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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n: @r~py

w`n&@Y pvWvn lq sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y Q[ Sm
Ns jn`Žpvrn@Y @Q\p`ln p`dM

Socialist Equality Party public meeting in Britain:
The political lessons of the French presidential elections

2002 m# 17

w`n& sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;y py m# 12 q` m[&m lNdN "21 vn yvs s>h` sm`jv`qy b> i qR\ny" yn m#N Q[ SmK p#vW y. em Smt hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y j`w&Nwr k@V @LkM tR v`RS Ns jn`Žpvrn@Y @Q\p`ln p`dM b>v kl @Q\ny phw q#K@V.

Plvv` y`@V @r~g`@y @ls Nsyt Rg @eh`k sMq`yK a#w. 1791-95 qKv` Ns Plvy @r~y mh`Qpy mw [@N|vr PlvyN@G gy a`rMX k@L y. 1831, 1848 sh yW vrK 1968 Nsy @l~ky all` y Plvv` n#Mvlt a`rMXkWvy .

e@hW Ns jnw`v oN@G @Q\p`ln `nvW bN sh y`vt q#K p`s`@vN asmsm nW @b`@h~ rt @mm arglvl @Q\p`ln sh n&`k p`dM ukh` y`Wmk @kr#@N @vnW w#Nvl y. @p`@V v h# @qyK nM Ns@Y vNn` QN s$mt m amhW j`w&Nwr aR}X`ryK q#r$ bv y. Ns@Y QNvN @w`rv m`KS@G eAgLS@G pmnK @n` v @HgL@G pv` ug#NM phl y @n` h#v . 1871 p#S @k`n@yN @w`rv 1917 r#y`v l s`R}k oK@w~bR PlvyK a# @n` v a#w.

py s @qk l Nsy @s`lv` QN b>v q ev#NnK m v h# y. @mm Mvl p`dM v#rv ukh` @gn vth` gw @h`W em M Nsy pmnK @n` v mhW @l~ky r`m vd` ihl @Q\p`ln mTtmk ӵ an`gw arglyNt pqnm spy a#w. Ev`t Ns@Y @Q\m`vN ivwt @qn aR}X`ryK a#w. Ev` j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNyt v#qgW @Q\p`ln p`dM qr` .

@b`@h~ rt Ns@Y M kNqk r` y`mt sm`n @v. ar# gnn`vK S@S mt wly s`mk`v pv. iK h@yNm q#v#Nw mK @V. evN Mvl pm`v p#nnN@N Rg k`lyK S@S mtt yN @g`dn# eyt p#mt m`vwK @n` a`wN@gN bv q&`@y~ vth` g.

2002 jn`Žpvrny a\Nm Ek`k`r v#qgW @n` QŽyK bv b# b#Lmt @p @Y y. -ycNq mM @my whr# k@L y. avs`n cNq mM vt@Y wr< v a#W@W vWmN jn`Žp j#K rK sh evkt agm# lynL @j`SN y y@qn`m upkLpny klh. e@nkt @vnS @Q\p`ln k>r#vlt ayW @Y n, @M @q@qn` ز klK S@S h@L ekt v#d kl ay y. @M @q@qn`@G m#vrn k`\yN @k`wrM sm`n q yw@h`W Ev` awr v#qg#Mmkt a# mw@Hq vK @n` bv m#vrnyt s nkt @pr pvWvn lq sK;nykt r# N ay@gN yyt 70K gWh.

@k@S @vwW a@™L 21 svs cNq m[&S}`n v#mt @pr j`k @pr@N a@PK;ky` @;~N m` l' @pN @Q\nyK q`nM krN n bvt ;m`n a`rAyK vW pW m`[&vN p#r yNnt y. s$m@qn`@Gm av[`ny @myt @y`y. r` 8.00t cNqq`ykN cNq @p`lvN tvn t krn lq sK;n ›#Ase cq% - @b`@h~ rt v#r vn- em s#ky whr# k@L y. l' @pN sm`jv` pK;@Y a@PK;k lynL @j`SNv pr`jy kr . @qvn vt@Y wr<@Y s`m`n&@yN vn p v`m`Ak a@PK;k@yK q qKn`Ak S}`w@Y [@N|vr a@PK;k@yK q awr @qN ekK @w~r` g#mt @mvr id @n` l#@bn bvW kMkr#vNt @m`n m kLpyK vW @n` p#v bvW @p @Y y. q#N kMkr#vNt cNqy q#mt v @N eK@k~ mh [np pN@Y @y~wy`t y. n#nM f#STv`y`t y.

p#y gnnK gwmt @pr qhS gnN wr#n@y~ b#s @mm wWvyt r#Q[v @plp` y`mt ptN gWh. @qvn n@Y plL jnk`@Y @vnW @k`tS q oNt eK l' @pNt q o@G f#ST q^v`qyt q e@rv @plp` q#Kmt ptN gWh. @plp` @nN n v#@dN rt r` p#r @Y y. N qs qhS gnN q iKv lK; gnN q @my m# n@Y lK;yW SlK;yW awr m`nyK qKv` ihl n#.

m#vrn ply g#„r# @Q\p`ln aRqyK eqrV kr

m#vrn ply h @M @p yN@N ey @y~[ mhjn aw^Py k`\ m s>h` lmK pmnK bvW, evN n#mk Lb#s gW @Hv @n` bvW y. ey Ns sm`j@Y #v`NwgwmK sh mhW @Q\p`ln S}`w@Y q @Q\p`ln a`ywnyN q g#„r# aRqyK eb#S bv y.

r`K sh @j`SN yn [`n a@PK;kN @q@qn`t l#@N y`pA cNq q`ykN@gN yyt 25k shy pm. yyt 30K cNqy @mN v#lnh. yyt 20K aNw qKn`Ak a@PK;kyt cNqy Nh. yyt 10K wmN @`TSv`N y y` gW v`m`Ak a@PK;kNt cNqy Nh. i cNq @j`SN@G sh r`K@G k>r#vl a@PK;kyNt v#.

r`K k>rt l# cNq 1995 jn`Žpvrny h` sm krn kL yn 4N a . @j`SN k>rt cNq yn 1 12K a . sMq`k vmt sh qnt l# cNq @m@S am mhjnw`v py ar# 20 S@S [`k`r sM h` sN[`n mN rt p`lny kl ay smg g#„r# rsk X`vykt elx bv @pNM k@L y. ey plL mhjnw`v sh @Q\p`ln S}`wy awr g`d ŠmK @pNM kr.

l.@pNt s`R}kWvyK lb` g#mt h# @Y @mm rskw`v gs` k$mt ot h#y`v l y. "pQ[y" y o nM kl @qyt e@rv stN vNn` ekm a@PK;ky` wm` bv @pNM mt o imhW uWs`hyK q#r#@V y.

o@G m#vrn k`\y, r@T s$m w#p#L aAkyktm yvn l. @mvr ey @Q\ k`v sh vRgv`qy v# o@G s`Mq`k @Wm`vN b>v a@vN kw` kl awr ԫwyN, Nq`vt pWvN, ivw v# sh @p` Nt a`mNny mt s$m uWs`hyKm q# y. Ns sm`j@Y s$m @Q\p`ln nrktm sh sm`jmy @r~ wWvyktm o @q`S p#vr#@V m`ST mt, @sLS mt sh @r~ qlt y. ekm s‹m vN@N yW vrK @qkl` Ns j`yK @ls h#dg#@mN pmnK y mt o uWs`h k@L y.

wm`t r# @ls sh`y N q @Q\@Y j`k @pr bl@k`vl sh`y l. @pN @mvr q pvWv` gW@W y. @mm @Q\vl ԫw up ngryN sm`j a`wN, smhr jn @k`tS l.@pN@G @Q\ @r~ kw`vlt nv`gw h# wWvyK a# @k`t . e@Sm sm`jy l vd`Wm wWv`rK;k @k`tS q o @vwt a`kR\ny h. py m#vrn@Y @mm @k`tS cNqy @N qKn`Ak a@PK;k@y P ySt y. @M awr }m vw`vt ot p#r Ns@Y u@R sh p#S avt @Q\@Y @k`ST pK; bl@k`vl q smhr @k`tSvl s#ly sh@y~gyK l# . kMkr#vN awr ot l# sh@y~gy s`m`n& m`nyt vd` v# awr ߿y` rwyN awr ey It q vd` v# .

l. @pNt l# cNqy Nsy l f#STv` v#d@vlt l# mh` sh@y~gyK @y~jny kl` @n` @V. ItW vd` ey @s~ @h~ TlR@G v&`p`r b‹ mh` jn f#ST v&`p`ryk p#nn#m @pNM k@L n#w. e@hW kMkr#vN awr s#ly sh@y~gyK f#ST v`c`lyt l#m m ap imhW @S uWk y kr#n.

@mm wWvyt [`n vgm pvW@N sm`jv` pK;y sh @k`ST pK;y mw y. l.@pNt @mwrM sh@y~gyK l#@N [`n vs@yN m v`m`Ak pK; N py ar# 20 l @gn y qKn`Ak @vW s` y. @my s` mhjnw`v l a# rsk m sh W klm gs` k$mt j`k @prnt h# y.

@j`SN @m@hy sm`jv` pK;y vsr 5kt @pr s`Mq`k sm`j sASkrn @vWvl a`rK;k@y @ls @p N p`R@MN m#vrn@yN jygW@W y. @r~py r`m @j`SN ipW kr l#@N w`n&@Y @t~ B@ly`R sh jRm@Y gRh`D r$dR v# vd`W qKn`Ak sm`j j`wNv`Nt e@r v`m`Ak kLpyK h#yt y. o@G @vW vd`W qKn`Ak @r~y a`Nvl @vWvlt vd` @vnS @Y ipW kl a`k`r@yN s g#B aNwRgw@yN @n` @V. o@G cNq v&`p`rvl gW p o@G pK;y "sm`jv`" yn nm q#r$ nW o@G y`m`Rgy "a-sm`jv`"y. @r~y l& pQ[y ӵmt q @r~p@Y w qlK @ls @r~v ӵmt q av\& ߿y` k#m h` sm`j bs`[n k#m y`Wmk @M vgm @j`SN a`Nv X`rgW@W y. p#y Sp@H syK y`Wmk mt o p#n y ot cNqy N jn@k`tS l blvW @k~pyK a# k@L y. @j`SN@G sMRn p`ln k`ly l krn lq š sm`j sASkrn y ipW krn lq @mm @qy v#P k#mt q, avq`nM ߿y` Rm`ny mt q, v#dplvl nm&w`vy a# mt q m`RgyK bvt pWy.

@j`SN a`Nv ak`@V q m#q@prg q @b~LkN @Q\vl q vd`W m$wk a#FgS}`n@Y q Ns aŽr`j&v`qyt sh@y~gy N@N y. mhW m#q@prg aS}`krny @k`t vd` L aNwR aŽr`j& Q[ykt mgp`q a# aŽr`j&v` m#hWmK ir`kyt e@r nv a#mk` Q[ykt shX`mt ey q#ntm b#Š a#w. @M av @j`SN @pr kL a#Ly`v l Ns p#rT Xty q v[ky q @ls kt kr n l. @pN smg b#@KDvl ekm p#W@W t gW@W y.

a`gmkyNt e@r j`@w&`Wwmv`q@Y ; kMkr# pNy lt a# m b> [`n vgm v# @N @k`ST pK;y mwt y. em pK;@Y jn`Žp a@Pk;ky` h` n`yky` @r`bT }m@yN m QŽyt pW @Y a`gmk kMkr#vNt e@rv @@vry h` Q@V;y a#S p#S up ngrpy @ls y. o emN @pr kl @k`ST pK; bl@k`vlt a#mt l.@pNt mgp`q` N@N y.

@mm p#r St#Nv` sN[`ny lW cNq sAš&`v >v#m m#vrn pl@Y vd`W W k`vn lK;nyN@gN ek. 1936 mhjn @prnkt shX` @vN mh` v#dvRjn LlK vlKv`mt uq w#N ptN q Sp`› Plv@Y @gl k` q#mt uq w#N ptN q @k`ST pK;y kMkr# v&`p`ry l Ns [nv`q@Y [`n S}MXy @ls y` k@L y.

p|c`W qk`n k`l pC@Cq@Y em pK;yt l# shy ihltm n# avS}`@V ey 1968 mh` v#d vRjny p`v` em mhjn n#mt @yN jRmyt pl` @g`S @g~Lt y Nsyt p#mt mg p`q` N@N y.

q#N [np rtk }m vw`vt wmN @`TSv`N y y` gW a@PK;kyN @q@q@nK enM, @W Oy@R (kMkr# argl) sN[`n@Y a`@L l#l` , g` @k`S@W @rv;nyR (Plvv` @k`ST sAgm@y) oyR @b@sNs@n~T q St#Nv` a@PK;ky`@G cNq sAš&`vt v# cNq lb` gWh. 1995 N ynyK @k`ST p`Kk a@PK;ky`@G cNq 2002 eK ynykt b#S@S y.

smSw cNq@yN yyt 3.4K l# @k`ST pK;y r`j& qL a`[`r lb` g#mt av\& yyt 5 lb` g#mt asmW y. m#vrn v&`y`my l @r~ yn 6.5K yqM kl em pK;y q#N mN m bA@k`@l`W y. qL k#t @s`lvN a`[`r ek kl, @b`@h~ rt vys 60 @h~ 70 iKm , @k`ST pK; s`m`kN py @plp`vl lX qR\nyK y.

Ns@Y aNw vm y s`m`n&@yN s>hN kr lbn pK; Nynykt aŽk cNq sAš&`vK l#m @mm m#vrn@Y a@nK W k`vn lK;ny @Y y. ߫kL vmt l# \`l cNq sAš&`v q, l. @pN @r~ @plp`vlt ipW imhW jnk`y q v`m`Ak @Q\p`ln kLpyK s>h` @sLlK pvn bv @n` vrn ln.

l#@L, @b@sNs@n`T sh p`R@W @q @V@l~S (kMkr#vN@G pK;@Y) a@PK;k d#@yL GlStN cNq@yN yyt 10t v# m`nyK lb` gWh. @my s#ly pAv. py ar# 4K S@S jRm@Y up agm# ry q @Q\ a#m ry q qr` jRm` hw pK;y e ih`s@Y kvr k@lk vW @mwrM ihl cNq sAš&`vK lb` gW@W n#w.

py q\ky r` Nsy l @gn yn lq uMmWwk, @k`STv` uQ@{~;ny slk` bln kL Ns@Y sm`jv` vm l# ply vd`W W k`v y. St#f kR@;~@G @k`STv`qy b> k @p`w sh Nv` @Y@G }&`vN@G avs`ny (oy# $b` q@ ;kksqb) pl kr l#@Y Ns@Y y. @mm @p`WvN a`rMX krn lq h`ry QŽmy sh @Q\p`ln QglyN \`l sAš&`vK aw@r V N@N y. @Mv`@Y arn @Y m`KSv`q@Y St#Nv` srN St#N, m`@v~, @p`L@p`T, sN@Qr@y~ @n~@S qKv` @M yLl N krn lq s$m apr`[yktm @p`@V @lNt, @`TSt sh m`KSv`qyt @q`S n#m y.

e@hW m#vrn pl @pNM k@L @mm v&`p`r@Y blp$m iw` w bv y.

s`r`A\ gw kl @h`W m#vrn@Y }m vty @qy`k`r aRqyK [@N|vr sm`jy e @Q\p`ln sAS}`vN aRqyK @pNM k@L y.

cNq@Y #v`Nwgw m q S}`w@Y pK; sh a@PK;kyN@gN ivw h#m q k`\yt pW k@L y. @qvv ey kMkr# pN@Y @Q\p`ln iqR\n@Y aRqyK @pNM k@L y. @mm aRqy k`w @Y kMkr#vN sh ߿y` rwvN@gN @k`tsK wmN@G qr#m sr`t enM l.@pNt cNqy @mN q yn 12K cNq@yN v#l@mN q sh ap iyt p#h# krn p a`Nk v`m`A\yt l# \`l cNq sAš&`@vN p#n n# @Q\p`ln vgMvlt n mt @h~ aRq@yN eyt m`vwK @s`y` g#mt aNw v`m`A\y asmW m .

a@™L 21 QŽN N m krn lq @KNy kRwv&y @Y @qK m# 5 jnpvrn@Y @qvn r@M @k@S cNqy y q y up@qS m @n` @V. E @vvt em kRwv&y smNw @Y a`rMXkWvyK gN m#vrn pl@yN k`w aRq@yN eyt m`vwK @pNmt kMkr# pNyt id slsNn` Sv`n @vwK vR[ny m y.

r`Kt cNqy lb`@M v&`p`ry

m#vrn@Y ply q iKv oN@G mhW pQ[yt Xy a@y~gyK k`w kl` K p|c`W m#vrn mh` @plp` q [@N|vr@Y mhW @Q\p`ln pQ[yt a@y~gyK ipW kl bv [@N|vr@Y [`n @y~w@y~ m#nN q#n y`h.

p#@Y pvWvn lq mh` m# n @plp`@yN pv Ns@Y @Q\p`ln sh QŽmy S}r@Y mh phN gnn`vK eK S kl Q[ Smkt mm shX` . ey sA[`ny krn lQ@Q sMq`k sh`Nv` s<r`v @My`N .

[@N|vr qKn`A\@Y š ym pK; eK \`l`vkt p#n yh. e yN awr q#N agm# @ls nM kr l#b n @q@m` br`L @;~N-y rf@rN, yN @p~R l` @q@m` @`N@S (y#K j`wNv` NsyK s>h` sAgm@Y) #N@k~ @Br# sh r`K@G rS@sNB@lmNW, @p~R l` pBK (sh`NvK s>h` sN[`ny, a`Ra`R) @y~w@yK q yh. @mm S@mN a`Nvt sMbNŽw v`m`A\@Y [`n @y~w@yK q h. oN awr sm`jv` pK;@Y n`yk@y q t qL a#my` q vn @d`K StS-š`N, hwN@G jn`Žp a@PK;k @n`@yL m#@m@r sh @;~N-y @;vn@mNW@W rv# v&`p`r@Y kwk@y q h. a#@lN ο@yLW sh bRn`D-@hN @l yn q`R\kyN q kN eLa`R sA[`n@Y s`m`k@yv t q#N @L @m`N@D p@Y kRw^ ry qrn eD PnL q avs`n vs@yN wm [`n QŽmy @y~wy` vn d#@yL @bN@sD N @y~jny krn lq eLa`R sA[`ny q e h.

@Q\p`ln mw@Hq @N nW @Vk`v mw ym @qn` m#vrn pl@yN @p @Y cNq q`yky @Q\p`ln S}`w@yN g#„r# @ls rsk a# bv q @my smSw sAS}`my r`@V aRqyK @pNM krn bv q gWh. @my [@N|vr sh`N@V pqnm an@R @n` @hl` s>` gw h#K@K @k@S q yNn g#n ym @qn` @y~jn` ipW klh.

smh@rK 1958 c`LS @g~L N ӵvn lq 5 vn sh`Nv @vvt q#N 6 vn sh`NvK ӵy y @y~jn` klh. m`s@Y @w~r` pW mt yw v&vS}`q`yky vh`m a`N m v&vS}` sMp`qk mNdlyK bvt pvRwny kl y smhr# @y~jn` klh. vd`W spv mhjnw`vt a#MkN wmN@G @vW E av ipW kl y smhr# @y~jn` klh. r`Kt cNqy y y ym @qn` y` m myK @n` @V. @my kl W@W akm#W@wN @n` v "uQ@y~g@yN v" y q`R\k @l k`\ k@L y.

@plp` blvW vh`m Ev` r`K q 5 vn sh`N@V apRyt pW sAS}`vN q ps @plg#Smt a`Nvt sMbN[ ym v`m`Ak pK; m#hW gWh. s$m r$pv` m[&S}`nyN q vW m`[&yN q N r`vy krn lq oN a`rMX kl @mm v&`y`my aw&s`m`n& ekK y. l.@pN n#v#Wmt ekm mg @Y r`Kt cNqy m y u@Q t h#Nq$ vn @wK mhjnw`vt @qs`b`n l. ob f#STv`qyt r#Q[ nM ob kl W@W r`Kt cNq @g`dgsN sh`Nvt ob@G pK;p`Wvy qh` q#Km y.

f#STv`q@Y anr imhW @ls a\@y~Kyt nAvn l. jn`Žp vs@yN wm`t v`w X`vy s` pmnK apr`[ @c~qn`vN g#l n a\Nm ۺw qKn`Ak @Q\p`lky vn r`K uWkR\yt nAv` j`wNv`q@Y a`rK;ky @ls ipW krn l.

r`Kt cNqy y y [j gW sm`jv`, hw p`Kk s`m`kyN@gN @plp` @Y y. r`K@G m#vrn @p~StRvl sm`jv` pK;@Y sln q "mm r`Kt cNqy @qN@n" yn vcn q sw SkryN alvn l. r`Kt pK;p`v vd`W v^wv kw` kl vW pw @Y t m`@v~v`y N sks lbn b@R;N (Ky) nM v`m brL vW pw . r`K@G m#vrn v&`p`ry wkrm v`@G @gn y l#@Y v@M pK; . qKn`Ak pK; @plp`vlt shX` @n` s`m`n&@yN akRmn&v yh.

r`K m`s@Y p#v#Wmt yw p`R@MN m#vrny s>h` q`nM mt wm`@G k>r @s~q` g#m s>h` em k`ly @y`q` gW@W y. qKn`Ak k>r#vl wm`@G v`N aS}`vr m s>h` yWnyK qrN @h@wm q yN @f~R l` dN;L m#@j~ (eFeM, jn`Žpvry`t bwryK aW kr @M sAgmy) yn nN sA[`nyK yW k@L y. brL eF sA[`n@Y n`yk #N@k~ @Br$ @my wm`@G sA[`ny n`\ kr q#m s>h` krn lq mNnyK y @hl` @V y.

wm ar e krn wvW yvrK gN r`K n#;nL NT (l. @pN@G sA[`ny) sh@y~g@yN blyt pW `@Qy jn`Žpvr# @q@nK smg Q[ @Vk`@V @p @Y y. @my i@Y en p`R@MN m#vrn@Y @qvn vt@Y wm` n#;nL NT sA[`n@Y a`[`ry lb` g#mt bl`@p`@r`W vn bvt qKvn lq p#h# slnK y.

aNw v`m`A\y r`Kt sh@y~gy @qn v&`p`ryt mNm agw y. eLa`R sA[`ny @my etm k@L y. "@Y sh cNq @p`@L l.@pNt r#Q[ v stN kl y " a#lN N@G pK;y y` @Y y. @my aR} q#Ky h#v @N q p#h#vm pK; n`ykyN N aR} k}ny kr l#@V q r`Kt cNqy y y @qn lq up@Q\yK @ls y. p`R@W @q @V@l~RS () sh @W Oy@R yn pK; r`Kt cNqy mt iLl` mt It vd` wrmk akm#WwK q#Kh. sA[`ny kr@yN ivW wmN @vtW cNqy @qn @ls yN@N n#w# y` @Y y. @W Oy@r sA[`ny @V wmN q r`Kt cNqy @n` @qn bv . iK syK v#@nN t cNq pk` avlA kr qmn @ls ey y` @Y y. @M vn` kMkr# pNyt Sv`n @m@hmK @n` @qNn` Qgk h#mkt v# @qyK @n` y.

@mm wWvyN yt@W r`Kt cNqy y y yn v&`p`ry blp$mK aW kr gW@W y. @qvn vt@Y cNqy pl vn vtyt vd` yyt 10N v# y. r`Kt yyt 82k cNqyK l#. ot cNqy N ay@gN @b`@h~ @q@nK o@G y`m`Rgyt sh@y~gy m vs@yN e@S @n` kl bv p#h# y. e@S v imhW v# cNq sAš&`vN r`K jn`Žp r@Y whr# m kMkr# pNyt Xy`nk wWvyK Rm`ny kr. cNq@yN pW krn lq jn`Žp h#yt r`K@G a@W imhW blyK Š pv. o q#N nv qKn`Ak a`NvK blyt pW kr a#w. eyt v&vS}`lv m#vrnyt @pr p`R@MN@V am#y av\& n#w. @mm a`Nvt X`r a# [`n ktWw vN@N @Y qKn`Ak p`R@MN bwryK ot shk kr m y.

r`K N pW krn lq nv agm#vry` @;~N-y rfN sMq`k m[&m pNy amwn sMv` w#n#W@w. m#vrn@Y @p`@r`N p aX&Nwr a`rK;`v s>h` am`w&A\yK r`K qKn`Ak @g`Lv` @k`lS sR@k~ yt@W ӵv` a#w. sR@k~ pW pl vn n@Y m klblk` ngr`sNn @Q\ykt @Y y. iN a#<@vN@N qKn`Ak cNq q`yky wmNt hrv` g#m s>h` m#vrnyt @prm apr`[k`ryNt e@rv k# @p@nn @p`S y` mt o q`nM bv y.

@mvN qKn`Ak a`NvK kMkr# pNyt e@rv qr# h`r eLl krn awr @Qy sm`j @vW sMbN[@yN q MmK @pNM kr. q#N mh` pm`n@yN r`Kt cNqy @qn kMkr# pNyt @mvN a`Nvk Kw X`vy a@y~gyt lK m iw` kr v a#w.

m`s@Y r`Kt qKn`Ak bwryK @n` l#nW E s` l v`m`A\y smg ar# 5K shvn@Y @y@qNnt ot vW e ply v a#W@W l.@pN@G s`R}kWvyt @H w wWvyN wv wvW u m y. sm`j@Y @Q\p`ln sh sm`k m ذN gtm u s#b$ f#STv` aNwr`yK iSm mt wWvy s#k@s a#w. r`Kt sh@y~gy @qn v&`p`ry kMkr# pNy qr# @ls v&`lWvyt pW kr a# wWvy l @mvN aNwr`yK @SWm a wK@Sr# kl @n` h# y. kMkr# pNy s>h` Sv`n kLpyK @g`dn#@M kRwv&y @pr kvr k@lktW vd` @ls iSm kr l#b a#w.

@l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y m#hWm

m` @M @Q\ny ptN gW@W Ns@Y vn QN@G @Q\p`ln p`dM s$m t m q#v#Nw j`w&Nwr aR}X`ryK qrn bv k`\ kr. @mm p`dM @k@S ukh` gw h# q? a\Nm v#qgWm av\&w`vy vN@N hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y j`w&Nwr kv q e Q[ upkrny vn @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady q Ns m#vrnyt krn lq m#hW m .

py ar# hwr l j`w&Nwr kv N @g`dngn lq @Q\p`ln upkrny q#v#Nw \k&w`vyN v pvn bvt yM s`KyK av\&v @N nM q#N Ns@Y ap kl m#hW m ey sMp`qny kr a#w. apt Ns@Y \`š`vK @N n#w. E rt l ap@G bl@Vg@y~ iw` m`sw h. e@hW @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady N cNqy y`Wmkv vRjny krn @ls krn lq k#>m tpW qhS gnnK m# n @plp`@Y @bq` hn lq awr ey Sv`n @Q\p`ln @y`vK sMp`qny kl ekm k`\y y. sWwNm ey blp$mK a# k@L y. @mm blp$m ewrM rt m#vrny mw krn lq blp$mK @Y n#w. @qn lq w l E aA\@yN kl h# @Y avm blp$mK pm. ey kMkr#vN @Q\p`lkv ugNv` g#mt sh oN@G @Q\p`ln ›`ny vR[ny mt av\& v#qgW @Q\p`ln p`dM ukh` g#mt w sks` . ey iw`m sAKw a`k`ryN f#ST aNwr`yNt r#Q[v stn kl h#K@K vd vd`W qKn`Ak [@N|vr @Q\p`lkNt kMkr# pNy ytW m mN @n` vn bv iw` sAKwv qh` q#Ky. eLa`R, eLO sh sA[`n wmN ym @`TSv`qy @v@vN @p n bv krn lq y`p$mt vl k# ey emN Nsy l j`w&Nwr k@V \`š`vK @g`dn#m s>h` m`vw q`nM k@L y.

@l~k sm`jv` @vB ady y` @Y m#vrn@Y @qvn vty y`Wmkv vRjny krn @ls y. eLO, eLa`R sh yn sA[`nvlt @y` krn lq yK N a @mm sA[`n evN vRjnyK s>h` y`Wmkv uQ@{~;ny krn @lst bl kr @y.

y`Wmk vRjnyK

ay vRjnyN @h~ S cNq pk` q#mN @h~ @vnS SvX`vyK qr. evN vRjnyK h` S cNq q#M Qgl @r~[ q#KMvl Svr$pyN y. Ev` @k@rN@N cNq @p`@L @h~ wm`@G v@S @qkl`v y. sy vRjnyK cNq@yN s#ly m`nyK lb` gW pK; N a`mnv y`Wmk krn w l kMkr# pNy N g lbn Sv`n @Q\p`ln a`S}`nyk sAg^w k`\ny @V. ap eLO sA[`n@Y shkr#@vt yN p#h# kl p sy m#vrn vRjnyk arn vN@N "kMkr# pNy Sv`n @Q\p`ln bl@VgyK @ls bl g#Nm y. "v@M" sh q@N smSw @Q\p`ln S}`wyt m sh f#ST g`Wvyt e@r vn ym @qn`@G iSmW@W kMkr# pNy ӵv`m y."

evN sy vRjnyK, kMkr# pNyt m s#b$ kLpyN @w`r mh [np@Y a@PK;k@y sh w f#STv`y yn @qN ekK @w~r` g#mt ym krn @~d`k` m#vrnyk @m`n m KKw X`vyK vW n# bv whr# kr a#w. evN sy vRjnyK m#vrnyN p p#n n#mt yw @Q\p`ln arglyN s>h` @h`>m w Rm`ny kr a#w. ey }m vt@Y l. @pN@G s`R}kWvy N kMp` @k`t clnyt pW kr l# mhjnw`v @|;@yNm wr#n jnw`v @Q\p`ln vs@yN ugNv` g#mt uqV kr a#w. r`Kt cNqy m j`wNv`q@Y a`rK;`v s>h` vN@N y y`p`Nn` [@N|vr @Q\p`ln S}`w@Y @b`r# q q#mt kMkr#vNt ugNv a#w.

sy vRjnykt e@rv ipW krn lq [`n @r~[y @Y ev#NnK @qvn vt@Y l. @pN@G jyhnyt mg p`q a#w# yNn y. a v^w sN@Q\@Y @mm @r~[yt r# N@n}

"smhr#N wRk kr a#W@W m# 5 cNqy syv vRjny m l.@pN sh o@G f#ST v&`p`ry \KmW kr a#w# y` y. a evN y`p$M mNm K@p kr. @Q\p`lny aAk gwy @n` @V. epmnK @n` v l. @pNt r#Q[ m s>h` r`Kt sh@y~gy m av\& n#w. @myt lv wm` pmnK m @Q\p`ln S}`wyt e@r jnw` r#Q[Wvy k`\nyt pW krN@N y yn l. @pN@G mNm s`vq& q v`c`l q y`p$mt r#L @qN@N a`N qn sh a`N vm Ek`bQ[ krNn` r`Kt pK; l v&`p`ry y.

"sm`jv` pK;y" Lw#n @gn l.@pNt sh r`Kt r#Q[v kMkr#vN sh wr#nyN bl gNvN @k@rNn` m# 5 cNqyt e@r sy vRjn@Y sh @r~[@Y p^l v&`y`myK l. @pN@G v&`j mv`@pNm r# @k`t lA bSs` pvWn` sm`j sh @Q\p`ln pQ[yt a@y~g krn g sm`j bl@VgyK pvWn` bv plL mhjnw`vt @pNM kr a#w."

l. @pN jyhny klW Ns jnw`v sRv`Žk` Ek`ŽpWvykt ytpW mt o asmW v a# bv a av[`rny k@l. a#Wwtm v`m`Ak pK; l.@pN@G \Ky pmn iKmv` a\@y~Kyt n#A@Y sm`jmy @r~ wWvyt wmN@Gm @Q\p`ln vgm b>v mn @h~ s`kCc`vK a# m vlKv`m s>h` y.

@mm v^w y N a`mNny kr l# ekm sA[`nyK vW s`[y a`k`ryN c`r q#K@Y vW sy vR[nyK s>h` iLm y`Wmk mt vW q`nM @Y n#w.

a @mm m oN@G k`Ry`lvlt aNm X`r s`kCc`vK iLl` @y. eLa`R sA[`ny y` @Y ap smg kw` mt wmNt @vl`vK n# bv y. sA[`n@Y m[&m k`Ry`l@Y ap h e زk`n s`m`k@yK Qgkv ap smg kw` k@L y. eLO sA[`ny @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y a`[`rkr#@vt @k yK e y. @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y kRw^ mNdlyt eLO sA[`n@Y wv@w N evn lq yK ap N r# swv pl krn l. aN@M m# 5 q` @qvn vt@Y em sA[`n@Y jn`Žp a@PK;k a`@L l#l` v^w sN@Q\yt wm a`kLpy p#h# krN ap smg @k sMš s`kCc`vk @yn` y.

ap v^w sN@Q\yt l#@N iw` w c`ryK v q ey N avn lq s`kCc`v i qR\ny b> k |n p#h# mt a`[`r a#w. ey s#bNm Plvv` m`KSv` @y`vK q m`[&k @vwK q awr p#h# m` @Rš`vK ӵv` g#mt a`[`r @B.

a$w v@M avS}`v`qy

eLO, eLa`R sh sA[`n N g l# @Q\p`ln m`vw qr# avS}`v`qyN sAlKw y. oN y @qn` E @h~ @M a`k`r@yN r`Kt pK; v&`p`ryt agw h. m`KSv` pK;ykt rlphrt r#Q[v ӵy h# y, pvWn` ›`n r$pyNt e@rv stN kl h# y yNn @m`Nt mNm arhA y.

a`@L l#l` @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady smg krn lq sMš s`kCc`@V avS}`v`q@Y ym a`S}`ny @m@S s`r`A\gw kl` y. "bl@VgyN@G sMbN[w`vy smg g#l@pN@N y q @qn lq rtK l kMkr# pNy mt q`nM y q ap wn @Q smg g#l@pn @y~jn` s$m tm ipW kr."

m`KSv`N a`rMX krN@N @@v;k wWvyN@gN q @mm wWvyN N kMkr# pNy mw pw krn lq kRwv&yN@gN q @V. @mm kRwv&yNt g#l@pn p kMkr#vN@G ›`ny osv`m s>h` o s$m tm stN kr. @myt e@rv qRk avS}`v`@yK vn l#l` a#y kMkr# pN@Y ›`n mTtm y wK@Sr# krn @qN ptN @gn eyt g#l@pn p wm y`m`Rgy h#dgs` g#mt uWs`h kr.

"kMkr# pNy mt q`nM mK q yNn" enM sAŽw cNq vRjnykt ey q`nMv @Y q yNn @s`y` g#m s>h` p#v@N ekm m`vw. enM, E s>h` a`mnv y`Wmk m y. r`K jnyWv@yN mNm @w`r y yn kr#n slk` bln kL evN v&`y`myK, s#ly c`ryK lb`g#mt smW vn bvt s#kyK n#w.

e@hW eLO sA[`ny kMkr# pN@Y ›`n@Y sh y`k`Wv@Y iw` K;k r$pyNt @k`wrM ytW q# v @h`W mh` @Q\p`ln v&`p`ryK r` yn s$m @m`@h`wkm o mNm myt pW @v. oN sMbN[@yN gw@h`W kMkr# pNyt a`rMXkWvy g#m s>h` a# wrM v`q`yk "bl@VgyN@G sMbN[w`vyN" kvr k@lk vW phl @n` v a#w. @`TS @b`@h~ avS}`vl Nsy b> o@G @Lšnvl @pNM kl p a`Wy s`[ky enM, pK;@Y sh n`ykWv@Y y`kl`py gnN @n` @gn bl@VgyN@G s#b$ sMbN[w`vy @SW vth` gw @n` h# y.

eLO sA[`nyt kMkr# pN@Y y`k`Wvy sAkLpny kr gw h# vN@N v^Wy s arglyN@G SvX`vyN@gN m pm. o @m`n m @Q\p`ln v&`p`rykt v aN[ @v. l#l` ap smg kl sMš s`kCc`@V k`\ kl iw`m m elvn @qy nM "arglyN sMbN[@yN gw @h`W @M @m`@h`@W ap rt l kMkr# pN@Y bl g#NmK @SWm a#W@W n#w" yn k`\y . a$ @m@S @V mh` @plp` sh @Q\p`ln klb#g$vN s @qkkt pv y!

eLO sA[`n@Y @Q\p`ln avS}`v`qy sh @Q\p`ln akRmn&w`vy b#Š a#W@W oN@G p j`k q^y smg y. 1930 gnN qKv` L vn @mm sA[`ny s$m tm hwr vn j`w&Nwry smg Ek`bQ[ m K@p kr a#w. @myt qKvn lq @H @Y "hwr vn j`w&Nwr@Y n`ykWvy sm`j sA@yN [@N|vr y" yNn y. j`w&Nwr sA[`nykt b#Šmt vd` Ns kMkr#vN smg ekt m v#qgW y ey y. @Q\p`ln pq vs@yN gW kl @m aR}y vn` q#v avS}`v` j`k v^Wy s v`w`vrnyt a# b#Šm j`w&Nwrv` @Q\p`ln @y`vkt vd` v#qgW y slk lbn bv y.

a`@L l#l` vn` @mm i qR\n@Y Qgl`@r~pny . 2000K pmn shkr#vN i@Y a#y kl m#vrn @Q\nyK mm y. p#ykt vd` gW a#y@G smSw @Q\n@Y m ek j`w&Nwr QŽyK vW s>hN k@L n#w. Ns hq`v q# @S sMbN[ a#FgS}`N Q[y, m#q@prg aRqy, @g~ykrny, @r~p` sAgmy @M vK s>hN mt vn` @QvL y gnN g l#@V n#w. hytm Nsy @vnm h @l~kyk pwK v` @m.

a`@L l#l` nM @mm Plvv`y @b`@h~ aA\yN@gN gw@h`W Nsy l obt q#k gw h# a\Nm wWv`rK;k w#n#Wy . a#y@G wym gw kr a#W@W ekm wT v`s@Y yw a$ ekm ߿y`@V ar# 40K gw kr a#w. ar# 30K S@S a$ kr a#W@W ekm kw`v y. a#@G ym @Q\nyN sh kv#vlt a#W@W ekm v#l@pn w`ly } "@k`Mp# @l`K@k~ obv r`k, a`Nv ob rvtN @l`KkNt sh`y @q" Rw a`rMXkWvyK @h~ @Q\p`ln @y`mK nM @m q#k gw @n` h# y.

eLa`R sA[`nyt eLO sA[`nyt vd` @Q\p`ln avnyK q sm`j avnyK q @Q\p`ln q^yK q a#w. oN@G a`œy r`v v^Wy s K@y @n` @V. @Q\p`ln "vm ." enM [@N|vr S}`w@Y v`m aNwy . N |v`s krN@N vRwm`n @Q\p`ln aRq@Y NN ek @k`t m`[&k @g`@h`r#vK @g`dn#y h# y y` y. @mm @g`@h`r#vt sm`jv`, @k`ST pK; l r#Q[ mw[`N q a#t#K - sh @s`N p#yRS, E @s`m`R yn sA[`nvl r#Q[ mw[`N q eLa`R a@PK;ky`t cNqy N ߫kL ;&yN q a#lW kr g#mt o bl`@p`@r`W @v.

@l g`@r~ vW pw smg kl s`kCc`vk N, eLa`R sA[`ny @k`ST pK;@Y nt„N smg ek m q @n` slk` h#y @n` h# y h#< y. @k`ST pK;y a#lN r` y`m "nv Sv`, psrv`, [np @r~, vRwm`n aNw vmt m` @n` nv @y~jnykt m< p$y h# y" o y.

N a`qR\yt gN@N fN@d@y~N @k`St` pK;y . @k`ST pK;@Y St#N w kNd`y@mN p#n n# @mm pK;y m$w p#v#W sM@Mln@Y @g~krn @r~ sh a#t#K v# @vnW @r~[w` v&`p`ryNt sp m s>h` wm St#Nv` awy K@p k@L y. ز k`lyK S@S fN@d@y~N sA[`ny iw`@Y m#q v@M a`Nvt v`m kvryK @ls, em a`Nv bRS@k~@G qKn`Ak sX`gy N S}`pny @k@rn @wK, iw` rn`Wmk y`kl`pyK i kr a#w. eLa`R sA[`n@Y shNwkN iw` p#B@l~v`@y~ @mm smSw k`l pC@Cqy r` fN@d@y~N sA[`ny l š y`kl`pyK i klh.

N a#s gs` n bl@VgyN@gN @b`@h`myK r`Kt cNqy y y v^wv uQ@{~;ny kr @bn s` evN cNqykt r#Q[ mt eLa`R sA[`nyt @n` h# bv p#h# y. ey e@S r#Q[ nM wm rN@gN @b`@h~ @q@n n# kr g a#w. epmnK @n` v eLa`R sA[`ny r`Kt cNqy mt krn k#>mt |w @Q\p`ln aR}yK @B. eN em sA[`ny Ns p`lk vt a<v` N@N wmN Ns sh`N@V @Q\p`ln r`vt gr# krn bv q wmN N p`lny kr lbn sm`j v&`p`rykt ey @n` wk` h#mt ey id @n` @qn bv q @V.

N whr# mt uWs`h krn m`[&k v&`p`ry py ar# 5 l Ns kMkr# pNy p`lny kr g#mt Ns [np pNyt uqV kl @j`SN@G bv` v@M (ckmRk k#@e) w#n g a#w. evN v&`p`ryK [np @r~ vN@N n#w. sh@kN m [np my a`rK;` kr a#w.

m#vrn@Y pl vt@yN p @m`n m @Q\p`ln QŽyk vW vgM X`r g#m sA[`ny N K@p kr l# y. oN@G pK; k`Ry`l@Y apt h @j&t s`m`ky` apt y` @Y, "ap up@QsyK @qN@N n#w." sy vRjnyK b> wm aqhs ap o@gN m kL l#l` @mN m o q y` @Y "bl@VgyN@G sMbN[w`vyN" eyt id @n` @qn bv y.

pl W kl`N pv sA[`n@Y s`m`k d#@yL GlKStN "kMkr#vN wmN N m wmN@G m bl g#Nm N m vRwm`n kr k`l pC@Cqyt av\& sŠm @s`y` g#m s>h` av\& ym m`[&yN @s`y` g#mt a# h#y`v g#n wm |v`sy pl k@L y. kl W@W mK q# o@G shkr#vN@gN a# kL, @mm pK; n`yky` a@G a# rK @q. "ob, ob N m rK @s`y` g a#w# mt @h`>tm |v`s y. s#bNm wWvy @m@S nM sA[`nyt p#v#Wmt @HvK a#W@W n#w.

@vnW p#WwN gw@h`W GlKStN wm ag`kyN v^Wy s l[ryt @y` k@L y. "t kN @b`@h~ avS}`vl @mN o y` @Y, "j`wNv`q@Y a`rK;`v gmN krN@N kMkr#vN sh oN@G sA[`nyN oN@G @ev`kM jyhnyN a`rK;` m s>h` q j`wNv`qy a`rK;` m s>h` q eKsW mt v^Wy s sM@Mlnvlt a# h#y`v N y" y` y. o @m@S y` N@N Ns kMkr#vN@G yyt 8ktW a m`nyK v^Wy s`m`kyN v n w l y! v^Wy s @j`SN a`N@V iw`m blgm shkr#vN v p#v w l y!

sA[`ny v^Wy s l[r@Y aA\yK bvt ݶ a#w. [`n vs@yN @m v#d krN@N Ns@Y v^Wy s sM@Mln@yN qnt Š y prK @f~S u_i@Y nM y p`lnyt n sA[`ny . vRwm`n QNt sA[`ny s^ vgmK qr. @j`SN q a# sm`jv` pK;@Y [`n s`m`kyN gnn`vKm k@L sA[`n@Y @pr gmNkr# j`w&Nwr @k`ST sA[`ny (Oa) .

s`r`A\ vs@yN v@h`W Ns@Y QN @SWm a @|; @n` @V. @mvN sm`j a`wN q s`Mq`k pK;vl sh r`j& sAS}`vN @Q\p`ln aRqy q t vd` @vnS r$pyN@gN v @r~p@Y s$m w#nkm q#k gw h# y. Ns@Y @l~s@va N krn lq Rw m#hWm Ns@Y kMkr#vN s>h` krn lq argly iyt @gn y` h#K@K @k@S q yNn @pNM kr.

eLO sA[`n@Y shkr#@vt r# @qN p#K m`N @pNM kl p, a@nW ym v`m`Ak kNd`yM @mN m @W Oy@R sA[`ny smg "ap@G v`q@Y a k k`rny vN@N ap kMkr#vNt @Q\p`ln a[&`pny m q oN@G @Q\p`ln ›`ny vR[ny m q yn @M @qyt, v^Wy s argly v# `@y~k y`k`Wv@Y mn @|; r$pyktW vd` k S}`nyK @qn s` y."

ap @qvn r@M vRjnyK s>h` k#>mt kWvy gW@W hytm @mNn @M k`rny s` y. @my m#vrn@yN p n#v n# s`kCc`vK q p#h# @M sNwyK q a`rMX kr a#w. @M s>h` Rw X`vyW Srs`r X`vyW imhW ivmW av\& y. kMkr# pNy l q# v&`lWvyK pv. E s` @mm |n y yW p#h# kl y. y yW wRkyt X`jny kl y.

ap stN vN@N kMkr# pNy j`w&Nwrv sm`jv` v#d@vlK mw Ek`bQ[ mt y. mh b#A sh mh sAgwyN N p`lny kr lbn @r~p` sAgmyt e@rv ap@G r vN@N @r~y eKsW sm`jv` sh`Nv . ap@G arglyt v#@dn œ`vkyK q l#@b a#w# apt q# |v`syK pv. aN@M ap@G a`S}`ny Ns@Y aNw vm N @y~jny kr lbn avS}`v`qy pr`jy kr a#w# apt q# |v`syK pv.


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