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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n: a`y`v sh \`Nkr kl`py

yTn`M n`ykWv @vns @vl> @p`l sASkrn knM @M gmnK sA` kr

tR mNDS
2001 m# 09

yTn`m@Y p`lk @k`ST pK;y nvn a`RkyK sh g#„r# vn sm`j a`wyK h@V, a@™L ag e ihl n`ykWv@y @vnSkM gnn`vK k@L y. Ev`, @Q\ a`@y~jn rKw kr g#@M v$ymK @ls @vl> @p`l wv` sASkrn @VgvW mK sA` kr.

n`ykWv pp`@y iw`mW m k# @p@nn @vnS m nM 69 h# @jnr`L k` o@G pS ar# l k`l@yN yNwM N vsrK gw w#n [`n @LkM r@yN ivW m y. L v#@y vn o@G a`Pk 60 h# @n`N K m`N py nv vsr l r@T j`k mNn sX`@V [`y` y.

pK; j`k s@V nv n`ykWvyt Ekmkv rbR `v w#v q, wnr# m`r#v p#h#v m ihlm pK; kvyN ry ps kk lLk` g#Mvl ply.

l@y wb` g#m s>h` d`m [`yk@Y -- @Q\p`ln mNdl@Y -- Rv Nv pK;@Y m[&m k`rk sX`@V cNq@yN @vnS kr l# y. 18 t 15 qKv` m`n@yN a kl @Q\p`ln mNdl@yN sh m[&m k`rk sX`@vN q @nrpn l. v`Rw` vn a`k`ryt, pK; n`yKwv@Y @vnsK iLlN pK;y l sh r`j& pp`ln@y @G as`R}kWvy g#n @c~qn` krN sh r#Q[v`Nt e@rv t oW @Sv`v @y`q` g#m Swr @k@rn aX&Nwr yK @yT N @bq` h#r a#w.

ejN@S @`N@S @@S v`Rw`vkt av, @nr@M yvr ps t agm# @c~ v$N @yT N @m@hyv l# pK; "up@Q\kvr#" @q@n@gN kNd`ymK y. o@G @nrp` h#@mN anr#v "o@G ktvl aWv#r" kl bv gW awr mh vys @H@vN wn@rN ivW vn bv y.

bl`@p`@r`W y h# @lst ivW m "mh bv", "aWv#r" @h~ l[`my @ls bly phrny h` sMbN[yK n#w. j`w&Nwr m`[& l @k`ST pK;@Y @bM srlv sh yM @n`mg yvn a`k`rykt, eK psk "q# mw[`N" q a@nK ps "m[&S} mw[`N" @h~ "sASk`rkyN" awr vK @ls s>hN @kn. @;N m`N sm`jv` @h~ @k`STv` @n` @v. o @b`@h~ k@lkt @pr`v sm`jv`q@Y k l[RmvN Š y sh "w r@T sm`jv`qy" nM j`kv` q^v`qy mw wmN m pqnM St#Nv` pK;ykt ayW @v~ @v.

@mm sNqRXy a#lw "q# mw[`" , @|wv m r`j& l[ryt ayW vn sh 1986 a#r„n @vl> @p`l sASkrn @h~ "@d` @m`" sNw@yN wmN@G uvmn`vN wRjnyt lK r`j& v&vs`yvl klmn`k`Wvyt sMbNŽw @k`ST pK;y l S}ryK @y~jny kr. Iy` m[&S} mw[`N, @vl> @p`l sh Qgk v&vs`yvl y`k`Wvy @k@r blp`n b`[k wv rtW ivW krn @ls dny @y`qvn awr smhr avS}`vN oN@G m v&`p`r S}`w @mN ir#mW kr g#mt m`n bl.

"yTn`m@y @b`@h~ @sN m n, blyt nNnN@gN ay" @ls eK av`kr#v N Swr kr l# m`N@gN @p_Qgkrny @VgvW m @h~ r`j& v&vs`y vs` q#m sh @Q\ a`@y~jnyt sh @p_Qgk v&v`sy s>h` wv rtW ĵL m bl`@p`@r`W @v. eKsW jnpqy q a#v, yTn`m@yN b#h#r L @ls sAc`ry kr a# @j&t l[ryN s aN o q ay bv @v`NtN @p~ST vW pw @pNv` N@N y. vW pw s>hN kl p, "y ar#Q@Q o @v`Atn@Y sAc`ry kl p" eK eKsW jnpq l[ry p#v@V, "o at g@q kl h# s @ls ap l h#mK @|; y" y@v.

m`Nv @w~r` g#@M ar# hwrk s`kCc`vN anr#v avs`n@Y py @Y aWsN w# ej-yTn`m @vl> m vlA mt @v`Atny mW m @k@r h#@n~ a#s gs` @gn a# bv s#k y. oN amw @M wmN@G l `v lb` y W ej @k`As g@qv sMmw @n` kr ey @vnW @vl> awmyN smg ar` wb` a# awr ey ar# gnN @n` @v@w`W m`s gnN m`q y h# y.

m`N o@G v`Rw`vt av v^Wy l[r@Y s`ry bv @p@nNnt @B. o @s~yT sAgmy l vn`Nwr klmn`krny b>v v lb`, 1963 @k`ST pK;yt b#Š, 1970 gnN pX`g@Y `@Qy vn @Sv`@V a[&K;k pqy qKv` img n#g @gn pv 1980 gnNvl m[&m k`rk sX` s`m`kWvyt pW y. 1991 o @Q\p`ln mNdlyt eK y. 1963 sh 1975 awr ej m#hWmt e@r Gg#S Plvv` argly l o s#ly k`vK i @n` kr` y y@vN @p@nn k`rny, o @h~A N@G w&l @n` vn y y yn kt kw`v -- m`N N w @ls b#h#r kl -- p#r y`mt @b`@h~ @sN m @HvNnt a#w. @k`ST pK; kvyN l L vn l[`y sh t ny awr @Wm r` m#n b#@M , v^Ww`Nwy Ek`Nw@yN m ot h`yK @n` krNnt a#w.

j`w&Nwr vW pW m`Nv @w~r` g#m pK;`k` @ls gW@W y.

eKsW jnpqy pqnM kr gW Ey` K s<r`v s>hN k@LŸ "k`lyt @pr`v @n` @V. qhS @vl> @p`l pW mW kl sh j`@Y vn wWvyN @vnS kl yTn`m@Y a v#qgW 1986 @d` @m` (k^mW m) sASkrn \`l @pl„mK h`WpN a# k@L y. a`@y~jk@y~ h v`sn`vK awr v`y d#h# g#mt knN v yh. e@hW c`ry y}`R}yt vd` yhpW y. mhW d`k` r py sh blv p#r# ;ny p#@nnv`t vd` v# @Q\ a`@y~jkyN sK ivWv y`mt iKmN m @H y. @b`@h~ @Q @p`@r`N a`Rk vR[ny a#n@Y y. s$m @qyK m yTn`my \k& v&`y @ls aŽwK@Sr# kl bv h#@n~vl btr b#Akr#@vK y."

w`n&@Y n$N;L tMS @m@S s>hN k@L yŸ "m`N mhw`@G vrm p#h# y -- enM, yTn`m g@Y Sm r krn blv p#r# ;ny ag` q#mt (@h`A@k`Avl @Q\p`ln sh a`Rk avq`nM pR@Y;n a`ywn@Y m$w pR@Y;nyk yTn`my 10N 9.75K l lb` gN a`y`@V v#@yN m w rt y.) sh 1990 gnN m#q X`g@Y @Q\ a`@y~jn mTtM y pn g#Nmt rtt av\& sASkrn @VgvW mt y. j`w&Nwr c`ry s`[y n j`w&Nwr l& arq@L sh @l~k b#A@V r`j& wNkyN sh l[`N, m`N mhw`t l<` kr g#mt h# v@Y mK q yNn b>v pK;`k`v Xv` y."

a`Rk h` sm`j g#t

n`ykWv @vnSkM p#h#vm @m@hyv l#@V a`Rky sh v#@dn sm`j a`wy b> uWkw`v. a`N@V sAš&` @Lšnvlt av yyt 7.5 @pr q#mt sNsNqn`Wmkv vs@R pl k`R@V 7.2N a`Rky vR[ny y. 2001 a`Rk vR[ny yyt 5.8 y h# y @s`lmN SW b`R an`v# pl k@L y. @k@S @vwW, a@nW sAš&` k a`Rk g#t qKv.

1997-98 a`y` l& aRqyt anr#v yTn`m@Y @Qy s^ a`@y~jn 1995-97 ar#vl @d`lR yn 2k wrM v`Rk sAš&`vk t 2000 yNwM @d`lR yn 500K qKv` @ls phl v#. 1996 v`Rw`gw @d`lR yn 8.6k a`@y~jn @p`@r`NvN i`R}y @Y @d`lR yn 2.6K pm. e@hW 1999 vn t a`@y~jn @p`@r`N @d`lR yn 1.5kt phw v#.

@Qy a`@y~jn sh Qgk v&vs`y @qst h#@n~vl n#„r#@M plyK @ls r`j& aA\y p#h# @lsm phw v#. k`Rk p`qn@Y r`j& pAv 1990 yyt 62 t 2000 yyt 42t phw v# awr em k`ly l m rjyt a a`ywnvl ߿y`@V @y Qgl sAš&`v yn 2.5 t yn 1.6 qKv` v#. r@T r`j& v&vs`yk 5400K @d`lR yn 12.9 pmn qlkt ny n awr r`j& l[`Nt av Ev`N yyt 75 sh yyt 80 awr m`nyK y`Wmk v@Y wm vWkMvlt vd` nyg#v y.

j`w&Nwr l& arql sh @l~k b#A s#lM iLl` N@N a`rMX@Y `G[n @k`tS bvt pW@M y`vy @hvW Qgk aA\vlt @k`tS m`r# m N r`j& aA\y [`ny m sh Qgkrny m . @M qKv` vd` d` sh a`Nk wWv@Y pvWn` r`j& a`ywn pmnK ilKk kr @gn a# nW ey @k @gn y`@M , v&hkrny, q#ntmW ihl mTtmk @bn r@T ߿y`v v# kr a#w.

@l~k b#Avt av yn 25K pmn jnw`v -- œm blk`@yN yyt 60K -- eK@k~ ߿y` rwy n#nM wWvyt phl ߿y`vl y. a#Ww vs@yN m ߿y` rw @k`ts n`gk @Q\vl œm blk`@yN yyt 10K sh `y @Q\vl yyt 30K @v. s$m ar#Qqkm ynyK pmn jny` œm blk`yt eK vn awr ߿y` avS}` m`nyt vd` ey iw` ihl y. yn 82k jnghn@yN yn 30K pmn jny` ‹ b@V vW @vw# @l~k b#Av wK@Sr# kr.

yTn`M a`Rky @p_Qgk v&vs`yvlt sh @Qy `G[nyt v^w kr l#b a# @hN wmN@G m v`y s>h` em wWvy gs` k$mt l[ry m`n b# y. yn 2K wrM vn s`m`kWv@yN p`KkyN 69,000K @pr pS ar#Qq l w y` b>v v#rkr#vN bv m$w aX&Nwr pK;nyk @h a#w.

eKwr` rkt, "vAc`@V" ihl mTtM @k`ST pK; @ a#lw @b`K@l`T @h~ "r`k$m" b>v @k@rn v`qykt sMbNŽw y -- enM, s`m`kWvyt wmNt m Qgk v&`p`rvl @y@M av`kmK a#Qq n#Qq vg. r`j& aA\@Y w sh a#@ln SvX`vy s` pK; s`m`kWvyt avS}`vN sh ߿y` s>h` @p_Qgk v&vs`y @qst @y`mt bl @k@r.

n`ykWvy smSwyK @ls [nv`qyt @k`l ey qLv` a# @hN "r`k$m" b>v v`qy, wmN@G r#Q[v`Nt n`Slv qm` g#@M Iy` q# mw[`N@G hk v$ym. f`R RStN i@k`nK V eK pK; s`m`ky -- yTn`m @vl> h` k`Rk sM@Mln@Y [`yk up sX`p p$m l$N -- sthN kr ar#Ÿ "yTn`m y yt@W Qgk v&vs`y y`Wmk @v. y pK;y sh n`ykWvy N amw @kn. iN a# a pK; s`m`kyNt v&`p`r mt avsr @n` @qN@N?"

s<r`v, @p_Qgk @Qplt sh v&`p`rvlt vn b`[k ivW mt a# av\&w`v b>v vd`W q^dwr yTn`M a`Rk@yK q ut` q#K y. "yTn`my @p_Qgk aA\y blg r`kNnN y# oNt wRjny krN oNv Sw m n#v#Wy y. yTn`my e@S @mN w`mw` @h~ @n` w` @h~ ߿y`v ihl y#m q k`lkNkm Rm`ny m q kr. @my @n` slk` h#y @h`W, sm`j sh @Q\p`ln aS}`vrWvy Rm`ny krn awr pK;y stN v# n ym ayhpW @Q -- gk` v^Wy, mWv& sh apr`[ -- s>h` sr# psK spy` @q.

@k@S @vwW, yTn`my l wvW rt @vl> @p`l q` h#@mN ߿y`v avsN krnv` @vvt @p`@h`sN sh PpN awr @bMvlt sh sm`j a`wy ihl q#mt av`Ry@yN m @q a#w. @pbrv`@Y m[&m k‹kr@Y d#Kl#K sh y` l` pl`Wvl v`Rk wryN awr idM sh a`gk qhs u@qs` s#ly m`n@Y @r~[w` r` a`@V y. e@D, gyr` sh a@nW wryNt ayW qhS gnN jny`, y pA kl u@R sAmkyN wmN@G p`rMpk idkdM p#h#r g#m avsN krn @S iLl` @Y y.

h#@n` p`lny, @q@n pmn jny` aW adAvt gN @r~[w` wl` q# awr @plp` a#Sm b>v eKsW jnpq uQ@{~;kyNt @q`S p#v y. yTn`M q sm@Y eKsW jnpq ty j`k K @pr hq`vNt e@r y`NwyN k‹kr @g~k jny` mr#vN @ls @y`q` gW@W y. eKsW jnpqy pqnM kr gW @mNt#Gn`D pqnm yTn`m@Y v`Rk wryN h` sb>w` pvWv`@gn y`m b>v s`K;& a# awr @r~[w`vN@G yN pvn l`œy a#W@W a`N@V a`gk mRqny sh @mm kNd`yM ay y` n idkdM mw @k~ vg`v blhWk`r@yN p#rm l y. @k~ yTn`m@Y [`n apnynyN@gN ekK vn s`@vN p`qny wv rtW L mt dnyK @B.

a`Rk sASkrn@Y aQvk`W @k@n @mN m o yTn`m@Y v`Rk wr kNd`yM 53N ekK vn @M v`Rky m pK; n`yky` @ls m`Nv @w~r` g#mt blp$ wvW @Hv. yTn`m@Y @k~yk wr jnghn@yN hw@rN nK ‹X`v@Y @gvn awr o r@T v#@yN m ԫw sm`j S}rvlt ayW @v. nv pK; [`n @LkM k‹kr @g~kyN awr q#N @bn ashny smny @M k`vK i mt bl`@p`@r`W vn bv s#k y.

aq`l @vnW

yTn`m@Y nv idM gMbq qw`v u kr
1999 @pbrv` 05


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