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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

oKl@h~m` @b~Mbkr# m m#K@VŸ
mh` mr#v Rm`ny m

@DD @v`L
2001 a@™L 19

oKl@h~m` @b~Mbkr#, m m#K@V, m# 16 q` iNy`n`@V @t @h~T cw @\~[n`g`ryk mry eNnwK mN mrnyt pW mt yw y. m#K@V N 1995 a@™L 19 q`, a#LD . r` m[&m a`N @g`dn#L@lN tw, @t`N 7K b @b~Mb gW K r}yK r#v` hN d` qr#vN 19 @q@n a#lW 168 @q@n mr` qm l#@V eKsW jnpq y l @m@wK @kr# r#r#wm Swv` y`v @l.

r# @nk mt yw @mm mrnyt pW m mN @b~Mb rm sh m#K@V b>vmW |n gnn`vK n#vw m @k`t a#w. m`[& l [ v`Rw` pl awr Ev`@yN @b`@h`myK a`Nk vs@yN m mt pr# g$M y. yK vs@yN, oN m#K@V@G m@n~bQ[ a`yN s`kCc` @mN oBbt @n` yn awr @p`@V el@xn gmny nN L sm`j |nvlt @n` b#‹ RgmnyN W o, Xy`nk @ls @n`m< y w#n#Wwt vd` @vnW ymK @n` vn bv .

@M a`k`r@yN m#K@Vt m @n` s$@hnv` pmnK @n` v ey q#vW m< h#m. oKl@h~m` @Kqv`cky h` e s#lMkr#@G cw SvX`vy av@b~[ kr g#mt nM a#mk` sm`jy b> smhr aɵ sw&yN brpwl @ls X`g mK av\& @k@R.

m#K@V sh o N krn lq @{`rwr y`v sMbN[@yN vd`Wm W k`vn sh ekvrm @p yn kr#n nM, l Swr c`rkN Rn vw rn lQq` , m#K@V N qRw sm`j@yN h` e l sAS}`w@yN aŽkwr tSwrm . evN mTtmk tSwrmkt h` ey m#K@V@G cwy l aW kr gW sm`j @r~ r$p`k`ryt bl p$ kr# @m`nv`q? kMkr# pNk wr#ny, kl vrqt pw# @n` vn mh` mr#v bvt pvRwny kl sm`j-m@n~ q&`Wmk sNwy mK q?

m#K@V@G @Lv# y`v mN eKsW jnpqy l h` @l`v vt` yn sAš&`w N sh g#h#N yt pW @kn. nW mkL sh d$N hR@bK nM bf@l~ VS v`Rw`kr#vN @q@q@n N yn lv m$wk k`\yt pW @kr#, American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing (a#mk` Swv`y`Ÿ m m#K@V sh oKl@h~m` @b~Mb r#m) nM N}@Y v`Rw` @k@r@Y, m#K@V wm y`v sMbN[@yN p|c`Ww`p @n` vn bv . o kvr#N i@Y, @b~Mb a#tm v^wvm gNn` awr em mh` jn {`wn@Y smSw vgm q X`r g. m`R 20 q` E vW @Sv@Y "M tM wRS@D" v#dsth@N @p hR@bK @m@S k`\ k@L y. "o, oKl@h~m` @b~Mb r#m sMbN[@yN eK aNsyk @h~ pw#LlK @tkW qR\ny @n` k@L y." r#@mN p o@G y`v mK q# m#K@V@gN msn lv o N r mkL N m#K@V@G m vcnvN @m@S Swr k@L yŸ "ap`ytm plyN, mt Lm mt smwl` krNn b# un`."

mkL sh hR@bKt av, r` @g`dn#L@L v` M m[&S}`nyK b#V m#K@V q#n @n` awr o ey q#n @Y nM, o@Gm vcnvN, "ey q#n y` nM m@G ilKky @vnS y h#v n`. ey \`l pm`n@Y ar# n`\yK."

mkL sh hR@bK, m#K@V smg p#v#W p#y 75k pmn s`kCc`@vN ut` gN, @b~Mb@Y @g`r# bvt pWvN b> o@G a`kLpy @gn h#r p`Ÿ "wm` a`qry kl ay a oKl@h~m` v#y, mt sm`@vNn. nW ey h#m nkm @vN pvNnK. ob qr#vN a }m mv @h~ r` @h~ y a }m Wwy @n` @V. ey @l`v kvr w#nk @h~ h#mq`mW @vN pv. us`yt @g`S gRX`;@Y v#@dn kll qr#v @mN hdNnt m` q`nM n#w. mNq yW @b~Mb@Y p`kyNt @g`r#vN ht m` lv` ev#NnK krmt av\& a# b#."

QŽ@yN y y qr#vN, @LkMvr#N, kr#vN, pp`lkN sh m[&m a`Nv N ߿y`vl ӵtvN sh @g`dn#Llt tN p# M gnN jny`@G mrn sMbN[@yN m#K@V@G @n` pw#Ll, eKsW jnpq@Y aNw qKn`A\y N osv`l l# @k`tSvl cw SvX`vy b> anr# a#<mK @ls y` kr a#w. o k^^r, y sh akMp` rw@v~ @vW.

a#mk` Swv`y` k^@Y, vn`kmK sw yM @w`rr# m`nyK aNwRgw vn awr, m#K@V@G y`@V sm`jmy Xvy b> spyN@N iw` d` aNwR`ny. s#b#Nm, mkL sh hR@bK wm k^y m` kr@Y phw sth@nŸ "vK X`w` @M ay sMbN[v a#mk`@V زk`nv k#k$@rN pvn a`wy r#v` h#r a# w yt@W sh oKl@h~m` sL a`N @g`dn#LlK r#v` h#r a# w yt@W wm N, yyN, kl`N, N sh a@nW a`qry kl ay a kr gW jny` awr em s#h#L |nym @h`LmN kr. E mNq?" @mmN @pNM @k@rN@N on@G, 388N W k^@yN @mm |nyt r# s#py v n, oN@G p#W@wN ey as`R}k a# bv .

"mNq" yNnt r# @s`y` g#m s brL uq`nX`v@Y l k`\ny vn V@y~K tMS @qst, |w vs@yN m @n` h#r@r a#w. m`R 30 q` q tMS kv#@yN m#K@V @hl` q#k @N o Rm`ny mt @H @k`N@Q vg X`g @M uWs`hyN @w`rv y. vW p@W kv#y Sr @ls k`\ kr@Y, oKl@h~m` @b~Mbkr#@G aqhS mN "SvyA @™w [k`Wv@yN sh l`X@Y sh p`@V v&`j @@v;k X`;`@vN k^w mnsK" an`vrny vn bv . @mm kv# yNnN a<v lbN@N, pvWn` wWvy @k@r a# qk` r#Q[Wvy s`[`rkrny @k@rn sm`jmy vtt`vK eKsW jnpqy l v@mN @h~ q@nN @n`m# bv . tMS wRknyt av m#K@V N smSwyK @ls sm`j h` @Q\p`ln pRy`y mn a`k`ryN @h~ ġ„ @n` krN@N y; kv#y mN a#mk` sm`jy p`p@yN qhS kr qm.

@k@S nW m;&yN sm`jmy sWvyN vn awr oN wm @p_r#;yN sh m@n~gN vR[ny kr g lbN@N |w @eh`k @k`N@Q yt@W @|; sm`jyk s`m`kyN @l. on@G s`ry, on@G sm`j sb>w`vN ekv. @p_QgkWvy r>` pvW@N yM g#h#y @h~ s N sm`j h` @eh`k sNwN [WvyK pr`vRwny @h~ vRwny krn  h` |y a`k`ry l y.

q\k gnn`vK r` aR[-lmy aдhy yt@W y`Wmk sNwyK vn, eKsW jnpqy l aNw qKn`A\@Y vR[ny N, oKl@h`m` QŽy v# @{`rwr y`vK yM w#n#Ww hrh` y`vt n#Ay h# av`Ry wWvyK Rm`ny @kn. m#K@V@G wy l @b`@h~ q$ N o @mm yM w#n#Ww` bvt pvRwny @kn.

a`Rk v&sny

m m#K@V@G w aWq#m l sm`j sNwN @qkK eKv y`Wmk y -- a`Rk v&sny sh @Q\p`ln y`v.

1968 a@™L m#K@V upw l#@V nygr` ya#Llt s#w#M 15K n#@gnN sh bf@l~ t s#wM 20K Is`n ذN ӵ, btr V@y~K `Nw@Y 23,000K pmn jnghnyN smNw @l`K@p~T nM d` ngryk y. e a#l m`Rgy, @l`K@p~T @qkt @bq` ngryt a q# b#N em nm pt b#‰n.

bf@l~ @Q\y, vn yvs a`rMX@Y [`n v&`p`k h` k`Rk m[&S}`nyK y. 1910 @hN h#sN N @l`K@p~T d` v#d@p`lK l @m~tR r} s>h` X`w` krn @R@Ytr pqm arxn l. 1920 vn t h#sN @R@YtR a`ywny @jnrL @m~tRS @k`tsK awr, 1995 h#sN wRmL StMS a`ywny @dL o@t~@m~V StMS bvt pvRwny @k@rn r# e@S p#vn. @l`K@p~T \`lwm @Sv` q`yky` h#sN y. m@G y` vsr 30K q, y` vsr 36K q h#sN a`ywn@Y ߿y`@V @yn`h.

1970 ag X`g@Y t, btr V@v~K a`Rk wWvy q, eyt @k`‹ n`ry spy` N @m~tR r} h` v`@N kRm`Nw@Y wWvy q n`tk`k`rv nrk awt h#@rNnt y. 1979 h#sN N kMkr#vN v#dt g#m nwr k@L y; bf@l~ @Q\@Y v`@N kMhL \`l sAš&`vK, j`w&Nwr wr<y sh h >`v#M @H@vN 1980 gnNvl l X`g@Y t vs` q#n. ngry sh kl`py ph`@Y sRlykt a# y.

1995 @v`NtN @p~ST vW pw @m@S sthN k@L yŸ "m#K@V@G nv @y`N y avp`w@yN @mt vd`W yjnk a`Rk k`lyN smg smp`w y. bf@l~ aWq#m @l~h kRm`Nw r#vt mN m sm`n y. @m~tR r} sh v`@N kMhL [`n L krp @Sv`q`yk@y~ wm kMhL vs` q#h. n#w@h`W n`tk`k`rv wm @Svk sAš&`v a klh. [`n b#A @q@K kd` v#m @H@vN krp kMkr#vN qhS gnnK ߿y`vN ivwt awr, @my idM M K@@Y q, @vl> c`rk aA\@Y q, h` a@nW K@vl q phw v#mkt @Hk`rk y. bf@l~ VS vW pw, 2001 a@™L m`s@Y l m#K@V b>v mkL sh hR@bK@G N}@yN ut` pl kl N v# sh avs`n n@Y m e pl @vnW v`Rw`vN bf@l~-nygr` kl`py, "r@T kvr @h~ [`n n`gk @Q\yN 1990 t wm jnghn@yN n# kr gW m`nyt vd` v# \`l @k`tsK n# kr g" y@vN m$wk W 2000 jn sAš&` @Lšn b> |@L;nyK a#@rN @pNv` n. @M av bf@l~-nygr` kl`py jnghny av eKsW jnpqy l 34 vn n`gk kl`p@Y 43 vn S}`nyt phw v# a#w.

@Q\p`ln v`w`vrny

py \wk k`Rv l a`Rk K;y m smg eKv y`Wmk wvW y`q`myK y. enM a#mk` sm`jy @l~k @qkkt @vN krN v# sm`j asm`nw`v@Y ag`[yŸ aw&Žk @ls [nvW iw` d` p#l#NyK sh Rn qw`v@Y vW vn @h~ g#t gs` g#mt argl@Y @y@qn mh` jnghnyK. @my a@nW s$m w#nkt @mN m bf@l~ @Q\yt q sw&yK y. ngr aX&Nwry sh v@rk s`@PK; vs@yN S}`vrv kMkr# pNk jn shyN m@yN ph`gw awr aw@l`SsK wq`sNn @Q\yN pyK sm^QŽmW y.

@k@S nW m m#K@V@G pn`my, ph`y sh sm`j #krny a#@rN smSw vs@yN p#h# kl @n` h#k. 1980 gnN ag sh 1990 gnN l sm`j aw^PwkrX`vy `}k vs@yN qKn`Ak qk`-vRg@Y v&`p`ryN vR[n@Y r$p`k`ry gW@W mN q? [nv`qyt e@rv v#@dn v&`p`ryK @n`@Y mK s` q? m#K@V@G m klm qKn`Ak \`vnyK aW kr gW@W a#?

m#K@V wm nv @y`N @yN wr#n yt p` wb` r` @Y, kMkr# pNy N n`gW aNvlt h` vn @k`N@Qvlt akMp` rw h`ryK eLl krn lq h` It sm`nv g sm`j NwnyN@G y [`r`vNt e@r qKn`Ak q^v`N@G r#r# h`ryN eLl @kr# k`l pC@CqyK @ls n`Akrny krn lq, @RgN jn`Žp pqy q#r$ ar# l y. @s~yT sAgm@Y " aŽr`j&y"t e@rv -@k`STv`qy eLl @kr# awr tv`qy, vRgv`qy, j`k S@v~Wwmv`qy, a`gk Ek`Žpv`qy sh agwv`qy sh @p`@V QŽmy ph`yK -- Plv@Y ym r$p`k`ryN -- vR[ny y. ey e p`k >gW@W y.

m#K@V sMbN[@yN slkn kl, @| a`k`r@Y uMmWwk wr#n @p_r#;yN Rm`ny @M l`, @mm qKn`Ak uQ@{~;n sq`y, iw` p#h#v @p@nn p, On$m @m`@h`wk v`l kl h# a`@Vg`Wmk wK -- o 11 vn @Y pvn t wm @qm`yN@G v`hy > m a`rMX y; k^\ r#rN @h @k` g#ty`, p`s#@L avmN sh awvrvlt lK y -- smg Ek`bQ[ y.

lm` @Y o glv` g#@Mv`q@yN brpwl @ls Ww d` N@Q y. asLv#y pvsn p, "n&k h`ryk @h~ @k`STvr#N N wm rt aLl` g#mk " @y~jnyt g#m s>h` qhhwr vn @Y (1983) o a`h`r, k>r# upkrn sh a`[ ek krN t a#w. 1973-74 g$S <@yN ‰Nnt ز k`n krw`vN sh 1977 a# mh` m n`@V bf@l~ @Q\y mN m p`@H vs` qm` a \`l jn shyK v`hn m`[&yN @n` spy` awh#r q# wWvyN yt@W wm`m l# aWq#M, w QglN N wm`@G a`rK;`v, wm` N sMp`qny kr g#mt ugw y yNn EW g#mt m#K@Vt uqV k@L y.

mkL h` hR@bKt av o vK b> s<r` mhW ar#@yN yv` a# awr e vl s>hN @vl> q#NMvlt av @p`W a#nM @k`t @B. "o@G W a#qb#>gW eK N}yK @Y, a`Wm`rK;`v b> ny @ls @l`v pwl hq` l[`y @jF pR N yn lq To Ride, Shoot Straight and Speak the Truth (av\& w#nt y`mt, @kN @v w#mt sh sw&y kw` mt) nM k^y. o@G Sn` pQ[yt k` v# wvW k^yK @Y The Turner Diaries (tRnR n@p`W) y. @my nvkw`vK awr, a#mk`@V kN p#v# n` pK;@Y l[`y yM eL. yRS N a#Nd^^ m#K@d`nLD nM aNvR} n`m@yN yn lq @mm k^y 1978 k`\yt pW @mN p, vK ek krNnN@G, sNnQ[ kNd`yMvl sh a`Nvt @r~[w` qKvNnN@G ĵL v&`p`ryN bblyK bvt pWy." k^@Y v^Ww`Nwy "a#@d`LF TlRt wvWkmK qKvn awr, k N h` @qVvN upNm nrN bv [vw krN oN mr` q#mt pK;p`v kw` kr.

m#K@V@G W a#q b#> gW wvW m`[&yK @Y @l~k n`\y qh` qKvn sh @k`STv`qy @gn h#r p`n @h`D pt y. @mm pt awr q o@Mg` m$N, @l~gNS rN, q Pl#nT oF q EPS sh @|;@yN m (qKn`Ak @j~N yN N a[&K;ny krn lq) 1983 wl q h$Ll @rD @d~VN y. @rD @d~VN @y~ pty o V vrK yt @gn a# awr e aNwRgw vN@N @k`STvr#N N eKsW jnpqy a`mny kl t, gLl` stNkr#vN bvt pWvn d` ngryk nv @y`N wr#n kNd`ymK b> v^Ww`Nwy. E smg m o tmy mnAkLw Rm`nyNt q a#LmK q#K@V y. fST BlD, rM@b~ ptvN plv#Nn sh a#mk` q rkr#vN @Br` gNn` cwyK cK @n`S N r<p`n N iN a#K;N o@G W gW evN Rm`nyN y. m#K@V, vK l g#m sh Ev`@yN @v w#m a`rMX kl awr SklAkv wm a phrny m s>h` wm r smg w g V@y~k@yN aKkr 10k idmK l g#m wrM a$w qKv` gmN k@L y.

1980 gnNvl "b s`[n vAc`vN" v# q$t eLl krn h`ryN l#g gW qKn`Ak @Q\p`lkN sh m`[&yN N vRgv`qy klw`ln l. mkL sh hR@bKt av "a<hr# @l`v N wrM „r# sh k lX -vT jn shyK awr h# v# m#K@V v&`p`r @k`ź@Y vsr @qkk @k a[&`pnyN pv -- @m o Q[ gw h#y`v m#n b#@M pK;nvl ihl l lb`@gn a# awr l pgnk h` aNwRj`ly b> unNvK qKv` a#w -- bf@l~ q t#A @Svyk ߿y`vt @g`S a#w. o plvrt vRgv`qyt r`vrny a#W@W "ngry hrh` em q t#A mN gmN krn t y. n#@gnr bf@l~ @cKpWvlt qL @gvn S}`nyN a`–wv @Svy krn t o@G kMkr# sgyN em S}`nyN blv vWvn j`kyNt h` j`k g@qkr#vNt q#K@Y aLp aдhy."

SN smg m#K@Vt asq`yk @h~ k^w sb>w`vN o@G yr#vt @wL vW k@L y. o@G @qm`yN@G @vN @M y`k` k`vK i k@L mv vn awr, a#y wm wvN y` @vw aw#r qm` yNnt y` y. iw` p#h#v @pn` L r#Sn` gyK m#K@V l vR[ny y. mkL sh hR@bKt av, m#K@V smg krn lq sMš s`kCc`vl "߿y` krn mVvr#N sh mV-y @q@qn`m qL upyn pL b> sAkLpyt -- a`@Vg`Wmkv n#vw n#vwW -- blg @ls phr mt ot av\& y. a#mk` sm`j@Y g#tvlt kvm blp$ @HvK @ls o ey slk l# y. "SN@G v&`p`ry @H@vN py vsr h l oN@G blp$m p@lN ivwt a# @Y y" y@vN o v`Rw`kr#vNt pvs` a#w.

(k`Ry`l @g`dn#LlK l, v#d krn k`lm`@V , @mm @b~Mby rv l#@mN S @SvkyN \`l sAš&`vK mr` q#mt @h~ ont v`l mt h#@V y# m#K@V wNnt a#w# y@mt en Ll vlKv` g#m aph y.)

m#K@V@G wy b>v yvn y@mt o@G smSw @y_vny l -- o@G aWq#m @| vs@yN -- kvrq`k @h~ eK v`m`Ak @h~ sm`jv` aqhsK ot n g#@N q yn Ll phl v a#w. v qKn`Ak Swv`y vNnt pw` @m@l`v ey q n#w. nW m#K@V h# v# K;ny vn sm@Y, o@G aw^P@Y a`rMXk avS}`@Vm e aw^Py g m`vwK @s`y` g#mt e@rv o vt` p#v sm`jmy, QŽmy sh m@n~q&`Wmk psry r#r# @ls y`Wmk y.

1980 gnNvl sh 1990 gnNvl l p#v# qKn`Ak uQ@{~;nyt em $r g SvX`vy aW kr gw h# @Y, a#mk` brLv`q@Y h` @m`K pK;@Y ph`y e uCcwm avS}`vt l<` b#N pmn. "gNv`qy" , Q-p`Kk @vwK y. @k`Nsy p`lny kl @m`kyN N kMkr# pNyt e@r h`ryNt wm p` sh`y Rn vs@yN q l# y. o, ڱNt e@r h`r@Y aNwr` g`ynyt @h~ e@nkt avRwny @M @h~ v^wv m sMbN[ h. bf@l~ v# ngrvl @m`k@y~, ayv#y kPp`vlt sh sm`j-b s`[n kPp`vlt s^vm sMbN[ h. gNt sh o@G sgyNt @q@v mt @n`k#m @m`K pK; @Q\p`lk@y~ -@k`STv`qy sh tv`qy ng` m s>h` s$m avS}`vK m @y`q` gWh. "v#d mt ay a#" d` q jnpqyk a`Nk`r ryK q#r$ L KNtN v#Nn qKn`Ak @m`K n`ykyWv kNl@Y ihlt osv` w# awr 1990 gnN vn t o pK;@Y aŽk`rvW bly bvt pW y.

1960 gnN l (wm` aw&Nw@yN m w cw`AgyK bvt pWv sm@Y) @m`kyN @w`@r`MbL kl, @ sm`jy, qw`vt e@r Q[y a`@yN ann& sm`j sASkrn @vW @mm vsrvl aWhl awr, a`Rk asm`nw`v a mt h` plL mhjnw`v@G vn @k`N@Q vR[ny m s>h` ipW @kr# "a`q`yM n#vw @bq` h#@M" kvr @h~ a`k`rykt o @p`@V r#Q[ h. aN kvrq`kvW @n` wr@M iw` p sm`j pqnmK mw ӵt` @m`k@y~ l& wWv`rK;nv`qyt h# gWh. @my vd vd`W s^ @ls mh` v&`p`kyN @vwt @y` awr @Q\p`ln@Y k h` a@nW j`N@G vd`W vrs`w S}ryNt a`y`cn` @mN oN ann& y.

@mm sNqRXy l, qKn`Ak uQ@{~;nyt vd`W ph@vN n#@mn m@n~gyK m#K@V l b#V s>hN m vt@N y. wm q hq` @Sv@Y @y y `Nw a`N@vN sh @fdrL a`N@vN pvWvn lq pp`ln @Sv` X`gyNt @p t ihl l l# nW It aq`l ߿y` ot @n` l#@N k j`k ayMkr#vNt v` slsn v#d@vlK s` y o |v`s k@L y.

mkL h` hR@bK@G k^@yN p`ky` @vwt pn eK lK;nyK nM v^Wy s sMbN[@yN, @|wv ntD o@t~ vRkRS (EdB) v^Wy sy sMbN[@yN, eK w mmK @h~ @n`m# m. 1943 h#sN @RD@YtR a`ywn@Y EdB 686 v# \`š`v ӵvn l. @v`NtN @p~ST vW pw m#K@V@G y` L Swr kr l#@V, "y`vv @m`ky sh v^Wy skr#v" @l. "o m$w @nk svS vr#@vk EdB a#‹mK a#>, EdB @BS @b~L k#P ekK p#l> " a`k`ry q e qKv` n.

m#K@V pl N vsr 52K r`, oKl@h~m` @b~Mby r` yn k`ly @wK, s`m`k qL @gvn lq EdBV v^Wy sy, g sm`j bl@VgyK @y~jny m ز k`nv vlk`@gn @Y y. @k~p@RTv`qy on@G l @vw awr, @m~tR r} |p`qny krn sm`gMvl EjNwN @ls v^Wy s n`yk@y~, v#P kPp`vlt sh a@nW h`rvlt sh@y~v vsr gnnK r` m#hW y. 1980 gnNvl , on@G jpN @r~ uQ@{~;n hrh` EdB sh ntD SL vRkRS s, S@v~Wwmv` uNm`q@Y @pr@Nm yh. @l`K@p~T v# ngrvl o g#„r# @ls Plvv` sm`j k`vK r<p$h.

EdBV @s`d# s<r`@V r# ykt av a`sNn vs@yN "y` sh œ`k s`m`kyN" 9700N smNw 686 \`š`v, (h#sN wRmL ;N N [`n @r~y, jpN h` @k`y` @m~tR r} p`qk sm`gMvlt amwr @k`tS pqvN ym) "s$m vsrkm a#mk` X`Nd l g#@M s aNwyK sA[`ny @mN sh a#mk` -- sh v^Wy s -- |p`qn q# @ls c`ry krN" aдhy q#Ky.

eKsW jnpq hq`v sh gLF Q[y

m`s hyk q t#A ߿y`@vN p, bf@l~ vW@mN an`gwyK n#w# m#K@V vn yt p` w# s#N, 1988 m# m`s@Y ej hq`vt b#‹. ot hq`vt b#‹ a@nK ay smg, k^^rWv@Y y`q`mykt ytW vNnt y. mkL sh hR@bK @m@S pvsŸ "uq$sn M v&`y`mvl sh @j~Ry` v`k`@V ز h v#@tn p` gmNvl oN h' w#@V srN mr` qmn t sh oN@G aW p` > qmn t ngn l`pyN @h~ SN smg @k@rn cNd rmnyN n#@gn \Bq akrny kr. "wn@k`l v#@vN@n @LvN" y@vN Qmykt nNnt b>v` g#nN @kn. "mrV!mrV!mrV!" h@… s#r ihl q#m s>h` "mt @w`@P h' @n` a#@S!" y@vN s`jNvry sN N@N y. "wn @k`l v#@vN@n @LvN! mrV!mrV!mrV!""

hq`v l wm qKn`Ak aqhS vR[ny krNntW QŽ@Y k`\yt pW krNntW m#K@V ptN gW@W y. ot oKl@h~m` @b~Mb pr@M mNnyt shX` wm sgy` @t @k`LS h @Y @m y. k j`k @s`Lq`vNt nrkm v#d pvrn s`jNvry @ls @c~qn`vlt lK m#K@V, vRgv`y @ls s`K swv whr# m s` krw`vlt n N@N y.

mRqnk` yNyK @lN q, nv @l~k pRy`@Y @y~wy` @lN q, eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny aŽk`ry qrNn` @l~k a`Nvk qdm` vs@yN q q#kgW ej a`Nv b> o@G aqhS, hq`vt a# wm a#Lm smg g#@tNnt y. o N #D stN r}yK @m@hy pRy` gLF Q[@Y l# aWq#MvN ej t@Y k`v sMbN[ o@G s#ky vd`W whr# y.

1991 @pbrv`@Y Q[y a#r„ t qK; @vKkr#@v m#K@V iw` uQ@y~g@yN e rw y. @k@S @vwW, mkL sh hR@bK @m@S y Ÿ "a#mk` @s`Lq`vN wm srN ny k@L ur# q‡ kp` qmn sh rs`yk a phrny krn aŽkwr @L p`wyN @ls y. E @vvt ont h @Y @vN h` sA[`n@yN ڱ, av\& upkrnvN asNnQ[, kdm` h#>gW ir`k hq` XtN @r`Ww. a#mk` @s`Lq`vN awt pW avmN sh h#rvlt lK ir`k @s`Lq`vN m#K@Vt wm lm` @Y aWq#M yt n# wm` q iN e@k @S h# @Y y."

1991 hq`v h#r y m#K@Vt eKsW jnpq hq`v sh a`Nv Ww y. o @V yM h`M@w gLF q ryt ߿y`vK mt k#m v a#w# y@v. mkL sh hR@bK @m@S yŸ "nW ey E aN @n` . btr V @y~RK a`Rky, o hq`vt b#‹ sm@Y @mN m @m@w argl@Y @y b#N ot q`ny mt ymK e @n` . @my v#t@mN o mhW kMpnyt pW y. Il< m`s qh@N o @pND@lTN (wm y` @l`K@p~RT aW h#r pAyt y S}`ny) kL @g awr, ey o@G w@Y vd`Wm klr# vkv`v bvt h#r# awr emN g#„r# m`nk avp`wyK kr` o @gn y l#n.

bRNS a`rK;k @Sv@Y, a`rK;k y`mk wnrK lb` gW m#K@V wm qKn`Ak, jnw`v` q^v`qyN k`\yt pW krN vW pWvlt h` @Q\p`lnnt m a`rMX k@L y. phw q#K@vN@N evN yk ym @lsm v&`l @Cqy.

"vRgv`qy n#g eN pv q? ob e@S |v`s kl . @my a#mk`@V a@PK;` XAgWvy wm` N m eqrV mK q? ey vlA a@PK;` XAgWvyK q? @M aL shgw wWvyt vrqkr# @ls @c~qn` l#y W@W kr#N q? jnw`v klmn`krny mt a@p`@h`sW pQ[yK @ls @l~ky` N @k`STv`qy q#kgW @M @m`@h`@W j`wNv`qy q em m`Rgy oS@S gmN krN a# bv @p@n. @M "\`l" (smSw) Nry vt @n` @p@N.

"pRn @w~y` a`NvK aWpW kr g#mt apt q^v`qyN Ek`bQ[ mt y h#k. pW kr gNn, a`N@V aдhy lbn @s_š& @Svy, @k`ST aqhs. wv rtW [nvNt pmnK vW mt id y q? eN k`\ @k@rN@N, ym PpW nM, o t@k~T @n` pl‰n s` phW m;&y @ls slkn bv @h~ ot h#w`K ز k`lyK vW mt id @n` slkn bv q?

"L Q[y iw` a`sNn q? vWmN pQ[y sASkrny m s>h` @L v#y @V q?" y@vN o nr# anr# a#<mK k@Ly.

id`@h~ j`k aŽpv`y@G >, eFa r t ilKkyt @v wbNn N @v wb` {`wny kl 1992 a@g~S@V r$ P a# QN N m#K@V@G arn q# @kn. 1993 a@™L 19 vn n, @tKs`S, v#@k~ ngr@Y ӵ @Dy` \`š`v l, @fdrL y y`Wmk kr@M hq`v N krn lq mh` S sAh`ry, r ir pNnt ov wL k@L y. q#N o a#@s~n`, ɦgN sh btr V @y~RK k`ly gw krN sNnQ[ kNd`yM a#r# krNntW o@Gm @p`W @p` p`qny krNntW ptN gW@W y. 1994 o wm aw @rt yk @m@S s>hN k@L yŸ "SV, mN r#Žry gl` y a#w. nrt e@rv @h`>. sm`jv` vhN mt av\& ayt e@rv qhS N. m` r, E ob@G r#Žry @n` vNnt y`C›` krNn."

1994 r@Y , @fdrL @g`dn#LlK r#v` h#m s>h` m#K@V N k@L y. o k`\ krN@N, apr`[y s>h` @c~qn` l#b n @t @k`LS sh mkL @f~RyR pmnK m @myt sMbNŽw bv y. @my s#k sw bv @p@N. @M vkv`v vn t aNw qKn`Ak p`w`l @l~ky r` o@G sb>w` p#v# awr, @b~Mby rmt @pr, QŽ@yN p s#<v g#m s>h` f#ST sh vRgv` sA[`n gnn`vK a#m bvt q#ngNnt @B.

qmy h` up`k @H mw v#@k~ sAh`r@Y @qvn sAvWsr ny -- 1995 a@™L 19 -- @b~Mby r#v` h#@M ny @ls @y`q` g#m b#V o s`[`rkrny k@L y. mkL sh hR@bK @m@S sthN krŸ "q sA`syN , hq`v, o@G r#vry` @ls y`Wmk a#w. ... "{`wnyN hr#v lbN@N @k@S q# hq`v l ob i@gn g." o p#h# k@L y. "mm e p`kyNt n @qN@n, nW ob Ev` X`r g#mt ug."

"j`w&Nwr q g#Mvl , $r sh aWw@n~mk p`lkNt pdyK y#mt uvmn` tk a#mk` a`Nv q X`w` k@L @mm upmy . On @qyK oT yn @mm nv m`nkWvy vR[ny k@L eKsW jnpq a`Nv , y m#K@V |v`s k@L y. o @l~ky`t @pNmt bl`@p`@r`W @Y nv yt@W m[&m a`N@V kN@N m krn stnK @k` a`k`ryK g q yNn ."

a#mk` [nv`q@Y g#„r#vn aRq@Y aX&Nwr sh b`r yn @qp#Wwm -- rt l v#@dn sm`j asm`nw`v h` @Q\p`ln g`Wvy, sh @Q\yN a#mk` tv`q@Y @VgvW m -- m#K@V@G cwy wl` axrv` h#d g#Nmt s^vm bl p$@V y.

m#K@V@G @Q\p`lny

m#K@V@G @Q\p`ln q^y p#h# mt, aR} q#Km pv`, mkL sh hR@bK a@p`@h`sW y. usS p`\`l`@V up`Žy lb`g#@mN p m#K@V k`ly gw kl ar# b>v av[`ny @y` krN mkL sh hR@bK @m@S y Ÿ "M wm w@Y plvrt, Lv yvN, wm` g#nW, @m@l`v wm`t S}`ny b>vW ym vs@yN wNnt ptN gW@W y. vKvltW, emhntW, wm @m~tR r}@yN s @h`v` @QvL prM mtW wm` a`s` kl b#V o q#n @Y y. o@G y`mk l[Rmy @lsW, o a`qry kl yLl awN @b`@h`myk vn`km @lsW, @mm k`ly l o qhs b> aqh@S eL gW@W y."

@m "qhs" aдh @ls ann& @k a#W@W m#K@V@G aNw Qglv` sh m`nv Q@V h#M smgy; ey a`Rk h` sm`jy dnyN@gN m;& vRgy` Kw kr g#@M v&`p^@yN apsrny a#w. mkL sh hR@bK, on@G @Q\p`ln aN[X`vy s` m#K@Vt sh o@G y`vNt K;m`v q`ny mK @qst @mm @Cqy h` a@nW @Cq hrh` anr#q`yk @ls p#@N. kvr#N N wm ;yt ayW sm`j aw^PwkrX`vy, ey k`\yt pW m s>h` m#K@V N @s`y`gW sm`j-@r~ sh g` m`[&yN smg ptlv` g l#@B.

mkL sh hR@bK, m#K@V@G aNw-qKn`Ak sAkLpyN ny krn n iN iyt y`@M pvWn` wWvyt e@r qKn`Ak h` v`m`Ak r#Q[Wv@Y @vns @pNv` @n` @qN, m#K@V "a`N @r~Žy" @ls n`Akrny @mN wm a@p`@h`sWX`vy @pNM kr.

@fdrL a`N@V mRqnyNt sh blhWk`rkMvlt m#K@V e@r vn n, o mhW @S q#k gN@N em a`Nv r` kn p#l#Nyk @y~wy` @ls @n` v, Qgk y`k`Wvyt e@r s`̵k y`k`Wv@Y RyK @ls . E smg m o @fdrL a`Nv ann& kr g lbN@N, j`k y @ls o K ‰N@N y# q#@nn sm`j wWvy p#h#r g lbn j`kyN, SN sh a@nN@G a`rK;ky` @l.

m#K@V@G @M mh` Sw y`v, eKsW jnpqy l f#ST vnw`vk sM`Py b> Rv @VqnyK y. (@l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y Rvg`) iNtRn#;nL vRkS lN vW p@W 1995 m# 8 kl`p@Y ey @m@S p#h# @knŸ "@mm @b~Mb h`ry s›`nk @Q\p`ln y`v. @my kl f#STv`N@G q^ a`S}`n@yN gW kl, jny sh@y~g@Y vWmN <km, @mvN mh` pm`n s`hk y`vK s>h` vd`Wm bl p$ @Hv. @my @Q\p`ln rAg yt on@G sM`Py @Vqny @M on@G m`Rgy ."

"f#ST" y srl @Q\p`ln @|;n pqyK @n` @V. eKsW jnpq@Y aNw qKn`Ak sNnQ[ v&`p`ryN a`y`cny, jnghn@yN L S}ryN asmwX`vyt q g#„r# prWv`@r~pnykt q a#q qm l#n` , vd`W nrk awt h#@rn a`Rk @k`N@Qvl cw lK;ny. avmAgw m[&m pNk wryK sh kMkr# pNk @k`tS pvWn` pRy`yt e@r vK bvt pvRwny awr, o p`R@MN j`wNv` M q‡ K@p krN Swv`qy, "Plvv`" m`[&yK y# hny krN ey vgvRnny kr.

f#STv`qy, e q^my sMpW @s`y` g lbN@N @hN pvWn` [@N|vr sm`jy N @k@rn ksl vŸ vRgv`qy, @qV @r~[y, vK@V sh cNdWv@Y l`BŽkWvy. a#mk` Swv`y` N}@Y kvr#N, m#K@V N @prt qmn aCc`r#@vN smv`y q^v`qyK Rm`ny mt uWs`h qrn t o, m#K@Vt v&`j sAs` kr. jNm@yN ur#m QŽmWX`vy ym, m#K@V qr` @Y vd`W Cj sh v&`l @Q\p`ln mmw`NwryN yŸ @qvn vgNy (a`[ qr` @M ay) b> stN p`, "w @l~k a`Nv" sh nv @l~k pRy`y mN a# @k@rn anr#q` wWvy b> v`k& šNd pyK vRgv` " bl@Y" agN, jnw`v` @n` vrn @k~ktW @@wlyK a` @Qvl œny.

v&`l q^v`qyN mN ġ„ @k@rN@N, sNnQ[ sh "@Q\m`mk" v&`p`ryN aX&Nwr prSpr @r~ SvX`vy. mAl`v sh klm N @|;@yNm @hN pvn k`Rk jnpqvl [@N|vr@Y |w @k`tS -- d` v&`p`kyN, m[&m klmn`kr#vN, r`j& pp`ln l[`N, v^WkyN -- sh a`Rk aRq @H@vN f#Kt l s`@PK; vs@yN rKw ߿y` a @kr# m#K@V v# avmAgw, klr# wr#nyN Ek`bQ[ @kn. avs`n h@Y mh` `G[n@Y av\&w`vN s>h` kMkr# pNyt e@rv, avmAgw [@N|vry @plxm s>h` f#STv`qy m#hW @v.

s`rw vs@yN, f#STv`qy y, gmn@YW bl`@p`@r`W rwX`v@YW @Q\p`lny . uM k`RyyK s>h` @k@rn stnk "@s`Lq`v" @lsW, em st@N av`Ry@yN mt Nn @lsW wm`m q#k g#m kr` m#K@V p#@Yy. eKsW jnpq a`N@V v#@k~ sAh`ry a# a@nW apr`[ sMbN[@yN pg#@M y`vk o rw nW, evN y`vK mN mhjn n#mK av` y h# y# ot @N aLp m` bl`@p`@r`Wv. o g#„Nm aXv` y; p vw`vkm y ns` g#mt kLpn` kl b#V mkL sh hR@bK smg kl sMš s`kCc`vl av@l~kny k@Ly. wm` hvn bv h` avs`n@Y mrn q‡vm ym vn bv q#n vgK m#K@V k`\ kl awr, @b~Mb q#m, "r`j& ably lq ns` g#mK" @ls vrny k@Ly.

m m#K@V, a#mk` [@N|vr sm`j@Y ph`y smg b#ŠgW, @Q\p`ln h` sm`jy @r~X`v@Y p`qny. 1980 gnNvl agX`g@Y sh 1990 gnNvl l X`g@Y mhjnw`v@G vn wWvyN vd`W nrk awt h#r# awr @Q\p`ln sAS}`wy @ls qnt @q`lny @vN h` aNw qKn`Ak blyN vR[nyt r#L @qN sm`jmy hryK vr y.

@m`K pK;y, sm`j sASkrnv`q@Y wm ih`sy smg sh kMkr# jny`@G av\&w`vN b> kvr @h~ slk` b#mK smg wm sMbN[w`v avlA kr gN @Y y. v^Wy svl m ihl wlykt @SN . @s~yT sAgm@Y aX`vy l ihlm k`\ny aWpW kr gW, sMq`k kMkr# sA[`nyN@G j`w&Nwr >v#mK sm< vd`W @p` @ls @my sMp`w y. p`v` @qn lq sh @Q\p`lkv avmAgw , es`m kvr @h~ blg @r~[yK vR[ny kr g#mt @n` h# kMkr# pNykt j@y~Wwmv` c`ryNt n @qNnt y.

@M smgm a#mk` [@N|vr j`wNv` a`ywnyN pqnMvN m @mm sNwN y`Wmk vNnt y. m#K@V N sb>w` p#v#W aR[-f#ST sA[`nvlt, pBkN pK;@Y aNw qKn`A\y l m@yN v#@dn aдh œ`vkWvyK @s`y` gw h# y. oKl@h~m` @b~Mby rn k`l vkv`v vn t @fdrL sh `Nw a`Nvl @b`@h~ pBk` sMp`qk@y~, sNnQ[ sA[`n, f#STv` sh vRgv` v&`p`r smg sp sb>w` p#v#W h. @mm kvyN t pBkN pK;@Y ihl lwl qKv` @qn ašNd sMbN[w`vN p#vn.

1998 @qs#Mbr@Y , @s@nT sX`@V bwr@Y n`yk ӵ T@rNT @l`T sh KNtN @q~;`@y~g@Y iw` unN@vN kt kl @k`AS sk @b`B b`R, wWv`rK;k rv#yN@G kNl@Y (Council of Conservative Citizens) SmK a#m@mN @my an`vrny y. ihw kNly vn` KKS Kl`N iw` v#qgW sp sA[`nyK @ls kt kl` q, 1950 gnN sh 1960 gnNvl h` k j`kyN @vN @k`t w#@M hq` sA[`ny kl` q, sNS kNl@Y s^ a`Pky` y.

@mm sNwyt @m`k pK;ymW agw y. KNtN-@r~ @q~;`@y~gyt @h~ 2000 jn`Žpvrn mA@k`Ll@Y @y  blyN@G s`R}k uWs`hyt @h~ b#r#M @ls e@rmt wm` a@p`@h`sW b#V @m`k@y~ whr# klh.

oKl@h~m` @b~Mb rm sh m#K@V@G pn`my b> p`dM ukh` g#m K;k av\&w`v. a#mk` sm`j@Y prSpryN, @Q\p`ln g`Wv@Y p^ty hrh` > v#m a`rMX a# bvt @b`@h~ sl aq n pv. @mm sNwy mn h#dyK gN@N q yNn mN m p`@H r>` pvN@N arglyt avRn @vN n blyN@G @Q\p`ln a[&`pny sh q`nm mwy.

a#mk` kMkr# pNy n N@N, @m`K pK;@Y sh brLv`q@Y aR[-m^w\r@Y, hn@yN wm`m qhS @M sh wm @Q\p`ln Sv`nWvy S}`w @M kRwv&yt. sm`jv` y`m`Rgyk pqnm mw Srs`rv ӵt` gNn` sh smSw sm`jy r` l&my h` sAgw N sv pvWn` glhny > q#mt wm`t a# aŽ`ny qR\ny krNn` , evN kMkr# pN v&`p`ryK N m[&m pN@Y \`l @k`tS q aNwRgw L wTNt a`y`cny @k@rn awr, av&`j j`wNv`qy sh sm`nw`v mw pqnM nv sm`j pRy`yK s>h` m`vw vr kr a#w.

aq`l @vnW

a#mk` m#vrny
aL @g~R@G uQ@{~;nyŸ a#mk` brLv`q@Y mrn l`py

2001 @pbrv` 02

eKsW jnpq m#vrn aRq@Y @Q\p`ln aR}X`ry sh @eh`k gm&@y~
2001 jnv` 02

V@y~K kwNqryKŸ PpW sh @p`@h`sW lN s>h` @vnm @l~k
1999 oK@w~bR 23

a#mk` ߿y` h` sm`j @k`N@Q ݶm
1999 @pbrv` 26


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