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a#FgS}`ny sMbN[ @b`N s`kCc`vN mh blvN@G L a#m

Major powers pull the strings at Bonn talks on Afghanistan

tR mNDS
2001 @n`v#MbR 29

eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny N aдw a#FgS}`n@Y @Q\p`ln an`gwy b> s`kCc` jRm` @b`N ngr@yN tw tRSbRG k`sL nM @š~p@X~ @h~tl@Y @n`v#MbR 27 a<hr#v`q` a`rMX y. jRm` @Q\ a#m @j`Sk` ;R sh ej` sA[`n@Y mh @LkM @k` aNnN@G pdyK y a#FgS}`ny sMbN[ ej@Y @|; @y~w lKd`R M N @g_rvy sh b#r#MkN v sM@Mlny v^w krn l.

a#FgS}`vNt oN@G m irnm N kr g#@M avS}`vK s>h` Sm, a#FgN @y~wyN@G sM@MlnyK @ls, @g`dngn l. a#FgS}`ny mw tN s‹mK @n` ptv a#w# ej` sA[`n@Y l[ryN N y yW av[`rny krn l. Q[@yN iwl` y a#FgS}`ny sh e mhjnw`v sMbN[@yN "w}& @eh`k sMyK a# kr gNn`" @ls o@G a`rMXk kw`@V sR @y~wyN@gN gr#sr# a#v iLl` @Y y. "vgm ob@G y. kv@rtvW eN obv qhS mt h#y`vK @h~ av\&w`vK n#w" o k`\ k@L y.

sMRn y`vym, @r~y blyN N 19 yv@S oN@G w p`lnyt w&l @pmK lb`m s>h` vN vr @Vk`r$d kl @Q\p`ln pNqN@G SM gNv. @b`N sM@Mlny, mh blvN@G, aN yLlt mW vd` eKsW jnpq@Y uvmn`vN sNwRpny mt s, a#FgN mhjnw`v@G j`wNy al`;yN s`K;`W mK @n` @V. l&my sh tmy vs@yN ksy aw qr` N@N kq# h#m @k@nK m @h`‰N q. shX`vNnN kq, @y~wyN@G m`ny sh sAy, n&`y py, k`l ymy sh sM@Mlny pvWvn S}`n@y ӵm pv`, yLl @m@hyv l#@V @v`Ntny sh e rN .

sM@Mlnyt sMbN[ a#FgS}`n @y~w kNd`yM hw@rN ekkt vW kvr @h~ mhjn vrmK n#w. Ev` v`Rk, a`gk pK;p`kM mw pqnM sh mN m [ @Q\ upk`rkyN mw y#@pn @g~k n`ykyN, t Xt kNd`yMvl an@qNnN, q n`ykyN sh vhN@G ĵL sN[`nyN y.

Rv sM@Mln r`j& w`Nk y`k`Wv@Y @n` sNNkm l eK@k~ ym rn q#ntmW @gn a#w. @n` e@S nM wm a#FgN blk`ryN @qs bl` n [ "@Qy K;kyN" N em N g lb a#w. avm vs@yN ej, r#y`v, w`n&y sh a#FgS}`n@Y y asLv# rtvL a# rtvL 18kt @y~w bly a#w.

a#FgS}`nyt e@r Q[@Y p`bl hq` sMp`qny kl ur# sN[`n@Y n`yk@y~ avm vs@yN n`kv \KmW w#nk . wb`N wN@Y >v#@mN p oN@G (ur# sN[`n@Y) hq` @Sn`Ak k`L a#v r@T ur# sh btr @Q\m`@V \`l pq`syK ytW kr@gn a#w. eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny N @r~[`X`;`Wmkv a#FgN r`j& n`yky` @ls wvmW @gn n RhQN rb`N N n`ykWvy @qn ur# sN[`ny agvr @p`S blk`yK ӵm, am`w&A\ pvr` g#m, lwl @bq`m mN bly mw e hny whr# kr g#@M yWnyk @y .

nW uw t blyK @ls ur# sN[`ny @y`q` gNn` awrm em kNd`ym sh ur# sN[`n@Y [`n bly spyNnN -- r#y`v, ir`ny sh iNy`v -- blaŽk`yK a# kr g#@mN vlk`mt @v`Ntny aŽ`n kr @gn N y. eKsW @prn h#ytW h‹Nvn ur# sN[`ny @b`@h~ @sN pqnM N@N ur# v`Rk kNd`yM -- hS, uS@bK sh hsr`S -- awr y. a#FgS}`ny l sh iN tw n r@T pN bwry awr kNd`yM w#M vg`g` mk eKsW jnpqy y`v @y @gn . a#FgS}`ny l wmN@Gm |v`svNw blk`r@y n# w yt@W, |w kLvl blp$m y`r# kr eKsW jnpq@Y aŽk` bly whr# mt h# vn a`k`r@Y "Lv pqnM" pp`lnyK s>h` @v`Ntny wL@vN N y.

e plyK @ls @k`N@Q p#n@M \KmW w#nk ur# sN[`ny n` k`L ngr@Y wmN@Gm sM@MlnyK k#>mt rb` N ipW kl s#lM eKsW jnpqy sh eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny K@p k@L y. wmN@G pp`lnyK Rm`ny @mN sh r`j& n`yky` @ls wmNv k`\yt pWkr g#@mN vlk`mt rb` mw blg dnyK q @y`q l# y. avs`n@Y @y~w kNd`ymK emt ek< nW ey "sA@Kw`Wmkv" pmnK y# k`\ krN ur# sN[`ny @b`N S@M v#qgWkm ab`L k@L y.

sM@Mlny s kNlyK @n` vn bvW, [`n SM a#FgS}`ny l p#v#Wy awr @j& l[ryN eyt shX` y bvW py s@Y rb` av[`rny k@Ly. kNd`yM hw@rN ekK vW @b`N S@M oN@G ihl @p@L n`ykyN N @y~jny kr l#@V n#w. rb`, ur# sN[`n@Y @Q\ a#m aBLl` @h~ sN[`ngw q n`ykyN vn iSmL k`N sh aBL rD @d`SM sM@Mlnyt sMbN[ @n` h.

@s kNd`yM

1973 t iw`@Y v`h@L n a#FgS}`n@Y kN r 87 y# ;`R ;`@G Iy` @r~m kNd`yM @y~w@y~ q sM@Mlnyt shX` @y~wyNt a#lW h. r`j& n`ykk@mN rb` S}`pny kr sMq`kv rt p`lny kl pN @g~y mw pqnM @Q\p`ln v`hnyK Q@M n`k [`@y @ls r a`p a#FgS}`nyt @gNmt eKsW jnpqy sh eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny N wLv @q lb. @l~y` Rg`vK @hvW @g~k n`ykyN@G SmK k#>mt eKsW jnpq @k`Asy ot arqL @vN m swv s#Pw#MbR 11t @b`@h~ @pr tm @v`Ntny r smg sMbN[w` vg` krN @Y y. rN X`gyK Svy y` N p`lny krn ur# sN[`n@Y @y~w kNd`ymt sm`nv 11k r`jy @y~w kNd`ymK jRmN sM@Mlnyt sMbN[m r sh eKsW jnpqy awr sMbN[k@M v#qgWkm @pNM kr.

pS}`ny N sh`y @qn @p;`vR kNd`ym sh v`Rw` vn a`k`ryt ir`ny N sh`y @qn sS kNd`ym @b`N sM@Mlnyt sMbN[ a@nK @y~w kNd`yM @qk y. e@nk`t asm`n @mm v`hN@G kNd`yM ekN @y~wyN pS@q@n shX` h. yNwM m`sykt @pr pS}`n ngr@Y Ll`vr#N, kN h@jN stNkr#vN sh @g~k n`ykyN 700k@G pmn Smk @p;`@v`R kNd`ym ӵvn l. "s`my sh j`k ekv s>h` sM@Mlny" nM @g_rv n`my a#v n`kv Sm k#>v l#@V a`gk sh @g~k n`yk@y q v&`p`k@y sh r@G sh`yk@y q, rb` sh @s ay @mNm, 1980 gnNvl @s~yT bly lW wNyt e@rv stN v#m s aE sA[`n@yN (a#mk` rhS oW @Svy) a`[ sh arqL lq R ;`D ahmD gl` . @mm Sm k#>v l#@V pS}`n@Y blg t rhS oW @Svy vn aeSa sA[`ny yn kr#n @kwrM nM kt q y @w`W, r em r#@V w`r wmN@G a#@GW g$@vw# @yN v, r`j`Nv`Nt-g# @mm Smt @y~wyN y#m K@p k@L y.

1994 wb`N v&`p`ry ӵ@M t ey Rm`ny @M sh eyt bly s#p@M upkrnyK @ls y`Wmk p`S}`ny q#N a#FgS}`ny l blp$M @M s#ly m`[&yK wm`t n# bv @Wr#M @gn . @p;`@v~ Sm nv @Q\p`ln upkrnyK whr# @M uWs`hy. e prm sr# iNy`v N shy @q lbn ur# sN[`ny bl[` w#nK n` g#@mN vlk`mt mAl`shgw w#wk iSlm`b`qy rwv . em s` ey "plL pqnmk" pp`lnyK sh j`w&Nwr "s`m s`[k hq`vK" k`L >@M eKsW jnpq s#lMvlt shy plkr a#w.

pN @g~kyN awN sh`ykyN b>v` g#@M y` yWnyk aEy @y . sM@Mlny "g#l@M m`vw" y# k`\ kl hS k`Rs`@gN cNŒk` rkwn hrh` l#n s pdyK, @b`N sM@Mln@Y a`rMXk s#y m#q sA[`ykyN N r#v` hn l. eKsW jnpq ty sh aEy smg eKv wb`n@Y iv p#v# avs`n blk>r kNqh`r@Y v#m s#lM krN s` k`Rs`t sM@Mlnyt Qgkv shX`mt @n` h# y. wb`Nvr# N vt @mN pv, eKsW jnpq@Y wvW @Q\p`ln @QplK aBL Kt aW irnmt m nmt @vw# @p@nNnt n @hN k`Rs` a#FgS}`n@yN "pNn` g#mt" eKsW jnpq tyt @n`v#MbR l @h@k`PtryK y#mt y.

@b`N sM@Mln@Y n&`y py mN a#FgN @y~wyN @k@r mh blvN@G q^my l k# @p. eKsW j`N@G a`rK;k mNdly l sh ej` @y~w `M N a#FgS}`n@Y @Q\p`ln an`gwy q#ntmW sSwr`Wmkv s#lM kr l#b a#w. i sy ms l @l~y` Rg` nN @w~r` gW p yyk@G SmK k#>m eLl kr gW 15-20W awr kNd`ymk@G aNwR k`n p`lnyK ӵy y. wvW aNwR p`lnyK sh vsr @qkk m#vrnyK k#>mt h# a`k`r@Y v&vS}`vK @kMpW m s>h` @mm Sm 120-150k pmn [`yk sX`vkt sm`n mNdlyK ӵv a#w.

@b`N S@M mt iv @N @mm sNwyt rbR-`v w#m sh wnr# rvN@N kr#N N q# @KvL m pm. eK aR}yN, sM@Mln@Y k`l aNwry yLl y. a#FgS}`n@Y @Q\p`ln irnm N m sh aNwR p`ln mNdlyK ӵmt gw @Y n @N t ph qKv` k`ly. qsk @qkktW vd` Q[y N n`\ kr l# rtk sARn |n s`kCc` mt a`rMX m sh n&`y pyK N m s kvr @h~ yM a`k`ryk j`wNv` mNdlykt em k`ly @SW m`nvW n#w. nW mh blvNt oN@G a#FgN rN awr mw@Hq a vs@yN w`vk`kv vl q#m s>h` a blp$M mt sh s#lM skS mt em k`ly uvmn`vtW vd` m`nvW y. @M w`K rt v`Rw` a# [`n b`[ky nM a#FgS}`nyt s`m s`[k hq`vK y#m @k@r ur# sN[`n@Y r#Q[Wvy . rt l s#ly m`nykt sNnQ[ y` sw ur# sN[`ny p#h#vm vgmK q#mt k#m v a#w. eKsW jnpqy N s^v p`lny mK pv` @n`m# bj`k hq`vK mN pv` ur# sN[`nyt yN vl k#@p a#w. eb‹ hq`vK @m@hymt rt @ls eKsW jnpq@Y sp @r Ry @w~r` @gn @B.

nW @mm s#lMvlt ek<krv` g#m s>h` ur# sN[`ny mw s#ly dnyK @y`q lb. vsr gnn`vK r` p#r yn rt y @g`dn#m s>h` wK@Sr# kr a# @d`lR yn 6-10 pmn a`[`r qL l#@b@Y eKsW j`N@G s#lmt l#@bn ek<w`v mw bvt eKsW jnpqy sh e @r~ anr# a<v` a#Ww`h. @k` aNnN sh jRm` @Q\ a#m sR oN@G a`rMXk kw`vl @mm pdy @Vqny kl awr S@mN tw a#FgS}`ny sMbN[ eKsW jnpq @|; @y~w @JMS @d`NS m`[&vlt kl k`\vl ey y av[`rny k@L y. @b`N sM@Mln@Y pl slk` b#mt a`[`r @qn rtvL N @b`N sM@Mlnyt p s@y SmK k#>mt yw y.

a`Rk wRjny pmnK m`nvW n#nM @vnW m @y`q` g a#w. py s@Y kv#yN @v`NtN @p~ST py ur# sN[`nyt q# anr# a#<mK k@L y. @b`N sM@Mln@Y btr blyNt ek<w`vK a# kr g#mt v^wv p#v avS}`vN s#@kN @gn h#r p`N kv#y a`rMX kr a#w. "y @g`dn#@M j`w&Nwr a`[`r b> a@PK;`v uW@w~lnyK @ls @y`q` gw h# y; et e plyK @ls wb`ny @tk aW kr @n` gW ymK, enM btr sh eKsW j`N@G sA[`n@Y g#m a#FgS}`nyt lb` gw h# y."

@k@S v q @p~ST py phw s>hN kr#n av[`rny k@L yŸ j`k a`NvK l v#qgW k`Ry X`ryK qr` ym q pSNvr#N@G @Q\p`ln šWvy gw y... q#nt aL kd`vt e@rv wvmW kl rn`Wmk argly smg @HKw m s>h` em avS}`v ap@G a#FgN rNt @M vn`kmK a#w. e@hW It pv, em @Hv as`R}k v @h`W vd`W q# yvr K@p @n` kl y."

hytm "q# yvr" y W@W kv@R q# s>hN m vW pw qK; @ls mg h#@Y y. e@hW aqhS k@L mK q# @Wr#M g#mt ewrM kLpn` kl n#w. wb`N p`lny @prl` q#m s>h`  pp`lny N @pNM kl RqyX`vy mN, a#FgS}`ny l @h~ j`w&Nwrv eKsW jnpq uvmn`vNt r#Q[ vn kv@rt v q e@rv em m m @y`q` gNn` bvt anr# a#<mK aqhS kr lb.

@b`N sM@Mlny a`rMX mt a`sNnv m eKsW jnpq ty qhskt vd` n`k XtyN @g`d b#Ss awr kNqh`R vN @w`@p`@L p`lny aLl` gN plvn eKsW jnpq blm[&S}`ny rt l bl`Wmkv whr# k@L y. Mvl smp`wy ahMbyK @n` y. ey @y~w kNd`yMvlt p#h# pdyK W k@L yŸ ob ek<vW n#wW ap k#m @Q a#FgS}`ny l a krN@n.

aq`l @vnW

k`L v#@mN a#F{S}`n@Y @Q\p`lk @p`ry @V
2001 @n`v#MbR 27

ap a#FgS}`n@Y Q[yt r#Q[ vN@N a#?
2001 oK@w~bR 23

 pp`lnyt Q[y av\& v@Y a#?
2001 oK@w~bR 10

V@y~RK sh @v`AtN ngr mwt eLl Sw h`r@Y @Q\p`ln l@y~
2001 s#Pw#MbR 14


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