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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

a#mk` qv`q@Y @Q\p`ln a`Rky

1 vn @k`ts

The political economy of American militarism
Part 1

K MS
2003 10

phN ap plkrN@N, "ir`kyt e@r Q[@Y @Q\p`ln p`dMŸ j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNy s>h` i mg" yn m#y yt@W OS@y`@v D ngr@Y 5-6 nyN pvWvn lq @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y h` sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y sM@Mlnyt ipW krn lq a`rMXk v`Rw`@v plv# @k`ts. @M v`Rw`v ipW krn lQ@Q @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y j`w&Nwr kRw^ mNdl@Y s`m`k h` OS@y`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y j`k @LkM vn K MS .

eKsW jnpqy b#Gd$dy ytW kr g#@mN pv @wmsK gwvWm, @l~ky nv gykt a#v a# bvt av@b~[y vR[ny @vN pv. ir`ky a`mny m vd`W L @l~p`yk eK ayrK @h~ eK aA\yK @h~ pmnk# q#N vdvd`W p#h# @vN pvŸ enM, @l~k @Q\p`ln@y Rn sA[`nyK m s>h`  p`ln wNy hrh` eKsW jnpq p`lk @V [`vny .

ir`ky ytW kr g#m, @g~y a`Žpw& ar @k`t gW @l~p`@y eK @k`ts. ap q#N aWqN N@N @`TS N eKwr` avŽyk "a#mk` aŽr`j&v`qy s#bNm kNqK @S r` y`m" @ls h‹Nvn lq wWvy . @l~k ih`s@Y s#bNm aW k`l pC@CqyK v^w krNn` @M pAcyt p`qk g`mk bl@Vg @hqrV m q em |@L;ny pqnM @k`t @gn, j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNy s>h` @l~p`yK h` i qR\nyK @g`dn#mq @M sM@Mlny ar @k`t g.

q#nt y`Wmk vn ak a`Rk bl@Vg mm @M v`Rw`@V p w#nk sm`@l~cny kr. en, ir`kyt e@r h`ryt pqnM s`vN ;y p}y, g#„r h` pm`ny K@mN em bl@Vgvl \Ky b> MmK @h~ ql m`pkyK apt a`rMX@Y m lb`gw h# y.

w`n&@y B@ly`R rjy h` @M r@t (OS@y`@V) @h`v`D rjy [`n @l`v vt` spwm p`KkN N y vm`r` opmTtM k#r#, ir`ky a`mny mt  p`ln wNy N @qs`b`n lq s`vN yLl Swr`Wmkv e@p@h mt @m id n#w. en, a#@d`LF TlR@G p`ln@yN @mt ev#NnK qKnt @n`l# bv @k sm`@l~cnyN v q whr# kl h# y.

vsr 13N v# k`lyK l eKsW jnpqy, ir`kyt e@rv E @h~ @M a`k`r q hq` @m@hMvl @y a#w. m$wm ayr a#r„@N s#Pw#MbR 11 v# n h`ry avsN mW smg y. klk t ipW krn lq v#d @vl - enM, ir`kyt e@r Rn pm`n a`mnyK yW m - y`Wmk m s>h` q#N wWvy @m~r` a# bvt p`ln wN@y [`nwm s`m`k@y~, @|;@yN, a`rK;k @LkM @d`nLD rMS@fLD h` o@G @y~j& @LkM @p~L L@f`TS, em avS}`@V p#h# klh.

en, m`qyK a# y. plv# ilKky @ls a#F{Sw`ny @w~r` gNn` l. e@S vq, ir`kyt e@rv h`ryK yW @M rny 2002 vs@R m sm@y gNn` lv y`Wmk m q`nM @k. a#F{Sw`n@y a`mny y`Wmk krn lq @vltm a`mnyK sA[`ny mt h#y`vK @n`m# bv rny @k. enM, eKsW jnpq vN bly h` M mTt@M eKsW jnpq @|; blk`yNt amwrv sNnQ[ @Qy r#Q[v` kNd`yM up@y~ kr g#m kl @n`h# bvy. q`nM m s>h` m`s pyK av\& v a#w.

@M awrv`r@Y, blk` \K vR[ny kr@gn yWm, @Q\p`ln q`nm smNw @Y ir`ky sv a# sl{`wk a b> v&`p`ry. @M v&`p`ry @k`tS nN smNw yŸ kl`py l pmnK @n`v a#mk`vt e@rv pv` p`C kl h# rs`yk h` v q&`Wmk a ir`k wNy sv @bn bv; n&k a @h~ ytW @sN em a pqv` Ev` y`Wmk m s>h` iw` v#d@vlK @h~ ir`ky sv a# bv; h` ir`ky j`w&Nwr Swv` kNd`yM smg, @|;@yN, aL kd` sA[`ny smg, hL y`Wmk vn bv h` sl{`wk a oNt lb`mt q`nM bv.

"@M Sw q a gbd`vN" sq`M @SN "sNnQ[v n bv" 2002 a@g~S 26 v#q` pvWvn lq @Q\nyk up jn`Žp K @C anr# a#<y. "kl`py r` n a#mk`@V rNt s^vm wRjny m s>h`W eKsW jnpqy @h~ @vnW rtK n&k kPpMvlt ytW m s>h`W" @my up@y~ krgw h# yq o y` @Y y. sq`M @SN h` aL kd` sA[`ny awr sb>kM g#n "ivwy @n` h#" s`K wmN sv a#w# 2002 s#Pw#MbR 26 v#q` rMS@fLD y` p$@V y.

@k`Ns@yN q blwl lb`g#mt uWk , Q[ykt y$mt pK;v kr# ipW krN oK@w~bR 7 v#q` @Q\nyK p#v#Wy. @RyM @p~;ny mt av\& aŽbl# a#yM nl l g#mt ir`ky v$yM kr a# bv em @Q\n@y o y` p$@V y. ir`ky "wm n&k a v#d@vl y sAS}`pny @m @y n bvt" emN s`K s#p@yn bv q o y`p$@V y.

epmnKq @n`v, o @m@S y` @Y y. "pqvNnN sw h` pqvNnN rw E vRg@Y vR[ny vn vN y`n` pQ[yK ir`ky sv a# bvt QŽ aA\ @w`rr# hrh` a @s`y`@gn a#W@w. eKsW jnpqy ilKky krgNn` @m@hM s>h` @M E y`n` @y`q`gNn` m ir`ky g@V;ny krN m g#n a knSsL@lN p@v."

"a#yM nl" b>v krn lq wK@Sr# M yL@lN @p @Y Ev` g$S @KN`ps`rkyN @y`q`gw h# vRg@Y Ev` @n`vn bvy. r`j& @qp`Rw@MN@V q bl\K @qp`Rw@MN@V q aEIE nM j`w&Nwr prm` bl\K EjN@Y q |@L;kN@G gmny @Y @my.

rs`yk h` vq&`Wmk a sMbN[@yN a`rK;k QŽ EjNy 2002 s#Pw#Mbr@y @m@S v`Rw` k@LyŸ "ir`k rs`yk q s`[kyN Rv m`Rg s`[kyN. uNd h` @b~Mb h` p`qn upkrnvN s#ly @k`tsK 1991 h` 1998 vsr awr n`\ ... ir`ky, rs`yk a pqvN@N q yNnW gbd`vl em a @w`g SkrgN@N q yNnW g#n @h~ wm rs`yk q s`[k p`qk phkM ir`ky @k`w#nk S}`w kr a#W@Wq yNn g#n @h~ i@Y @k`w#nk S}`w krNnt yN@Nq yNn g#n @h~ |v`s kt @w`rr# vK a#W@W n#w."

en, s`v`q yL@lN v#qgWm ek nM ak`@V njR sh`N@vN ir`ky @RyM lyt gW bvt @qs`b`n lq pcy y. 2002 vsr avs`ny vn t, "a#yM nl" b> kwNqry asw& ekK bvt @py$mt ptN@gn . It vd` Sr pqnmK mw @g`dn# mK @h~ ipW mt av\& .

@M av, @M vs@R jnv` 28 v# n krn lq r`j& wWv @Q\n@Y  @m@S k`\ k@LyŸ "sq`M @SN m$w ak`@vN @RyM s#ly m`nyK lb`g#mt uWk bv w`n& rjyt q#ngNnt l# a#w. sq`M @SN, @M y`vN b> EW gNvn p#h# mK kr n#w. p#h#vm s#<mt @b`@h~ @Q ot a#w."

a#Ww vs@yNm, "p#h# krNnt @qyK" @N n#w. E bv  p`ln wNy @n` q#n y` q @n`@V. t vsrkt @pr, enM, 2002 jnv`@y, ir`ky, njR sh`N@vN @RyM l gW bv @pNM krw# y#@vn y up jn`Žp @C@G k`Ry`lyt l#. @M b> mR\nyK krn @ls @C @y~g k@L y. ak` rtvL nk w`n`p vs@yN @Svy kr @Q\ @Sv` l[`@y N em mR\ny krn l. @M y v&`j bv em l[`y` r`j& @qp`Rw@MNvt h` m[&m QŽ EjNyt (aE sA[`nyt) 2002 @pbrv` m`s@Y v`Rw` k@L y. o@G v`Rw`v up jn`Žpt lb`@qn l.

V pBK s<r`@v 30 v# n pl krn lq yN t w`n`p @m@S y` @Y yŸ "njR kwNq@R pTtpL @b`r#vK bv o q#n yh. a#yM nl sMbN[@yN kw`v W a#qg#mt smW ekK @n` s` wmN@G kw`v vd`W EW gNvn ekK bvt pW mt @my ek krn l."

@pbrv` 5 v# n, eKsW j`N@G a`rK;k mNdly i@Y pvL y @Q\ny @mN pv, j`w&Nwr prm` bl\K EjNy @hvW aEIE sA[`ny awt @M y pW@mN pv Ev` v&`j bvt em EjNy N iKmNm gmny krn l.

e@hW  p`lny em gmny q w#@V n#w. up jn`Žp @C m`R 16 v# n "vWpW hvNn" yn v#d sthn i@Y @p N aEIE a`ywnyt phr . o @m@S k`\ kr @Yy. "(sq`M) a#Ww vs@yNm n&k a y S}`pny kr a#w# a nM gmny kr ."

 wNy h` e hLk`r@y~ @g`@bLS vRg@Y mh` s`v`q v&`y`myk @ygW bvt s#kyK n#w.

en, @M v&`y`m@Y aR}X`ry g#n |@L;nyk @y@qn t, r`j&-Rw y`vNt ap n @qn kL apt s#lLlt X`jn mt v a#W@W a`c`r [Rm @h~ sq`c`r`Wmk |n @n`v @Q\p`ln pAcyK bv pW kr gw y.

s`v up@y~ kr g#m p#n nN@N r`j&@Y SvX`vy N m y. [@N|vr r`j& @p N@N smSw sm`j@Ym av\&w`vN Ry @ls y. en smhN kl @n` h# av\&w`vN pNN awr @b vWmN sm`jy l @my }&` bN[y. e@S vq, sm sM@y h` sm`j sASkrn@Y pWN agmny mt idkd p`lk v aw pvWn` wWvyN l nM @mm bN[y yM m`nykt s`[`rn @ls EW gw h# @S pvWv`@gn y` h# @V.

q#N @b`r# m r`j& y`k`Wv@Y s`rw aAgyK bvt pW@mN a#<#@vN@N p`lk pNN@G av\&w` - h` Ev` y`Wmk mt av\& pW - L mhjnw`v@G av\&w` h` On$kM smg s^ g#mkt pWv a# bv.

wm y`k`WvyN g#n  wNy pvsN@N sw&y nM, ey N y a#W@W mKq? eKsW jnpqyt @g~y a`Rk h` t a`Žpw& aWpW kr g#m eLl kr gW v#d@vlK wmN aw a# bvW, em ar N pW kr g#m vlKv`mt uWs`h krn yLlNtm e@rv Q[my Ž a#v y N @y`q`gNn` bvW "Swyt e@r Q[@y" arn vN@N a#mk` jny`t a# blg uvr# ivW m @n`v, ihw s>hN @l~k`Žpw&@Y v#d@vl y`Wmk krgw h#vn p rt lq j`w&Nwrvq wWvyN Rm`ny m bvWy.

 p`ln wN@Y j`k a`rK;k @l~p`y

@p` jnw`v i@Y ev# ar v^wv s`kCc` kl @n`h#k - evN w ly @b`r#v tv rjkmt pWvN@N. en, p`lk v awr em ar s`kCc`vt X`jn kr Mv Ky @V. l yy h` a@Nk[ QŽmN@G mNdl l eKsW jnpq @l~p`y g#n ar# avAk wK@Sr# apt hvN@N @M s` y.

 p`ln wN@y @Q\ pWy b> i qR\n@y @KNŒy S}`ny gNn` j`k a`rK;k @l~p`y py s#Pw#Mbr@y k`\yt pW @kr#. @l~k@y sMpW eKsW jnpq av\&w`vlt up@S kl bvW @g~y aŽr`j&ykt sm`n vNnK S}`w mt h` pvWv`@gn y$mt q hq`my bly @y`qn bvW em @l~p`@yN p#h# @k@R.

v# yv@S mh` argl avsN @Y qhs jyhny mW y q emN s`R}kWvy s>h` o@r`W y h# eK w a`k^yK S}`w @kr# bvq E vn` "qhs, j`wNv`qy h` qhS v&vs`y" q y@vN yLl a`rMX @k@R. @M av, "@l`v aSsK LlK n$r j`wNv`qy, sAvR[ny, qhS @vl> @p`lvL h` qhS @vl>`m" b> `R}ny whr# mt  p`ln wNy k#p@V.

@g~y a`Žpw&@Y arn plv# @v Swr @k@R Ÿ "ap@G s`r[Rm h` ap@G j`k av\&w` ġ„ @k@rn p#h#vm a#mk` j`w&Nwrv`qyK mw eKsW jnpq j`k a`rK;k @l~p`y pqnM v a#w."

e@S vq @M v&`p^y y`Wmk kr@Y @qKm eKsW jnpq@Y uvmn`kMvl @X_k v`y @prq# @k`t @gn @n` @V. ey y`Wmk @k@rN@N skl @l~k@y yhpw s>h` y. mNqyW, @g~y sAvR[ny s>h` a# ekm "o@r`W y h# a`k^y" eKsW jnpq "qhS @vl>@p`l" n&`y py vn @h - s#bNm v`sn`vNw sMpwny.

ev# sN@w~;kr sMpwnyN N @prq qKnt . mh` w`n&y 19 v# yvs l y @g~y a`Žpw& sA[`ny k@L "qhS @vl>`@m aŽr`j&" yt@W y. ey, mh` w`n&y b`r@gn mh` "tk`rk @m@hvr" h` @v . q#N apt aWvNnt yN@N qhS @vl> @p`lk sq`c`r@Y pqnm @ls Rvcny @k@rn "qh@S" aŽr`j&y.

j`k a`rK;k @l~p`@Y vcnvN h‹Nv@w`WŸ "qhS @vl>@p`l" b> sAkLpy a`Rk q&`@v pqnmK mtW }m@yN sq`c`r`Wmk pWyK @ls my. @vnW a@y agy krn ymK obt pqy h#nM, ey oNt a@l mt obt h#y y. @vnW ay ob agy krn ymK pqvN@N nM, ey lyt g#mt obt h#y y. @my ym Sv`nWvy. enM, wm v@n~p`y kr@gn y`mt Qgl@yt @h~ j`ykt a# qhs." (18 v# v)

"qhs" yNn kvr k@lkvW @mwrM |w @ls "qL ip@M qhs" @ls Rvcny kr @Bq yNnW, iK ey sq`c`r@Y pqnm @k`t @gn @Bq yNnW s#kswy. s#bNm @mm yLl QglN ymK lyt g#m h` a@l m g#n s`kCc` krn t @M "QglN" 17 v# yvs ag, @j~N @l`K nm# q`R\ky` aqhS kl QglN nM @n` vn bv wb`gw y. E @vvt, @M QglN vn` q#v#Nw "my Qgl@y~ y." Ev` nM, QglN@G pmnK @n`v rtvlq ;y p}@yN oBbt yn [ny h` sMpW p`lny krn p`rj`k sAS}`vNy.

en, "ap@G j`k a`rK;`@V "rn`Wmk šWvyN" y yL@l av[`rny @k@rn "qhS @vl>@p`lvL" h` "qhS @vl>`m" Nm eKsW jnpq@y anbvyWvy shk @n` @k@R. Xv mLlvyN g#n mK kl q?

@m yLl iw` \q @V. a#mk` a`Žpw& pvWv`@gn y lb a#W@W amhW q hq`my bly . ey @m@S q#K@VŸ "a#mk` q hq`my \K@Y s`rw k`v y whr# m q#N kL p#n a#w. a@y~g kl @n`h# wWvykt a ap@G kvL @g`dng` @gn pvWv` @gn y` W@w (29 v# v). @vnW vcnvN v @h`W aW [`n [@N|vr blvN an`gw@Y yM avS}`vk bl lny @vnS mt yWn q#mK b>v w` b#m pv` @n` kl Ww. "eKsW jnpq@Y bly abv` y$@M @h~ It sm`n@M a@PK;`vN a#v q hq`my vR[nyK pps hx`y`@mN Xv v`yN vlk`mt wrM ap blk`yN \KmW v a#w." (30 v# v)

@p~L L@f`TS h` a`rK;k @LkM K @C N kN p#v  p`ln wN k`lpC@Cqy l @pNtgn@y q`nM krn lq Ի nN h#‰N@vn 'a`rK;k s#lM b> mg @pNm' yn yL@lN t q\kykt @pr`v ev# qR\nyK ipW @kr#. e@S vq, e Swr ekl rh@S @h @kr# t @kwrM klb#g$yK a# @Yq yW em yLl iLl` aSkr@gn n#vw s#kmt . eyt [`nwm @r~[ @qkK ipW . enMŸ wm p|c`W q sN[`nyN@gN twt y$mt eKsW jnpqy q`nM bv h` ey @g~y a`Žpw&y aWpW kr g#m s>h` n&`y pyK y`Wmk krN @bn bv Ի yL@l p#h#vm s>hN m.

yLl iLl` aSkrgNn` lq n eyt p`qk i qR\ny ivW kr @n` g#. q\kykt a`sNn k`lyK l ey yMgwv p#v. ey wm ym nN h‹Nv`mt @@[RymW @n` @l~p`y y. ytW @sN, @l~k @vl> m[&S}`nyt e@r Swv` h`ry eLlvn @wK, ey wm nm @n`y` @Y y.

"2001 s#Pw#MbR 11 v#q` QŽy eKsW jnpqy h` @g~y bl@Y a# aW [`n m[&S}`n awr sb>w` b> sNqRXy ak vs@yN @vnS kr amhW nv avS}` v^w k@L y." (28 v# v)

@k` aNqmt vth`gWwq, @my nM |my qnvn k`\y. }m@yN m, s#Pw#MbR 11 v#q` h`r eKsW jnpqy h` aW [`n blvN awr "sb>w` b> sNqRXy" @vnS mt @Hk`rk @Y @k`@h`mq? em blvW eKsW jnpqy smg Rn sh@y~gy pl @n` k@l~q? o E s>h` ur# aWl`Nk M sA[`ny @hvW @N@t~ @m e@wK X`wyt @n`gW @Cq pv` ut` @n` q#K@v~q? yL@l ar#w @Y 1992 vs@r sksn lq Ի @l~p`@y h m#q wp`Kk bv q#N @kN m ipW kl h# bv.

@qvv, v^w "amhW nv avS}`" @m`nv`q? @M h`r v`q`yk @Y @k@Sq? E eK rn`Wmk mgN pm. enMŸ "Swyt e@r Q[y" yn b#nry yt@W @g~y a`Žpw& aWpW kr g#@M y n&`y py iyt @gny$m s>h`W rt a#lw @M n&`y pyt e@rv p#nnn @r~[y ytpW mt yvr vR[ny m s>h`W eKsW jnpq p`lk vt emN avS}`v s#l.

@my eKwr` m`nykt @h~ agg` kr# q#KmK y @h~ a#w#Mt a\@y~K @ls kr# ipW mK y @k@nt s#kyK a#@V nM  p`ln wN@Y iw`mW qKn`Ak sh`ykN a#mkN eNtRS iNSTT nM a#mk` v&vs`yk a`ywny N sMp`qny krn lq  [Rmy h` eKsW jnpqy n @qn @Q\ pW g#t b> @w`rr# aNwRgw |@L;nyK @qs s#@kN o@B av[`ny @y` mt avsr pw.

2003 jnv` 31 v#q` plkrn lq yk em a`ywn@Y š@y @w~mS @d`n @m@S y. " [Rmy, a#mk` a`rK;k @l~p`@y }m pW @vwt a`p y$mK r$pny kr.  [Rmy, p|c`W wl q, w- blv@w sw @l~kyk j`w&Nwr @Q\p`ln@y y}`R}yNq r$pny kr. wvq, @M s`[k @q@k sA@y~gy - enM, a#mk`@V s`Rvk @Q\p`ln pW h` @pr @n` r$ @g~y bly h` blp$m, yn @q@k sA@y~gy y @k`tSvl @ek&yt vd` \`l smSwyK bvt  [Rmy pvRwny krŸ @my i q\k gnn`vK l eKsW jnpq a`rK;k @l~p`y s>h` pqnm @ls p#vy h#k." (@w~mS @d`n,  @l~p`@y a`[`rkyN).

iN anr#v, @d`n e gm&yN Swr kr. "a#mk` pw@y v&`Py wv rtW p#vy h#k; ey v&`Pw vn @Vgy v#mt pv` id a#w." m#q @prg @Q\p`ln@y "sASkrny" a#r@mN p "ad yvrvN n#vm kr h` anr#q`yk" v a#w. (em)

@M qR\ny a@PrnyK @n` @V y o wr@Y y` . E @vvt "a#mk`vN kvqW y a`rK;` av\&w` g#n v&`Pwk` mwyK qr` a#w. bl@VgyN@G sMbN[w`vy v`q`yk vn w l Q[y bly p`C mt a#mk`vN On$vtW vd` k#m#WwK qKv` a#w."

"@my @qKm j`k @Wvy @v@vN @n`v, m`nv Ky @v@vN bly p`C mk# a#mk`vN slk` a#w."

o wvrtW @m@S y` Ÿ "a#mk` l[Rm av\&w` h` m`l vgM ekt gWkl Ev` q#@S @p`@l`xvN@N @l~p`k šw`v@y sy h` p^l iyVvkt h` qhq`my bly @yqmt gtm pvWn` k#m#Wwkt blg @ls n# g#mt y. @M sNqRXy q n&k a h` a@nW sl{`wk a mN j`w&Nwr bl sb>w`vl s`m`n& gnny k^ kl h# m`Rg s#lLlt gW t, RvXAg phr@M y`k`WvyNt @q`rh#r wb`g#mtW - h` sWwNm, Ev` @ymt h#y`v a# wvwvW bl@Vg @g`dn#mtW - bl@k@rn av\&w`vyK pv."

ev# RvXAg phr@M y`k`WvyN s>h` pqnm mK y q? eKsW jnpq@Y uvmn`kM h` g#@tn, @h~ Ev` awkr @ls blp`n, On$m kr#nK E pqnm y h#k.

"a`sNnwm anr" b> s`Mq`k [Rmy b> vd` L a`k`r q^yK eKsW jnpqyt y y. ev# anr# mN wm s^ uvmn`kMvlt pmnK @n`v, wm p`KkNt, brL j`w&Nwr pRy`yt h` @l`@v vd`W L qhst a# avS}`vlt, wRjny eLlvn aNqm g#n slk` bln L q^yK av\& y @d`n wN y` .

a`mny a#r @n`@b~ nN, m`R 25 v#q` plkrn lq yN, eyt @pr`v eKsW j`N@G a`rK;k mNdl@Y a# g#m @d`n s`qr@yN gW@W y.

"ir`k@Y Q[yt @pr`v a# r`j& w`Nk up`m`r# v#dkt p|c`W-wl q @l`@V s#k avs`ny shN kr. "p|c`W-ir`k Q[ @l~ky" @k@S skS v a#Wq# @vt s#kvm v @n`h#k. en, 1989 h` 2003 vsr awr k`l pC@Cq@Y ak prSpr@y - enM, a#mk` @g~y šWv@Y y}`R}y, h` @|;@yN, eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny h` ur# aWl`NK M sA[`ny @hvW @N@t~ sA[`ny a` [ j`w&Nwr a`ywnvl wvmW p#v# r$k b #y v&hy yn @M @qk awr smw`@v v&`jy @hqrV a#w. uW`s`Wmkv @M wWv@Y y}` kr#vlt n mt @l`vt bl m mN Ns@y~ apt aдhyK ikr a#Ww`h." (@w`mS @d`n, An Enduring Pax Americana (kL pvn a#mk` s`myK)

m# 21 v# n pl kl wvW yK "wl q sm@y h` p|c`W wl q sm@y ap l @n`m#@kn @S k`v# bl ln q#K@mN apv qhS kl  [Rmyt" e@mNm o s`[yv uph`r q#Ky. "@k`kr w#m h` RvRwny K@p m N...  [Rmy a#mk` j`k a`rK;k pW@Y @eh`k glK;n y šWvyt pWkr a#wŸ enM, sy a`rK;k @v@W h` qh@S a`mn v&`Py. (@w`mS @d`n, The Meaning of Operation Irqi Freedom (ir`ky qhS @M @m@h@m ar#w)

KNtN yt@W @Q\ pWy

@m y`Wmk vn q#v#Nw bl@VgyN @k@R ihw s>hN bS vhr i  kr. en, j`w&Nwr cNdWv@Y r` y$m @qKm  p`ln wNy @h~ e n&`y py s#k@M ewrM š k`vK ikrn Iy` nv wWv`rK;kv`N @H @k`t @gn a#vk# gmny m s`vq& v a#w.

eyt @vnSv,  wN@Y pW @s~yT @Q\@Y kd`v#@mN anr#v gw q\k ekhm`r l mm@yN iSm@gn en vR[n vnw`vN@G t`Py. @my KNtN @Q\ pWy l p#h#v q#y h#k.

KNtN p`ln wNy, @j& @G qR\ny ipW @n` kl q, av\& v@h`W wm p`KkN y y lbn rtvL Llt v a#mk` vmn`kM pps a`mnv hx`y$mt k#p @Y y.

"@vl>`m, a#mk` a`rK;`@v š aAgyK mt" av\& y wm Lm @Q\nyk KNtN wr@Ym y` @Y y. "a#mk`v, a@nW rtvl @vl> @p`lvL v^w mt uWk y y. @vl>`m L m s>h` p#h# h` p#mt bl@k@rn y`myN S}`w kl y." (a#mk` |vq&`l@y \wk uph`r u@l@l KNtN N pl krn lq mw, 1993 @pbrv` 26).

pl  p`ln wN@y avsN k`l pC@Cq@y L@f`TS N @kMpW krn lq a`rK;k m`R@g~p@Q\kWvy b> QŽ@Y a# klb#g$@Y ply @Y @Q\ pW n&`y py s#k@M eKwr` aNqmk p@rSsmK a#m. en, em yL@l mkrn lq s`rw |n - enM, @s~yT @Q\@y kd`v#mW smg, eKsW jnpqy v&`Pv` @Q\ pWyK agmny @M av\&w`vy - KNtN p`ln wN@Y n&`y p@y hry y.

1993 s#Pw#Mbr@Y krn lq @Q\nyk eKsW jnpqy @eh`k sNŽS}`nykt p#n a# bv KNtN@G j`k a`rK;k up@Q\k a#Nw @LK p#h# k@L y. "ap p#n a#W@W ih`s@Y avs`ny vW t`c`rvl g#mK vW shN krn avS}`vkt @n`v, amhW j`wNy h` v&vs`y`Wmk avS}`vkt. ey ap ap@W @n`h#y y."

@l~k@Y \`lwm a`Rky h` \KmWm qhq`v s a#mk`v, @M nv g@Y š blvw` y. "b`[n@Y qR\nykt a`Pky y W@W s`rn@Y @l~p`y - @l~k@y @vl>@p`l L @k`tgW j`wNy rtvl Sv`n j`v \`l m.

eKsW jnpqy h` aW blvN awr sb>w`vy slk` bln t, n&`y py Rny @k@rN@N a#mk` av\&w` mw y @LK p#h# k@L y. "a#mk`v y` kl W@W bp`R|vyvq n#w@h`W Ekp`Kkvq yNn Rny y h#K@K aN yLl abv` yn eK s`[kyK mN pm. enM, a#mk`@V uvmn`kM m. bp`R\yv y` @mN ap uvmn`kM iyt pvn t, ap bp`R|yv y` kl y. e@mN m, Ekp`Kkv y`@mN ap ar i kr gw h# t, ap Ekp`Kkv y` kl y. eK eK avS}`vt blp`n srl |ny @myŸ nM y`m`RgyK N vd`Wm yhpW pl l#@Bq? yNny." (a#Nw @LK, From Containment to Enlargment (b`[n@Y t s`rny kr`), @j~N @h`PNS |vq&`ly, 1993 s#Pw#MbR 21).

v# v#@yN m vd`Wm yhpW pl l#@N qhq`my bly @yqm . eK m$w a[&ynyk s>hN a# p, "1990 gnNvl eKsW jnpq pW@Y t sln @Y bly @yqm aWv` w#m @n`v, bly @yqm L my." KNtN jn`Žp wnr q#r$ v`r @qk l "@pr @n` r$ w`l@Y qhq`my y`WvyK a#y." 1999 vs@R krn lq j`k a`rK;k a[&ynyN an`vrny @Y, wl q k`l pC@Cqy lm, eKsW jnpqy arxn lq qhq`my @m@hM 16t s`@PK;v, wl Q[y avsN @mN anr#v, qhq` @m@hM M hwrkt a`sNn m`nyK a#r bv." (a#Nd^^ b@kC, American Empire (a#mk` aŽr`j&), 2002, 142-143 )

@M k`ly l qhq` y`v@y v#qgWm K@ @qk Ks` b#m up@Q\`Wmk @VŸ enM, @k`@s~@v~ sMbN[@yN @g`Sl`y`vt e@r Q[y h` ir`kyt e@r y`Wmk vn h` vR[ny vn h`ryN yn K@ @qk.

V vsrkt pv ir`k a`mn@Y @y`qn lq y Žm 1999 vs@R @k`@s~@v~ Q[@y q @y`q a . @m mh` s`v @Y "sl{`wk a" @n`v sRy` jn`Žp @l`@s~K N y`Wmk krn lq "jnv`Rk m." emN o @r~p@Y nv TlR bvt pvRwny y. srn`gwN t`r g#m iKmN mt @H s`[ky ur# aWl`Nk M sA[`n@Y @hvW @N@t~ sA[`n@Y @b~Mb @hm s, Iy` jnv`Rk @M v&`p`ry @n`vn bv q#N S}`w a#w.

en, E avS}`@V qsqhS gnN mrn sMbN[@yN @c~qn` ipW . qhq` @Sv@ym vys @g eK lK;yK wrM \`l sAš&`vK ar#qhN a#w# mt pv` eKsW jnpq a`rK;k @LkM yM @k~hNt y. Q[@yN pv, w`n& rj@Y sthnN nM y#@N 1999 vs@r @k`@s~@v~ 10,000k jnk`yK {`wny @kr# bv; @M aN @b~Mb @hmt @pr`v @Y mrn 2000K bv; N \`l v# @k`tsK @Y @g`Sl`y` hq`v h` @k`@s~@v~ K hq`v awr a# g#Mvl plyK vs@yN bv.

@N@t~ sNnQ[ blk`yNt @g`Sl`y`v r`m eh` @mh` y$mt Ž[`n s#l Iy` M@L p`y skS krn lQ@Q sRy`v mN ey K@p krv`g#@M |w arn a#v y. @g`Sl`y`@v k#@Ny` w`n`p N @my pv gNnt @y. "@N@t~ blk`yNt @g`Sl`y`vt @V\ mt id h#mt blkr m... sRy` K@p mK shk k@Ly" o y` @Y y. @j& eKsW jnpq l[`@y ekl p#h# kl p, "sRy`vNt alw`vy q#Kmt @n`h# vn wrmt a w`mw`m b`[ky ihN w#." (m`K kRS, Web of Deceit (l` @M q#l), 2003, 147 v# v)

ir`kyt e@rv h`ry @mNm, @g`Sl`y`vt e@r Q[y q yW krn lQ@Q eKsW j`N@G am#y @n`m#v y. j`w&Nwr kdM b>v eKsW jnpqy @hl`q#mt @my @Hk`rk @n` nM, e@S @Y jnv`Rk m v#l#Km s>h` m#hWm av\&y yn pqnm mw Iy` "v`m`Ak" h` sm`j j`wNy @p`jn mwy @M Q[yt sh`y q#K @h. N m`s pykt anr#v, n#@gnr @m~r@y OS@y` blk`yN m#hW y bvt iLl` m s>h` OS@y`@v mhW m[&m p`Nk ߫kL v&`p`ry @r~[w` v&`p`rvl @y@qN b#sgW tq @mm wRkyNm nr`vRwny @kr#.

"sq`c`rmy aŽr`j&v`qy" b>v nv qR\ny uCc`rny @Y k`@g~ ngr@y krn lq @Q\nyk w`n& agm# @t~ B@ly`R . iw`mW h g#tv v@Y [`n blvN qhq` m#hWmK kl v`w`vrny h‹n`g#m y B@ly`R y` @Y y. a#  @n`g#m j`w&Nwr pRy`@Y v#qgW l[RmyK @ls @b`@h~ klk t g#n. ey ph@vNm ivw q#mt ap k#m vNnKq @n` @V. eK rjykt @vnW rjyk @Q\p`ln pQ[y @vnS mt @h~ ey @prl` q#mt @plxmt @h~ wmNt yM kmK a# bvt h# yn @Q\ aLl` g#mt @h~ ayK a#w# @n`y y. en a#  @n`g#@M l[Rmyt v#qgW aAgyK sMbN[@yN m` p#ny y. S sAh`rk y` wkrm aX&Nwr kr#nK y @n` h#k." (@t~ B@ly`R, k`@g~ a`Rk sm`jy i@Y kl @Q\ny, 1999 a@™L 22)

sl{`wk a b> B@ly`R@G s`vN, @k`@s~@v~ b> o@G s`vN ذN gtm @qs`b$m.

eKsW jnpq@y Q[yt sh`y N Iy` "v`m`Ak" h` "brLv`" bl@Vg E l a`Rk uvmn`kM b#Š n#w# wr@Y y` p$h. @my sq`c`ry mN @m@hyvn Q[yK - enM, jnv`Rk m nvw`@M av\&w`vy mw @m@hyvn Q[yK - y oN y` @Y.

e@Svq, @b~Mb @h@M v&`p`ry yW krWm, aW a`Rk h` @l~p`ymy @HN @k@R av[`ny @y` @k@rn @Q\nyK KNtN p#v#Wy. o y` @Y, @qv# @l~k sA`m@yN h` wl Q[@yN ap ymK ugW@W nM, ey k "ap rt @s_X`g&mW h` rKw rtK vs@yN p#vm s>h`, r#pw, rKw, Sv`n, eKsW h` @vl>`m s>h` yhpW hLkr#@v vn @r~pyK apt av\& bv... wvq, @l`v vt` ap@G X`Nd a@l @M h#y`v a#v, \KmW a`Rk sb>w`vyK apt a#@vNnt nM, @r~py š& S}`nyK g a#w. av`Ry@yNm p#nnn g#tvlt nm s>h` n`ykWv@Y apt brbQqL jny` smg @bq`hq`g#mt av\& @V nM, @r~py ap@G hLkr#@v krgw y. @k`@s~@V Mvl ar#w ey." (Qv`Rk EeFeSeMI sM@Mlny i@Y pvWvn lq @Q\ny, 1999 m`R 23).

E avS}`@V @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady p#h# kl p, @g~Sl`y`@V v#qgWkm @Y, @s~yT @Q\@Y kd`v#@mN aŽr`j&v` ps`r# mt vr amhW @Q\@Y btr @klv@R ey ӵt` m. em kl`py @kwrM v#qgW a#Wq yNn iNp M NŸ enM, a#F{Sw`n@y Q[yW m[&m a`y`v r`m eKsW jnpq qhq` k>r# S}`w mW - q#N ir`ky aWpW krg#mW mhW m#q @prg sA[`ny mt qrn a`y`syW yn M N whr# a#w.

eKsW jnpqy h` @r~y blvN awr g#M a#r„@N vRwm`n  p`ln wNy S}`w m smg @n` @V. ey KNtN yt@W ir`ky b> eKsW jnpq pW@Y š& @k`tsK y. pl gLF Q[@yN p S}`w krn lq sMb`[k wNy gtm pvWv` @gn y l#@V @H @qkK @prq# kr @gn y.

plv, ir`ky r`[ kl bvt Rny @kr#@N nM, kl`py l eKsW jnpq blk`yN ذN gtm Š @M w`Rky a@h~ v a#w. es`y, ir`ky eKsW j`N@G @y~jn` sMNt al @n` bvt avv[`rny krn lQ@QW ذN gtm @k~pk` y`vN sA[`ny krn lQ@QW.

@qvv, sMb`[k ivW @kr#@N nM, ir`k šj @wL @vl> @p`lt ipW v a#w. emN \`l a`q`yM jw v a#w. g@V;ny s>h` nv K@ vr v a#w.

@M vK eKsW jnpq@Y v`yt @H @n`v a#w. nv šj @wL g@V;ny h` up@y~jny Ns, r#y`, h` n sm`gMvlt phr . wvq, vR[ny šj @wL a`q`yMvN qL s#p Rm`n v&`p^N l#@b@Y eKsW jnpq sAS}`vlt @n`v @r~y sm`gMvlt y. @vnW vcnvN y@w`W, sMb`[k pvWv`@gn y$m h` sl{`wk a b> y`p$M vR[ny mW ir`k@Y ym wWvyW awr sMbN[yK @n` . Ev` p#nn#@N kl`py up@y~jny b> eKsW jnpqy h` e mLlvyN awr a# g#„r# vn g#M .

eKsW jnpq@Y q hq`my h` a`Rk uvmn`kM awr a# @M sA@@j sMbN[y p#h#v uCc`rny krn lQ@Q KNtN@G a`rK;k @LkMv yM @k`@hN . a`Rk q&`Nt h` @s`Lq`vNt a#W@W S}`vrWvy b> ek h` sm`n av\&w`vyN y o y`p$y. a`y`@V, m#q @prg h` @r~p@y eKsW jnpq blk`yN kLy` @m@hym, "apt v`q`yk aNq@M kLy` @m@hyvn lq @Q\ S}`vr vn aNq@M m`Rg N psry h#dg#Smt" eKsW jnpqyt mA s#l. "emN a`@y~jny h` sm^QŽy vR[ny mt sh`y awr E @H@vN s`my h` j`wN@Y blk`yN \KmW @kr#." e@S n#w@h`W o srlv q#K p, "@k`y pps j`v`rM y." (a#Nd^^ b#@kC, a#mk` aŽr`j&y, 8 v)

eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`q@Y @eh`k vR[ny

wm q hq`my \Ky v^wv @m@hymt eKsW jnpqyt a`sNnwm avS}`v s#l@N @s~yT @Q\@Y kd`v#m . e@Svq, smSwyK vs@yN 20 v# yv@S ih`s@Y pm mw ӵt` bln kl, @M QŽ@Y gm&y @Y eKsW jnpq @Q\ pW@Y aW @y`vK a# mt vd`, t @pr q\k hw l pnvn m` ivW m y. a#mk` aŽr`j&v`q@Y lyN h` @eh`k vR[ny Km N @my p#h# @V.

a#mk` [nv`qy @g~y šWvyt n#@M aw`lM rKwv S}`w @Y L Q[y avsN m smgW u@r n# en kRm`Nwmy [@N|vr@Y jyhny smgW uq` q\k py l y. Il< S vsr l @y~[ sAS}` S}`w @kr#. @mm sAS}`, w akr#vN s @h~ pL s @h~ v&`p`rvN a`Rk sAvR[n@Y š k`v ur` gWh. [@N|vr kRm`Nw@Y h` @g`w#@N sAvR[nyt mh`Qpym v^w @kr#. 20 v# yv@s a`Rky h#dgSvn QM @P p`qn@y @y@M my a#r„. wvq E h` sm`n v#qgWkmK qrn v&`p`k klmn`krn@Y nv a`k^N vR[ny @kr#.

yvs avsN vn t, aW mh` [@N|vr blvN smg "@l`@v wmNt S}`ny" g#mt a#mk` [nv`qy q`nMv @Y y. 1898 vs@R Sp`›-a#mk` Q[y h` iKv n j`k w @qlK;yN vN @g ny ytW wyK bvt pW m Nq a#mk` [nv`qy y sM`Py @Vqny k@L y.

ny ytW krg#@mN pv v, a#mk`v, ŽmW aŽr`j&yK iLl` @n` @Y y. E @vvt, iLl` @Y "@q`r v^w m" - enM, @l`@v On$m @k`tsK ps`r# kr@gn y$m s>h` a#mk` a`Rk av\&w`vyNt qhs m. @M pWy eKsW jnpq@Y wWvyt al yŸ @M vn t @l~k wly mw wm S}`ny g#mt a#mk`v q`nMv @Y y. e@hW Nsy, jRmy, h` aN yLltm vd`, w`n& aŽr`j&y awr @l~k @g~ly k#bvlt @bq`@gn . @M av, n# en a#mk` blvw` N k`w qh@S h` Sv`nWv@Y l[Rm v^w @vl>@p`lvL h` @vl>`m b> e av\&w` ġ„ k@L y.

q hq`my m#hWM y`Wmk @Y nM, Ev`@Y arn @Y @|w a#mk` av\&w`vyK y`Wmk mt bl kr m @n`v, t`c`r@Y |y l[Rmvlt sh`ym y.

p#nm` a#@l p`lny aWpW kr g#m s>h` arglyK l 1904 @qs#Mbr@Y jn`Žp y@d~R r$S@vLT y` p "y Xs`[ny s>h` @k@rn ev# kt h#r# t, eKsW jnpqy idM b> q# a`\`vK qKvN@N y @h~ btr aR[@g~l@y aW rtvL sMbN[@yN v&`p^ @vw W @y`krN@N y m s`vq& y. @M rt q k#m#W@W asLv` rtvL S}`vrv, ŽmWv h` sm^QŽmWv m y.

"t sMpNnv y`krn, ny rn, wm vgM ikrn On#m rtK eKsW jnpqy g#n yK a#krgw n#w. e@Svq, "t`c`r@Y b#ŠMvN" @M ply @gn @qn "r#QqK vs@yN vr@q @ym" @h~ a`kWvy avs`n@Y "tsMpNn rtK N m#hW m krv a#w." wvq Sv`nWvyt L ayK n#w. r$S@vLTt av, "wm qhs, wm Sv`nWvy pvWv`@gn y$mt a@PK;` krn On$m rtK, ev# Sv`nWvyK b> ay, iN @y~jnyK g#@M vg@mN @vN kl @n` h# bv avsn av@b~[ kr gw y yNn @qKm sw&y." (oSk` b`K sASkrny kl America in the4 World (@l~ky l a#mk`v) yn k^y blNn. @mݫyN @p`W, 1961, 80 v# v)

@M mwyN p`lk S}ryN N Lv g#. 1907 vs@R pvWvn lq @Q\nyk an`gw jn`Žp D@r~ LsN p#h# kl pŸ "@vl>`m j`k @Q\m` @n` slkn @hNq, p`qky` @l`v @vl>@p`lK mt yWn qrn @hNq, o@G r@T [jy o pps y` y. rtvl @q`rvL vs` a# w#N Ev` >@hy y."

tW v# ym, @my. an`gw@Y j`N@G SvyA Rny @v@vN kw` krNn`t (LsNt) avŸ qL spyNnN N lb`gNn` v` rj@Y a#mvr#N N a`rK;` kl y. @M y`vy l It @n`k#m j`N@G Sv`nWvy uLlA{ny vq, e@S kl y. (yM a#pLmN yM@G The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (a#mk` j`w&Nwr sb>w` @m@hMvl @Kqv`cky) yn k^@yN ut` q#K. 72 v# v)

a#mk`v @l~k kryt a#m @m@hyvn lQ@Q e gk a`Rk v&`p^y m. pl @l~k sA`m vkv`v vn t, eKsW jnpqy, smSwyK vs@yN j`w&Nwr a`Rky mw y#. a#mk` kRm`Nw @m`nwrM m`nykt v&`Pw q yW, "@l~k@Y @vl> @p`lvlt qh@S tmt mgK @s`y`gw @n`h# v@h`W, Ev`@Y tv#M r`y a#w#" 1912 vs@R y m#vrn v&`p`ry l LsN p#h# k@L y. aX&Nwr @vl>@p`lvL wvrtW s$@h n#w# o av[`rny k@L y. a#mk`vt @Q\ @vl>@p`lvL av\& y. Q[@Y av\&w` @M @vl>@p`lvL s#pmt sh`y y. emN eKsW jnpqy nykr# rtN ny rtK bvt pvRwny y.

a#mk`v Q[yt @Y Sv`nWvy, j`N@G SvyA Rny ay h` aN yLltm vd`, j`wNv`qy g#n |y l[Rm ipW kr. e@Sv q, y}`R}y @Y a#mk` kRm`Nw h` l& a`ywnvlt (w`n&, Ns) p`KkN@G pr`jyK >qr` g#mt @n` h# m y. oN@G l&my sMbN[w` ewrM blg y.

1917 vs@R srW sm@y, a#mk` ar, ar# v^wX`vyN v t jn`Žp r$S@vLT N sMNdny @k`t qKvn l. eKsW jnpqy Q[yt @Y "j`wNv`qy a`rK;` m s>h`" @n`@V. E @vvt a#mk`v a@PK;` k@L @l~ky "ap s>h`m rKw my." "@my ap@G Q[y. a#mk`@V Q[y. ap jy @n` gw @h`W, @knk @h~ apt wvm jRmyt nmt v a#w. em s`, ap g#n s#lLlt @gn ap @v@vN m ap jRmy pr`jy kl y." (aR@n~ @myR@G The Political Origins of New Diplomacy (nv j`w&Nwr sb>w`vl @Q\p`ln uLpW) yn k^@yN ut` q#K. 344-345 v# ).

eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`qy h` @s~yT @Q\y

Q[@yN blln@y q# @vnsK a# y. wvrtW w`n& aŽr`j&@y @svn#L@l n# @n` a#mk`v, @l~k [@N|vr m@y a`Žpw&y b`rg. en, E smgm [nv`qy g`d aRqykt a# y.

Q[@y @eh`k v#qgWkm Š p#v@Y ey gW Svr$py s`̵k mrn h` n`\y, s`Nn h` wly N, m`KSv` n&`y mN E vntW S}`w krn lq kr#n, whr# @M s`[ky mw. m`nvy`@G vR[ny @k@R 19 v# yvs l Es` \`l g`mk blyK s#p Qgk a pQ[y h` [@N|vr j`k r`j& @M vnt @eh`k vs@yN yL p#n@g`S y. [nv`qy yt@W, j`k r`j&yt e@r @g~y p`qk bl@Vgvl k#Ll, @l~k@Y a`Žpw& aW krg#m s>h` mh` blvN@G r# arglyk Svr$pyK g. @M g#m s`mk`v s‰y @n` h#KkK bv @lN p#h# k@L y. a#krgNn` s`my, @kwrM klK p#vy q, ey vn` [`n [@N|vr blvN awr sb>w` a`Rk sAvR[ny mN m @vnSv n#vw vrK nv arglyK arxn, @wK @qKm awrv`r @Vk k`lyK v a#w.

[nv` pRy`@Y @g~y a`Žpw&y aWl`NK s`gry hrh` btrt m`r# yWm, n#@gnN aŽr`j&v` pRy`yt m a@y~gyK iSm vNnt y. @my k r#y` Plvy h` @s~yT @Q\y S}`w m.

r#yN Plvy, eKsW jnpqy h` aW [@N|vr blvN N sg c`ryK a# k@L y. L Q[@Y vT g`Dvr#N@G sh`y s>h` sNnQ[ blk`yN evN, uPpW@Y e @gl rmt o yWn q#r$h. E vkv`@V NStN cRL N gNnt @yn p, b`N ont sh`y @n` l#@bNnt, oN yw vs@yN iKmN pr`jy vNnt . eKsW jnpqy wvrtW y`Wmk @n` @Y wm @s`Lq`vN @b`L@;Kv`q@yN ";&" v a#w# yn y @H @k`t @gn y.

Il< q\k py l, @s~yT @Q\y blg ݶmkt lKy. ey 1927 vs@R v`m v`N@G pr`j@yN a#r, 1936-38 vR;vl @m`SkV n X`gvN avsN y. e pl @Y St#N yt@W Plvv` l[` wNy N bly whr# kr g#m. en, ih`s@Y \`lwm sm`j Plv@yN S}`w @s~yT @Q\y pvn w`K kL ey eKsW jnpqy N wm @g~y al`;yN N pv` g#mt b`[kyK y.

@qv# @l~k sA`m@yN anr#v a# wWvy l, @s~yT @Q\y "pSst wL @M" iqR\ny n#vw vrK m @kr#. sl{`wk a b> wRjny RvXAg y`vN @ymt eKsW jnpqyt bl@k@rn bv vN wrAg awr @q~Ak`r @qWm, ap eK kr#nK y pW krgw y. enM, ev# a iw`mWm n`\k` @ls @y`q`gW avS}`v @r~m` h` n`gs` ngr mw prm` @b~Mb @qk @hmt a@™rny @Y jp`n@Y pr`jy s`K;`W kr g#@M a@PK;`v @n`v - E vntW jp`ny pr`jy - @s~yT @Q\yt e@rv wRjnyK W m y.

@s~yT @Q\y sMbN[@yN eKsW jnpqy agmny kl W@W "@k`kr w#@M" pWyKq, e@S n#w@h`W, "pSst wLƿ@M" pWyKq yNn g#n a#mk` qhq`v h` p`lk kvyN l p|c`W q smy r`m ذN gtm g#mK p#v. Iy` @k`kr w#@M iqR\ny blp#v#Wy - e@S vq, @k`y` Q[y h` b`v sMbN[@yN g#m a# k`ly l, Rn pm`n@Y g#mK yW mt yWnyK @n` qr` y` @n` @V.

eKsW jnpqy sm`j sASkrn pWyK gtm agmny kl p|c`W-q uWp`wy p#v vsr gnn`v l, "@k` kr w#@M" pWy jygW@W y L s`m`n&krnyK vs@yN q#Ky h#k. en, 1970 gnNvl vd` nrk awt h#@rn a`Rk wWvyNt mA p$@qN uWp`wy avsN vWm, eKsW jnpqy vd`W a`mn vNnt y. p sb>w` y @g`dn#@M pWy aWhn l. a#F{Sw`n@Y iSl`y l[Rm blk`yNt q#v#Nw l& s#pmW h` em blk`yN sNnQ[ mW smg @s~yT @Q\y aS}`vr @M pWyK 1970 gnNvl avs`n X`g@Y yW @kr#. k`tR@G j`k a`rK;k up@Q\k q @M pW@y Rm`w^ q SGV @sNS N iKv gNn` lq p, @m arn @Y @s~yT @Q\y yTn`M vRg@Y @g`@h`r#vkt a#q q#m y.

1980 gnNvl @RgN p`ln wNy yt@W a`[ s>h` v#yM q#v#Nw @ls v#m, k^^S sl @r~p@y ӵm, w`rk` Q[ b> @y~jn` ipW m yn @M yL@l arn @Y @s~yT @Q\@Y aRqyK a# @k`t e kd` v#m s`K;`W m y. e@S vq, @M yvryN@G Rn ply a#vNnt h# mtW }m @g`Rb@cV yt@W @s~yT l[` wNy eKsW @s~yT sm`jv` sh`Nv ykr h#r [nv`qy `pny m sA[`ny @M rny gWh. wm qhq` bly @yqm sMbN[@yN m`vN @n`m#v, wm ar i kr g#mt @g~y vs@yN wmN bl wWvyt n#@mN p eKsW jnpqyt l# }m avS}`v @my y.

eKsW jnpqy y aŽr`j&v` @m@hy im arxn Lm avŽ@Y, 20 v# yv@S pl q\k l @y`q`gNn` lq bS vh@rN @Ms` \`l m`nyK,  p`ln wN@Y @n`@yW k`\n l r`vy m, @M av, a#w#M t, myt kr#nK @n` @V.

1917 jnv`@y, plv# @l~k sA`myt a#mk`v a#m vt s`[`rn s`myK s>h` p#vy @k`N@Q LsN p#h# k@L y. wm` @y~jn` krn yvr a#mk` l[Rm h` pW s a@nkK y @n`h# vq, Ev` "s$m w#Nm iq#KmK a# r#;N h` SN@G m q s$m wn rtkm q, s$m ףQ[ j`vkmq l[Rm h` pW @V. Ev` m`nvy`@G l[Rm @V. Ev` jygw @V y" LsN Srvm y` @Y y.

e@S n#w @h`W  qKv` pŸ "20 v# yvs avsN @Y m`nv g@Y @n`n# pvn eK a`k^yK pmnK ir# kr. @p` aN h` r#;N h` SN@G av\&w` @vw @y` vn t, t`c`r awr g#mK n#w. (@vST@p`NT up`Ž n#@m @G @Q\ny, 2002 1 v# n).

1917 a@™L a#mk`v Q[yt a#m @Vqny krN, "q# Q@V;yN @w`rvq a`Wm`R}k` arnK @n`m#vq ap @v@vN @n`v, qhS rtvl jny` smg ap h@L @bq`hq` g#mt k#m ymK @v@vN" a#mk`v stN v a#w# LsN wN y` @Y y.

E h` sm`nv, j`k a`rK;k @l~p`y N  @m@S k`\ k@L yŸ "aq, eKsW jnpqy asm`n qhq` \KyNq \`l a`Rk h` @Q\p`ln blp$mNq wWvyK aW‰. ap@G ur#myt h` l[Rmvlt alv, Ekp`R|y v` aWpW kr g#m s>h` a ap@G \Ky @n` @y`q. E @vvt, m`nv Sv`nWvyt v`q`yk vn bllnyK Rm`ny mt a uWk @vŸ @M wWvyN l, y j`Nt h` sm`jvlt wmwmNtm @Q\p`ln h` a`Rk K@Y q`n h` a@y~g @w~r` gw h# v a#w." (j`k a`rK;k @l~p`yt @G @prvqn)

m sMbN[.

aq`l @vnW

ir`k Q[@Y @Q\p`ln p`dM
2003
27

21 v# yv@s a#mk` qv`q@Y @Q\p`ln a`Rky
2003
09

a#mk` [nv`q@Y aRqy h` ir`kyt e@r Q[y
2003
m# 26

vdb`šy lt: a#mk` aŽr`j&v`q@Y aRqy sh ir`kyt e@r Q[y
2003
a@L 29

 


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