World Socialist Web Site

 

Mehring Books




 

 

WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : iNy` up-mh`Qpy

;NgM NqrAgM 1956-2003
/ l`Ay @
`TSv`@y@G akL mrny

sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;y (/ lAk`v)
2003 a@g~S 06

/ lAk`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y (ssp) s`m`ky vn ;NgM NqrAgM a@g~S 01 vn n h@Y aX`v`Pw y. o, / lAk`@V kMkr# pN@Y vd`Wm ԫw SwryK @qml v kMkr#vN@gN @k@nv awr vsr qhyK r` ssp s`m`ky @ls kt k@L y.

@k`lƒN @l~tR 200K N bNd`r@vl @Q\@Y ӵ eSl# vy`@Y d` l#N k`mryK wm vst a`sNn @vl> s#lK asl py r`q` o a#q v#n. vy`@Y d` @b@hW \`l`vt K;kv @gn y n E vn tW o y @g`S n.

1956 a@g~S 09 q` upw l# NqrAgM y yn t vys yNwM 47. o@G mrn@yN w > kml`q v kMkr# Syk vn awrm ssp a`[`rk`yK q vN y. o@G mrny, ssp t blg p`vK vn awr ssp s`m`k s`m`k`vNt ey iw` @ls q#@n a#w.

NqrAgM@G avml, py iq`, o @Svy kl h` vW vy`@Y m @kn. avsN mN q#Km s>h`, v kMkr#vN, wr#nyN, gM v#yN sh ssp s`m`kyN wvN a# 300K pmn @qn` shX` y. ssp m[&m k`rk skN vn a`R eM nlk, nNq mAh, p` @JvRqn sh ar`Ag rAh, ssp b#nry yt@W p#v avmL uWsvy a#mh.

1993 sspt b#‹ w#N ptN, NqrAgM kMkr#vN@G aN sh j`w&Nwr sm`jv` l[Rm @v@vN mWv stN v#. o@G @Q\p`ln v#d kt nvw`@M a@yN vy`@Y klmn`k`Wvy N 1997 o@G @Svy w`vk`kv aWv`lN qdymt lK k@L y. em vs@R m h a`b`[ykt lK o aA\X`g @r~y bvt pW y. m`s gnnk @@vq& k`rvN p o n#vw kw` @M h#y`v lb` gW n @ynr# gmN k@L s#ryyk v`r#@v.

NqrAgM, o@G akL mrny @wK m, h a`b`[@Y ar# plvlt sh aŽk r#Žr dnyt k`r lb` gN @Y y. vkr@Y pvWn` ڱ vn @k`N@Q sh ot eLl krn lq qdym o@G akL mrny @k@r [`n @ls blp$ bvt kvr @h~ s#kyK @n`m#w. o n N krw`, / lAk`@V @W sh rbR v s`r` kMkr#vN n @qn qr# r`k$@M k`\n@y~ @vW.

qhnvv# yvs agX`g@Y , evkt / lAk`v p`lny kl w`n& wv` p`lkN N wm / l`Ak @k~ h` @W vg`vN s>h` kMkr#vN @ls q iNy`@vN b>v` gNn` lq qhS sAk&`w ڱ @qml jny`@gN sMXvy lq sy @q@n@gN W plk NqrAgM upw lb` a#w.

a`rMX@Y tm @mm v kMkr#vN a qr# @k`N@Qvlt n Nh. oN, a@nW kMkr#vN@gN @vN @k`t wb`, vvltm b#> w# awr yNwN g#t gs` g#mt pmnK m`nvWvn v#pK lb` . a`rMX@Y, ap hrKm v# k>r#vl r>v l# @m`Nt pv iw` d` "lN k`mr" spyn l. lN k`mryK y ز mvk, @vN krn lq w k`mry. @mvN k`mr shyK ek @plt ӵt` a# b#N Ev`t lN k`mr yn nm l# a#w. aq pv`, @b`@h~ v kMkr#vN vW vN@N w sm@Y @g`dngn lq evN lN k`mr l y.

1948 , enM NqrAgM@G upwt vsr atkt @pr`v, eKsW j`k pK; a`Nv rv# pnw a`ywn gw krn l. emN smSw @qml v kMkr# jnw`v@G cNq ay a# rv# aN a @kn. @b`@h~ pL rt l prMpr` gnn`vK vWv w yt@W pv` oN rtK n# wWvyt a#q q l#@V y.

Ahl h` @qml kw` krn kMkr#vN awr v`Rk q#L av` / l`Ak kMkr# pNy Rvl m @mm j`wN @r~ h`r@Y arn y. w`n& w p`lknt e@r argl@Y [`n k`vK i kl @`TSv` lAk` smsm`j pK;y (lssp) @mm rv# pnwt e@rv blg uQ@{~;nyK yW k@L y. vRgy, X`;`v sh a`gm @n`wk` kMkr# pNy ek @M lssp i qR\nyt v kMkr#vN a# kMkr# pN@yN blg c`ryK l#n. lssp @mm argly yW krn lQ@Q, @qml p`lk v N rv# pnwt k# @p@nn sh@y~gyK @qN yy.

nW, p|c`W q k`n sm}@Y blp$m yt@W, lssp y, kMkr# pN@Y @Q\p`ln Sv`nWvy mw p`qk @k`t wm Plvv` m`KSv` iqR\ny iw` @Vg@yN K@p krN / l`Ak [@N|vry sh e [@N|vr EjN N @p~;ny @k`t vR[ny krn lq Ahl S@v~Wwmv` @Q\p`lnyt @w@M m agw vNnt y. 1964 , m` bNd`rn`yk@G [np a`Nvt a# v^wvm @`TSv`qy h#ry` y`@mN lssp@Y @Q\p`ln ph`y t`Pyt pW y.

@mm mh` p`v`m - ey enN cw y - @H@vN / lAk`v l sh j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNyt g`d pl p`k aW ‰y v n. ey jnv`Rk @Q\p`lny mw pqnM m[&m pNk ߫kL pK; m Emt s^vm - u@R @qml jny` awr @bMv` @qml K @k` sA[`ny (eLI) sh q@N Ahl wr#nyN awr jnw` K @prn (j@p). @k`lx Ahl S@v~Wwmv` @Q\p`ln@Y aŽk`rvW bv sh @qml jnw`vt e@r j`wN @r~ yvr s>h` a`N@V a`y 1983 v^w L Q[@yN r` @Y y.

NqrAgM@G wy @mm k#lƒ shgw aWq#M sm< spv b#Š n. lssp@Y p`v`m vn t ot yNwM at vsr. p`v`@M a`sNnwm pl p`ky @Y, m` bNd`rn`yk sh iNy agm# l`L bhR \`S N aWsN wbn lq kt m`-\`S m. @mm m yt@W, y qhS gnN v kMkr#vN blhWk`r@yN iNy`vt tmA @kn. N smhr# rv# ay pv` lb` ay h. lsspy @mm tmA mt sh@y~gy Nn` pmnK @n`v, on@G @mm y`v mN @qml v kMkr#vN mw hny pvWv` @gn y lAk` kMkr# @k`Asy (dBV) h` j`wNv` kMkr# @k`Asy (dBV) v# sMq`k v^Wy sv` pK;vl aw \KmW @kn.

1964 NqrAgM@G y` eK v y`yk t eSl# v y`yt m`r# @kn. dBV n`yk@ym @H@vN, wm @G a[&`pny sv# @y qKv` rKw kr mt o smW y. @b`@h~ v kMkr# qr#vN em @yt smW mt @b`@h~ kN p`sl h#r yn awr e@S @n`@V nM a[&`pnyK @n`lb.

o@G y` y yn t em p@L qr#vN@gN r#@Y p @Y NqrAgM pm. wm plt a`[`r m s>h` a[&`pny nvw` ߿y`vK @s`y` g#mt ot y. ot @s`y` gw h# @Y @k`lx sh y`pn@Y iw` b`l vRg@Y ߿y`vN y. n#vw eSl# vy`yt p# o 1974 w`vk`k kMkr#v @ls @Sv@Y @y. @mm vkv`@V , bNd`rn`yk@G sm @pr a`Nv lssp sh@y~gy q swv v jnsv y`Wmk k@L y. @mm jns@V Ahlnt klmn`krn ߿y` lb` N awr @qml kMkr#vN@G ߿y` h` vn @k`N@Q vd`W phl wWvyt a#q q#. @my v`Rk a`wN vR[ny mt . v kMkr#vNt vn as`[`rnyNt e@rv kw` m @H@vN NqrAgM p vrKm qdymt lK y. q‡vM @ls ot n gnN v#d @n`N awr o sh o@G pl, v#P rwv mn @h~ myN glv` g#@M wWvyt a#q qmn l. dBV@Y s`m`kyv o, a`Nv sm< e @Q\p`ln up`m`r# b>v sh kMkr#vN@G aN k mt eyt a# @n`h#y`v b>v vd vd`W klmt pW@vN @Y y.

1993 , vkry l Lv p#r# @n`sNNw`vy m[&@Y NqrAgM, Plvv` @k`ST sAgmy (ssp Rv`Pk) t b#‹. 1992 eN a`Nv vkry Qgkrny m a`rMX kl`y. e plyK @ls kMkr#vNt v# brK p#t awr @my kMkr#vN awr @n`sNNw`vy vR[ny mt .

em k`l@Y @mm wWvy b>v ytW dBV n`yky vn h# cN@Skr @k`s vWpw vn kMkr# m`vwt @m@S p#v@V y. "(vkr@Y) kMkr#vN@G n#mK a#y h#k. apt p`lny kl @n`h# wWvyK vR[ny @vN pv". @mm v#@dn r#Q[Wv@Y s gs` q#m s>h` v^Wy s n`yk@y~, d` p v# mK lb` m s>h` v klmn`k`Wvy EW g#N awr uQ@{~;ny iyt @gn y`@M y mA@pW vs` q#h.

dBV@Y h` a@nW v^Wy svl y`k`Wvy b>v kMkr# S}ryN klmt pWy. NqrAgM @k`s @qst h#r#: "q#N mt v^Wy s L dBVyt vd` dBV@Y stNk` bvK mt @pn s` mm eyt b#‹n`. pS@S E aqhsW @vnS n`. E s mm @M pWw@R yvNn ptNgW@W" y o @k`s s`m`kynt p#v@V y. @k`s @qml m`[& vWpw vn @w`l`lRp`@w , NqrAgMt nv @l~kyK vr kr .

pK; s`m`kN sm< p#v#W s`kCc` m`l`vK N, v kMkr#vN sMbN[@yN pmnK @n`v smSwyK @ls kMkr# pNy sMbN[@yN lssp p`v`@M @Q\p`ln aR}X`ry av@b~[ kr g#mt NqrAgM ptN gW@W y. o n`g l#@V, j`kv`q@Y sh S@v~Wwmv`q@Y y r$p`k`ryNt e@rv Ahl h` @qml kMkr#vN@G ekv mw p`qk @k`s v#d@vlt y. o @|wv a`kR;ny @Y @l~k QN sMbNŽw j`w&Nwr k@V |@L;n @k@ry.

@k`st b#‹ NqrAgM, @qml v kMkr#vN awr q, a`sNn gMm`nyN ԫw Ahl jny` awr q, @k`s iqR\ny s>h` @v@hs @n`wk`, mWv uQ@{~;n@Y @y@N y. Ahl g#yN @G ߿y`vt sh idM <yt @Hv @qml v kMkr#vN y# @c~qn` krN Ahl aNwv` sA[`n N @prt qmn @qml @r~ S@v~Wwmv`qyt e@rv stNv#q ey pr`jy @M aw&v\&bv p#h# mt o rr#v stN v#.

NqrAgM@G @Qhy ɵqN kl S}`ny s#k#m s>h` @qml v kMkr#vnt uqV mtW, avmlt shX`mtW, Ahl g#yN p @q@n p#m \`l aR}X`ryK qr. ԫw @qml kMkr#v@G avmlt Ahl g#yN shX` m lb QŽyK vn awr emN o NqrAgM@G l[Rm`Wmk a`S}`nyt blg a`c`ryK q#Kh. eK g#@y o b> mwky vcnvlt @pr@V @m@S y: "a ey` h‹n@gn @y Plvy g#n kw` krn @kn` h#yt. ey` at pK;@Y k`\n @gnW mW, E v@Gm @l~k QN g#n a eKk kw` mW r#QqK h#yt kl`".

NqrAgM, v kMkr#vN@G argl l q, dBV sh a@nW v^Wy svl n`\k` blp$M vlt e@r argl l q, n`yk k`vK i k@L y. r@t qr# a`rK;k yt@W, "eLI s#kkr#vN" @ls n @n`as` r>v` wr#n v kMkr#vN qhS kr g#@M pK; uQ@{~;n@Y o k# @p Qgl@y y.

ssp ahs v kMkr#vN awr vR[ny vn w l It c`ryK @ls, 1997 NqrAgM@G v#d whnM @kn. p`sy sA‹v` g#m s>h` y >K p`ny mt W pyK @Sv@yN ivWv m @H@vN, @Svy p#h#r h#@M @c~qn`v mw o qdymt lK k@L y. wm ߿y`v a mt e@rv o kMkr# us`y i@Y a@y~g kl n, v&`j @H mw nv n#vw n#vwW kL q#n. ߿y`vq a vsr hyK gw , o y yn @wK m kMkr# us`@yN NvK @n`l#n.

o@G a`Rk aphw` sh ayhpW @s_k& wWvy @n`wk`, NqrAgM q^dwr @ls pK;yt w pK;p`wv @Y y. "ey` <K @h`> @k@nK. ey`t On$@N @Q\p`lny krNn, @Q\p`lny g#n kw` krNn. @M @p` kbD e@K @yn @QvL a#r @vn m @Q@p`lK ey`t @N n$." y@vN o@G > kml` Swr kl`y. em d` W aLm`y l o@G @p`WpW r>v` awr, e r# n@W @lN@G, @`TS@G sh 1987 yy @k`s a`rMXk [`n @LkM R b`ly@G c`y`r$p alv` n.

avm"L uWsv@Y NqrAgM b> mwky @g_rvyt p` y. eK kMkr# kNd`ymK @m@S Swr k@L y "ey` wrm kw`k@L pK;y g#n. pK;@Y @Q\p`lny apt vthl @qNn ey` <K mhN n`. ey`@G pK;y a@nK pK; vlt vd` @vnS. pK;@Y kMkr# pNk v#d@vl g#n, kMkr#vN@G aN g#n, @l~k @Q\p`ln wWvy g#n ey` aW eKk kw` kl`. ey` h#m S@sm y @qyK wm a, a g#n wrK wN@N n#v @l~@k a#vn @vnSkM g#n i@gngNn O@n yl".

wvW @k@n@G aqhs @m@S y: "at ey`@G mrny @l` @Vqn`vK. @l~k@Y @vn @QvL g#n yNn q#N apt kr#vW n$. a@P a#S @qN apt q#k gNn b# @l~k wWvy g#n a q#ngW@w ey`@gN. ey` n#m at @l` p`vK.

"a ey` gW@w ugW @k@nK h#yt. ey`@g @Q\p`ln aqhS gW@w n# ayt @m@hm yNn ey` r# @vl` y. '@M q#N a@P @Q\p`lny gN@n n# n`t kmK n$. an`gw@y kvq h qvsk Ev` gNn Q[@v.' wm`@g @Q\p`ln v#d@vl g#n E v@G |v`syK n. ey` Vv wvW @qyK wm, 'sm`jv` j`w&Nwrv` iqR\ny s>h` a q#N @gyn argly, a@P qr#vN@g an`gwy s>h` @Hk`rk @vnv' yl".

NqrAgM@G akL mrny sMbN[@yN ssp blg @ls @\~k vn awr m, @mm mW sm`jv` stNkr#v`t a`c`r krN@n.


e-mail.



Copyright 1998-99
World Socialist Web Site
All rights reserved