nv r$p`k`ryN vR[ny m av\& kr. p`qn bl@Vgvl @p_Qgk ay Qgl av`kM k@M pqnm s#k@mN (ز klkt @pr`v m) ivW y. aq qv@S @mm av`kM pvWv`@gn y`m sh L m kl h# v@Y, nv @Qpl r$p`k`ryN whr# @mN pmn. ivW m pqnM kr gW @p_Qgk @Qpl my a#lW kr g#m pqnM kr gW @p` @QpN S}`pny kl y. smSw m;& vRgy`@G @p` œm@yN Rm`ny kr l# q#v#Nw p`qn bl@Vg @p` ayt @gn a` awr eKsW p`qkyN N j`wNyv p`lny kl y. @mm a`k`r@yN pmnK m `G[n@Y qhs @vvt m;& qhs shk kl h#k. sm`jv` iqR\n@y s`ry @my .

@w~mS @jfRsN a#mk` Plv@Y av\&w`vyW "wy, qhs sh @s`Mns @s`y` y`@M" n`m@yN w`n& p`lny @prl` q#@M ayW k`\yt pW k@L y. shk @ls m, @jfRsN sh o@G QŽ @b~[@Y smNwk@y~ n# en [@N|vr@Y uvmn`vN @y~jny klh. e@hW oN m;& K@Y sh qh@S L ar ipW kl @H@vN oN@G prm`qR\ py yvS @qk hrh` aq qKv`m gl` e.

@k@S @vwW, @mm prm`qR\yNt a#M krn bv y`p`n ob v# On$m ay, oN QŽmW X`v@yN avAk @vW nM, vRwm`n sm`jy l @mm @ arvlm a#W@W mK q# wmN@gN m ms` b#y y.

wy, qhs sh @s`Mns @s`y` y`m

@Mv` eN ek pK;` kr b#@M Ev` s`K;`W kr g#m, sm`jmy @ls pqvn [n@Y @p_Qgk ay mw pqnM [nv` pNn@Y p`qny sh @p_Qgk l`X@Y a``vNt e ytWm gtm p#vm smg @n` p$@hn ar# @pNM kr.

vW m b> ay slk` blNn. hytm @mm @m`@h`@W @l`v r` q\lK; sAš&`w jny` -- \`l v# @k`ts lmN y -- sln a`h`r, @h`> p`y jly @h~ k @@vq& phkM n#km @H@vN y y. e@hW, @l~k jnw`v yhpW arN @p~;ny mtW oNt a#‹M p#l‹M h` v`s s#pmtW sln m`Rg pv. @k@S @vwW, @mm sMpW m;& av\&w` @v@vN @yqmt l`X pQ[y y`Wmk m hrS @v. uq`hrnyK @ls, ak`@V @b`@h~ rtvLvlt k @s_š& a`rK;n @v@vN yqM krnv`t vd` v# qlK ny a`p @gM @ls j`w&Nwr b#Avlt sh l& a`ywnvlt @gmt bl @k a#w. o_;[ sAgwvl "@Qpl av`kM" @H@vN EDS h` a@nW @r~g`b`[ s>h` vn w`rK;k o_;[ @n` s#p@Y.

[np rtvl @s_š& @Sv`vN, k`r lb` g#m qL @g@M h#y`v l m` kr a# pN @q@K pQ[yK vR[ny @mN v# v#@yN al`p` y. av\&w`v@Y pqnm mw y @qn`t m K ‰y h# |v @s_š& a`rK;n pQ[yK ӵ@M av\&w`v yMwN @h~ s>hN mm eKsW jnpqy l @p_Qgk v&`p`r pQ[@Y @k~p`Gy av.

qhst yM a`k`ryk @h~ aR}yK g#Bmt nM It rKw p#v#WmK adA y y. @jfRsN qhs b>v kw` krQ p#r pRy`y a`rK;` krn a`Nvl sh bl[`N@G aWw@n~mk y`vN b> ot v#tmK . L krpt kMkr#vN @h~ krpt v^WkyN vn s`m`n& v#d krn jny`t oN @Svy krn sAgw@y "pqn@M" uvmn`vN @v@vN kPp` y`Wmk kl y# rny kl tk wmN@G v@n~p`y eK yN a@M wWvyN uQgw @vW q oN kvr nM qhsK K ‰Nn q?

@s`Mns b> wWvy @k@S q? yhpW p#v#WmK s>h` k av\&w`vN av`kmK @lst spyN@N @n`m#v sWwN m E b>v w` g#mtvW @n` h#k. ItW vd` @s`Mns y an`gwy s>h` s`kv q`nM mK q @V. m`KS@G vcnvN "eK eK Qgly`@G qhS vR[ny y @qn`@G m qhS vR[ny s>h` @k`N@Qy y" yNn av sm`j@Y m i gm@N vd` L v&`p^yk @k`tsK @ls ay@G Qgk qK;w` h` [`w` vR[ny @m l` shX`Wvy b> h#mK adA kr g.

@vl> @p`l a``vNt kLpyK n#w# yn w&y c`rny krN sm`j sA[`ny l av&`j j`wNy shX`Wvy b#h#r kr `G[ny sm`jy mw e hny q# krW krW m;& @s`Mns qL sh [ny @g`d g#m y -- vd vd` @QvL a kr g#my -- yn sAkLpy osv` w#mt ey vd vd` m`n bl` a#w.

@mm v&`p^y @kwrM nM as`R}k q yNn a#<mt @k@nt av\& v@Y vRwm`n sm`j a`b`[ pyK pmnK @pNv` m y. a#mk`v l p`sL @v w#M sh jn {`wn QN, uq`hrn @ls OS@y`@V w#S@My` "v` p@W" 36K jny` {`wny m g#„N m k#l„ sm`jyK @pNM kr. @l~ky r`m v`Rk, j`k sh a`gk g#M p#n n#m It a n# qR\ky.

OS@y`@V, h^qy`b`[ sh Mp`nyt pv @r~g`b`[vl N vn \`lwm @Hv v@Y m`nk avny yŸ vys ar# 12-16 awN yyt 20K wrm yM @h~ a`k`ryk m`nk a`b`[yN d` ‰w# wK@Sr# kr a#w. yvs a`rMX@Y @y_vnyN 100,000kt 5 @q@nK ns` gWh. aq em sAš&`v 100,000t 20.

ob @r`nLD gN @gn h#r p`N Qgk shj s`m`R}y, qK;w`v sh \Ky q`h#@M av\&w`v @pNv` @q. m sm`jv`y It ek< @n` a#w. a#Ww vs@yN m, q#nt g h#@rn @w`rr# sh w`K;k Plvy PmW @ls @pr qN vsr 150K wrM a$w m`KS, [nv`qy yt@W p`qn bl@Vgvl vR[ny m, q&`v sh w`K;ny @y`q`g#m kvrq`ktW vd` v#qgW kr a#w# p#h# k@L y. av&`j m;& qhs l<` kr g#@M pqnm vn @X_k [n@Y v# r vR[n@Y @p` sm`j q#m iw`mW m rn`Wmk bl@Vgy bvt pWvn bv o p#h# k@L y.

e@hW evN q#mK vR[ny mt, @qK vrs`w @k`tskt @n` v smSw sm`jytm a[&`pny L m av\& @V. e@hW ap qN@N mK q? PpWm rtvl j`w&Nwr l& arql N b#Avl uvmn`v mw an kr lbn "v&hgw @M y`m`Rg" yt@W a[&`pn yqM kp` h#@R.

[`n [@N|vr rtvl py q\k @qk L@L v#n sm`j asm`nw`v, @s_š& @Sv`@V @mN m, a[&`pn@Y q qL @gmt vNkm mw v# v#@yN r>` pvn pN-@q@K pQ[y v# Em @pNM k@L y. eKsW jnpqy l wmN@G qr#vNt yhpW a[&`pnyK sls` mt qL @s`y` g#m s>h` uWs`h qrN wm w k`lyk ir#M sh an`gwy @k`tS @vl> @p`@l vcn`R}@yN m @k@M wWvyt pL @SN a#w. qK;w` sh \KN q` h#m ... s#k@yN m e@hW ey i kr s sm`jy l`X pQ[@Y q<rvN q` g#m sh ey nv aWv`rmk ӵm av\& y.

sm`jv`qy sh @s~yT sAgmy

avs`n vs@yN, ob @r`nLD gN@gN @gn h#r p$ @qN m k`rn` @qst h#@r. sm`jv`q@Y @b`@h~ r#Q[v`N@G @mN m, gN@G k`\nvl q pqnm @s~yT sAgmy @k`STv`qy h` ann& m y. @k@S @vwW, ev# ann& M QŽmy s^ X`v@Y y N aWh#r q#mK aW kr g.

ap Qgly |cy kr@Y o @h~ a#y wmN m b>v y`gNn` @qN @n` v oN krn yn @qN m @lN m sm`jyK ey wmN mwt alp`@gn gNn` @Lbl@yN apt |cy kl @n` h#k. uq`hrnyK qKv@w`W, yM sm`jyK j`wNv`q@Y ym k`\kyN m`lv r@g qmW nM, mRqny krWnM sh mr` qmW nM ey wmN "j`wNy" y y`p$m ob @n` g a#w.

e@hW @vnW @b`@h~ ay @mN m ob q l[`v` p`ln@Y pqnm @Y sm`jv`N sh @k`STv`N sh @ls mr` q#m sh rgw m y yn k`rn`v @n` wk` hN, St#Nv` l[ry yt@W @s~yT sAgmy yM a`k`ryN "sm`jv`" @h~ "@k`STv`" @h~ @Y y yn aqhs g. TlR@G q a#lW v On$m f#ST p`lnyK N mr` q#n, sAš&`vt vd` Plvv`N, sm`jv`N, m`KSv`N sh @k`STv`N sAš&`vK St#N p`lny N mr` q# bv sw& s`[ky.

@mm ln @r~[y h@V phw |ny ipW mt apt bl @k@rŸ 20 vn yv@S mh` s`v -- enM @s~yT sAgmy l St#Nv` p`lny yMm @h~ a`k`ryN sm`jv`qy @y~jny k@L y yNn -- gtm @n` n# pvN@N sh [nv`qy b>v sm`jv` @Vcnyt r# @ls vh`m @prt a#q@gn e lbN@N mK s` q?

@mm |nyt r nM, @Q\p`ln@Y s`vK |w sm`j uvmn`vNt @Svy krN@N nM ey @n` n# pvy yn kr#n . St#Nv` l[ry kMkr# pN@yN bly p#h#r gW@W sh phN @prl` q#mt pWm b>v ypW @Y 1917 oK@w~br@Y j`w ašNdw`v @ls wmN m k`\ kr gW@W y.

btr [nv` p`lny b>v sm`jv` @Vcn ivwt hrv s @s~yT sAgmy "@k`ST" y# y`p$m [@N|vryt sh e @y~wyNt s$m t m @y~jnvW y. ih`s@Y ww& gmN mg b>v sh St#Nv`qy m`KSv`qy @h~ @k`STv`qy @y~jny @n` kl h` Ev` mRqny m mw pqnM bv b>v Lv p#r# av@b~[yK nM, "@k`ST Ek`ŽpWvyt" @r~v [@N|vryt wm p`lny s>h` ay l# a#W@W em p`lny "j`wNv`qy" mw r>` p#vm s#k y yn [@N|vr@Y y`p$m @b`@h~ rt vd` @h@lWw` vNnt id .

ob@G I-@ML p@w ob @pr @s~yT sAgm@Y sh "@k`ST ny" y ob yn w#n aWq#M mN m[&gw p`lny hyN@N n# bv qR\ny krw# rs`rv y` . e@hW @s~yT sAgmy "@k`ST" @ls nM ym @mN p#n n#A@vn @pr k`rn`vNt m a y n @q.

St#Nv` l[ry n#g Em sh ey Plvy kl kMkr# pN@yN @Q\p`ln bly p#h#r g#@M aR}y vcn@Y y}` @Wr#@mN m s#lM m @s~yT sAgmy l q` i kl @n` h# y yNn . av&`j sm`jv` s#lMkrny kr a#W@W @k@S q yNn av@b~[ kr g#mt @b`@h~ @sN plq` a#<m @M kr#@n g#B @v.

[np p`lny @prl` q#m eK yN @vl> @p`l a@h~ mK @n` kr a#w. a`@y~jn Nvl kLp p`qn N s`@PK; v#y sMbN[v @w`rr# s#p@M , l y`Nny sMRn k`l pC@Cqykt m mg @pNvNn @lN av\& v a#w. e@hW, ey v#v#@yN a[`n bvt pW kr a# awr avs`n@Y a`Rk N g#@M sNw@Y smSwyK @ls kMkr#vN sh jnw`v sMbN[m hrh` @vnS vn wWvyNt n mt N g#M q pK;` @M sh y h#dg#SM q s#l#Smkt av krNn` a`Rk@Y q#vW myN S}`pny kr a#w.

@s~yT sAgmy a#lw evN s#lMkrnyK kl @n` h# @qyK @Y, ev#NnK l[r@Y vrs`w sm`j wWvyt sh @Q\p`ln bl@Y Ek`Žk`ryt vh`m wRjny kr a#v b#. @`TS p#h# kl ar#, @s~yT j`wNv`qy s>h` iLm, sq`c`rmy prm`qR\vl k`\yK wb` Kw pWyK vW @n` vn awr ey a`Rk av\&w`vK y. s#lMgw a`Rky S}`pny m "e SvX`v@yN m q\ lK; gnnk@G npw` aWq#MvN @w`rv, oN@G m s`̵k aWq#M b>v @Vcn`Wmk c`r @n`m#v oN@G av\&w` sh iLM b>v oN@G m k`wmN @w`rv s‰y @n` h# awr l rhS vl m`vN a#lw y`Wmk mt vn" y @`TS y. (@`TS . 1932-33, v 96).

@s~yT sAgm@Y gr` v#m sm`jv` s#lMkrny |X` mN smNw @n` y. E @vvt ey sn`} k@L, @r`nLD gN ephyt p#@nNt @b`@h~ klkt @pr`vm St#Nv` wN@Y j`kv` y` m`Rg@Y -- w rtk sm`jv`qy @g`dn#@M -- @@nsRk ask&w`v sh kMkr# pNy l[`my @ls m#dq#@M n`\k` a`Rk pp`kyN b>v @y`N @`TS N kr l# @prq#M y.

sMNdnyK @lst "sm`jv`qy sh a`Rk y`m b> ykt r" l m` s>hN kl kr#n av[`rny mt avsr @qNn. sm`jv` sm`jyK ӵm prm`qR\yK @n` v S vgt @prt y`m s>h` aw&v\& v.

@jfRsN sh o@G k`l@Y Plvv` NwkyN q#v#Nw yvN iyt @gn y S qh@S sh qhS sm`jyk arn l<` kr gw h# v@Y @g~y `G[n@Y r# X`vy sh "qhS @vl> @p`l" hrh` e p`lny @prl` q#v @h`W pm. @l~ky r`m v#d krn jny`@G QŽmy sh k`k œmy N mvn lq p`qn bl@Vg, wmN@G av\&w`vN i kr s oN N l$ kr gW sm`j pQ[yN ey S}`pny kl y.


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