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WSWS : v^W h` |@L;n : a#mk` mh`Qpy

a#mk` qv`q@Y @Q\p`ln a`Rky

2 v# @k`ts

The political economy of American militarism
Part 2

K MS
2003 11

phN ap plkrN@N, "ir`kyt e@r Q[@Y @Q\p`ln p`dMŸ j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNy s>h` i mg" yn m#y yt@W OS@y`@v D ngr@Y 5-6 nyN pvWvn lq @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y h` sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y sM@Mlnyt ipW krn lq a`rMXk v`Rw`@v @qvn h` avsN @k`ts. @M v`Rw`v ipW krn lQ@Q @l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y j`w&Nwr kRw^ mNdl@Y s`m`k h` OS@y`@V sm`jv` sm`nw` pK;@Y j`k @LkM vn K MS .

@s~yT @Q\@Y kd`v#m, ز klK w qr` @l~p`k ar i kr g#mt eKsW jnpqyt @k`N@Q s#p awr aŽr`j&v` cNdWvy r` y$m avS}`v` @Q\p`ln a@™rnyNt srlvm p#vy @n` h# y.

j`w&Nwr sb>w` sMbN[ mh` @vnSkMvl - @l~k [@N|vr pRy`@Y v&hy l m a# @vnSkMvl - lyN a#W@W [@N|vr m@Y a`Rk pqnM l y. avsN |@L;n@Y , Ev` e l pvWn` g#„N L b#sgW {w`vN@G k`\ny . ap @m s`kCc` krN@N @l~k [@N|vr pRy`@Y v&hy l m a# em @vnSkM g#n y.

@m ap @vw eKwr` aNqmk a@y~gyK ipW @VŸ [@N|vr m@Y a`Rk g`mk bl@VgyN h` @eh`k y`vy awr sMbN[y hny @k`t @gn phq` @qN@N @k@S q?

ir`kyt e@r Q[y sMbN[@yN gW kL @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady q a#v em Q[@Y @b`@h~ r#Q[v`N, šj @wLvl rn`Wmk v#qgWkm @vw v#rv av[`ny @y` kr a#w. eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`qy N @g~y a`Žpw& S}`w @M @l~k@Y šj @wL s#pMvl h` aN yLltmW vd` m#q@pr@g šj @wL s#pMvl, p`lny av\& vn bvt |nyK y @n` h#k. e@S v q, ey pvsn awrm, av[`rny kl W@W @mm Q[@Y @KN@y a# a`Rk g`mk bl@Vg h` @g~y a`Žpw& s>h` vd`W p^lv @k@rn wLv, šj @wLvN @b`@h~ oBbt v&`Pw vn bv y. aN yLltm vd` Ev`@Y lyN a#W@W [nv`qy lm a# @eh`k aRqyK l y.

@my qR\ny mt ap [@N|vr p`qn m@Y @KN@y m y`Wmk vn y`vyN h` aN yLltmW vd` l`X sCc@y blp`n y`myN h` @eh`k vR[n@Y gmny awr sMbN[w`vy s#lLlt gw v a#w. @mN, s$m @eh`k QŽyKm, yM a`Rk uvmn`kmk K;k y`Wmkmk lyt sMbN[ kr gw h# y @y~jn` mt aqhS @n` kr. E @vvt, ap@G kRwv&y v@Y a`Rk y`vyN s$m @eh`k gyKm h#dg#S aNqmW, emN iN pv @Q\p`ln K@@y @p`rb# g#t p#n n# aNqmW, @pNv`m y.

[@N|vr a`Rk@Y a`Rk clny g#n slk` bln t apt Nm @p@n@Y v&`p`k c@Y y`krny - enM, 19 vn yv@S a`rMX@Y t w&K; uWp`w (boom), aRq (crisis), mNq`v[mny (recession - pb#M) |clny (stagnation - pLm) h` `Py . (recovery - vM)

ap ayK pSst wb` vd` L qR\nyK gw@h`W, @k k`n v&`p`k cyt amwrv, smSw gvl a`Rk psry h#dgSvn vd` زk`n y`vyN a# bv p#h# v a#w.

1945 vsr t 1973 vsr qKv` Gg# p|c`W q uWp`wy vRwm`n k`l pC@Cqyt vd` n`Wmk vs@yN @vnS y. e@mN m, 1873 vsr t 1896 vsr qKv` k`lvkv`v 1896 vsr t 1913 vsr qKv` k`lvkv`vt @vnS y. N plv#Nn 19 vn yv@S mh` avp`wy @ls ih`sgw a# awr @qv#Nn Nqr gy (@bL i@p`K) @ls h‹Nv` a#w. Q[ Rv s`rnyt @prl` Emt [@N|vr rjyN qrn uWs`hyN ym @M k`l vkv`v sWwNm 1920 gnN h` 1930 gnNvlt vd` ak vs@yN @vnS y.

e@S nM @`TS N [@N|vr vR[n@Y c @ls h‹Nvn lq @M vd` زk`n ayr @h~ šNdvl a`Rk pqnm mK q?

Ev` ak y`vyN l L b#s pv. [@N|vr a`Rk@Y g`mk bly vn` kMkr# pN@yN aKw agy k` g#m . @my `G[ny N l`Xy @ls eKS @k@R. [@N|vr p`qny k p`Cy s>h` @h~ a`Rk vR[nym s>h` @h~ @k@rn p`qnyK @n` v, `G[n sCc@Y pqnm l`Xy s>h` @k@rn p`qnyK bv av[`rny kl @V. L vs@yN l`X ap`k@yN m#n b#@ln, @M eK S@M ap`ky vn` [@N|vr a`Rk@Y @s_š&y b> š& qR\ky q smSw y`mky q @V.

[@N|vr c@Y ihl n#G@M k`lpC@Cq lK;ny @k@rN@N vR[ny vNn` @h~ Sr ap`kykt `G[ny eKS m whr# krNn` p`qn wNy @h~ p`qn N . v&`p`k cy ev# k`l pC@CqyK l y`Wmkm nvnv` @n` @V. a#Ww vs@yN, ihl n#Gmt sh`y vn aNqmkt y ey y`Wmk vN@N. evN w l mNq`v[mn@y~ k`RyK;mw`v@yN a p`qn m ag` qmN l`X ap`ky vR[ny mt a`[`r vn vd` y`vNt mA p`q` @q.

@M av ihl n#G@M k`l pC@Cqvl uWp`w sm@y~ vd` ز @v. avp`w@y~ vd` @k @v. em avp`w p t @b`@h~ t vd`W \`l s`rnykt mA s#l@S. e@S v q bn kl` l t r#Q[ p`k qKnt l#@B. uWp`w k`l pC@Cq vd` @k vn awr avp`w h` a#n@M (ek w#n pL@M) k`l pC@Cq vd vd`W g#„r# q ز q @V.

a`Rk sAmn@y~

q#N mvn g#tv nM vR[n@Y eK ayrk t wvW ayrkt sAmnym mn @HvK s` @V q yNn y. p#h#vm @mm @Hv nM - sAmnyK @b`@h~ t pb#SmK @h~ uWp`wyK mN @Vw v q - s$m kLm (pb#S@M h` uWp`w@Y pvRwk smy) y`Wmk vn v`j vy nM @n` @V.

uNn@Y smyK avn@Y smykt pvRwny mk lyN a#W@W `G[n sCc@Y y`vy l m y. `G[n sCcy iyt yW m ey y`Wmk kl` œmyt s`@PK;kv `G[n SkN[y vR[ny vW m, l`X`p`ky phw v#@M n#„r#vK phl @V. @myt @Hv nM kMkr# pN@Y vm`n œmy aKw vn`k@M ekm l`œy @mN m aN@M skl l`XyN m ekm l`œy q vN@N y yn kr#n . vR[ny m s>h` vm`n œmy k#>vNn` , `G[n SkN[y v#@dW, v#@dW @mm (p`qn y`vy l - pvRwk) vm`n œmy m n yNnt ptN g. sWwNm œm plq`Wv@Y vR[nyK mN @M vnw`vy ytpW kl h# bv s#b#. e@S v q, eKwr` @qn lq p`qn wNyK @h~ ŽyK l plq`w`v@Y v#r vR[nyK wv rtW aW kr gw @n` h# avS}`vK el@‚. e@S n#w@h`W, ev# plq`w` vR[nyN @kwrM d` q yW, l`X ap`ky phw v#@M n#„r#v v&R} @M h#y`vK p#h#vm n# y. [@N|vr vR[n c@Y phw v#m a#r@xN@N @M avS}`@V y.

uNn k`lpC@CqyK s`K;`W kr g#m s>h` av\& wWvyN @k@R ihw |@L;ny av[`ny @y` kr. ev#NnK a# y h#K@K p`qn y`v@ym SvX`vy @vnS @k@rn nv N vR[nymW smg . @vnW vcnvN v@h`W, ev# m sl krN@N m`n`Wmk @n` v, n`Wmk @vns. @M b> qN gnn`vK yt n#@GŸ 19 vn yv@S avsN k`Rv l Iy` @qv# k`Rk PlvyK mh` pm`n kRm`Nw Žvl upw aW @V y. ey aN@M 1898 gnNvl m#q a#r„ nv ihl n#G@M smykt @H k`rk y. em yvs l m ItW kN v`p bly h` My m`Rg vR[ny a \`l nv @vl> @p`lvL v^w krN, ihl n#G@M k`l pC@CqyK mt @H y. emN 1830 gnNvl h` 1840 gnNvl avp`w wWvyN avsN awr yvs m#q K@t~y` g@Y uWp`wy s>h` wWvyN Rm`ny k@L y.

[@N|vr v@y pb#S@M k`l pC@Cqyk t ihl n#@M k`l pC@CqyK qKv` sAmn@Y vd`Wm k# @p@nn qn vN@N p|c`W @qvn @l~k sA`m uWp`wy . @my @r~p@Y a`Rky mNm Rm`ny @m q 20 vn yv@S L q\k @qk l eKsW jnpq@y p`qn Ž l vR[ny vd`W QM @P Ž v&`Pw@m q ply y. jw kl aKw œm@Y a\`l vR[ny @H @k`t @gn [@N|vr v&`PyK a# @M XvyK qr` @mm Ž yvs m#q @r~p@y @yqy @n` h# y. p`qny m` kl j`k @Q\m`vN@gN q a`rK;nv` r# bvN q Ek`Žk`ryN N q T krn lq @vl> @p`l @b@hN hvn lq ekK y.

@M av @r~py @qvn @l~k Q[@yN p y @g`dn#mt @H [`n s`[ky nM m`R;L s#lm yt@W eKsW jnpq@yN @p`Mp krn lq @d`lR yn 13k `G[ny pmnK m @n` @V. eyt @H @Y E smgm y`Wmk krn lq @vl> @p`@l y @g`d n#m . - nn W vd`W plq` W Žvl vR[nyt mA slsN @r~py l aX&Nwr b`[k am@yN a@h~ m . @m ply @Y @g~y [nv`q@Y ih`s@y a# R{wm ihl n#@M k`l pC@Cqy .

a`rMXk pb#m h` {w`@v~

en @M 'SvRnmy gy' [@N|vr a`Rk@Y {w` sŠmt smW @n` y. phw v#@tn l`X ap`k, g#„r# l&my klb#g$ Svr$py gN @n` v#l#Ky h# @ls n#vw vrK iSmWwt r` yh. 1970 gnNvl a`rMXy, [@N|vr vR[n c@y phw v#@M aW pC@CqyK shN k@L y. py ar# ph l y`Wmk @mm bn kl`v @g~y [@N|vr a`Rk@Y a \`l h` Gg# sA[`n@y h` sASkrn@y sNqRXy bvt pW a#w. [`n [@N|vr rtvl kRm`NwyN \`l pA vs` qm` a#w. pgnk mw pqnM nv w`K;n h‹Nv` a#w. wv q aN yLltm vd`, nv p`qn m h` sN@Vqn m v# kr a#w. emN p`qn y`vym @g~ykrny kl h# wWvyK uQgw @k`t a#w.

@M @vnSkM h` Ek`bQ[v kMkr# pN@Y bwr@Y sm`j wWvynt e@rv mK n# h`ryN eLl @kr#Ÿ Rw v#P m`lv phw @hm, Rn k`n ߿y` n`\ m h` E @vvt aR[ k`n h` ayM ߿y` a`@Q\ m, @s_š&, a[&`pny h` sm`j @Sv`vN kPp` m h` E smgm, @p` phkM @Sv` k#m y.

@p_Qgkrny It kN ytW w vs@yN p#v rtvl, j`k a`Rk sAvR[ny s>h` @pr kl y`Wmk kl v#d sthN ag` qm qKnt l. E @vvt, [`n @g~y b#A @v@vN j`w&Nwr l& arql mN p#mt bl krn lq v&h`Wmk g#lM v#d@vL pnvn l. emN, qnK vs@yN, up-shr` ak`v, @s_š& h` a[&`pny s>h` krn sAKw v#y mt vd` \`l qL m`nyK ny a`p @gm s>h` @y`qvn wWvyK aq n Rm`ny a#w.

@M yvr yL@l arn a#W@W l`X SkN[@Y vR[nyK a# m y. en emN [@N|vr@Y nv ihl n#Gmk smyK a# @M v$ym as`R}k @B. a [`n aAgy l`X ap`ky Ks` bl. 1950 vs@R t 1970 gnNvl m#q X`gy qKv`, eKsW jnpq@y l`X ap`ky yyt 22 t yyt 12k wrM \wykt phw v# a#w# gnN bl` @B. - @my yyt 50kt a`sNn \wyN phw v#m. Rw v#P a#w#M t yyt 10K pmn \wyN phw v# y v, l`X ap`ky iN anr#v ihl n#A@G e kN phw v# \w@yN @nN pAvN pm. 1990 gnNvl m#q X`g@Y @k k`nv n#@mN pv, ey 1997 vs@R t n#vw vrK p`wyt a#q v# a#w. p|c`W q eKsW jnpq l`X ap`ky (@D @m~S@G, Anti-Capitalism, a Markist Introduction "-[nv`qy, m`KSv` h#‰NmK" yn k^@y "m`KSv` aRq n&`y h` p|c`W q eKsW jnpq a`Rky" yn pC@Cq@yN y ut`gNn` l. a#L@@d~ s`DL@h~ sASkrny, 212 v).

1990 gnNvl [nv`qy

a ayK pSst @gn, 1990 gnNvl @l~k [nv`qy @qs vd` L q#KmK g. @s~yT @Q\@Y kd` v#m, [np pN@Y k`\kN N jy` sh`y g`ynyK mN gNn` l. py q\k ekhm`r l @l~k [nv`q@Y klqs`v @k@S a#W q?

e wWvy q# @ls nrk awt @pr a#w# yNn b> s#kyK n#wŸ eKsW jnpqy l, kRm`NwyN [`w` p`Cy yyt 72kt m`v a#w. a`@y~jn vR[ny@M slnK vW n#w. a`Rky pvWv`@gn y@Y a#mk` mh b#Av N n&y @p` ap`k pWykt a`sNn v#d@vlK y`Wmk @mN pm. l&my >v#mK b> y pv. @fdrL ayv#y <y @d`lR yn 300K vn awr ey wv rtW ihl nN pv. `Nw r`j&yN N@N bA@k`@l`Wb@V aQqr y. @gM @|; <y @d`lR yn 500 iKmv . ey wv rtW vR[ny@M wRjny pv. @gM @|; <y ymt qL s#pm s>h` eKsW jnpqy, @l~k@Y @s @Q\vN qvs r`m, s$m nkm, n`ykt @d`lR yny b#N ur`gw y.

jp`n@Y [`n b#A h` l& a`ywnvl s`[&X`vy g#n |n ذN gtm n#@gWm, ert a`Rky ekw#n pL@M @qv# q\kyt q q#N a# @V. @r~p@y, a`Rk vR[ny s#bNm a#nt w#nkt pWv a#w. jRmy pb#Smk, @n` e@S nM, avp`wyk aQqr y.

@M wWvy mN a\@y~Kyt n#@gw# yM @c~qn`vK eLl@v@w`W ey X kr vS @l`v pwl @g~y aR}\`SyN aN @k@n N @m~RgN St#N l& sm`gm @v@vN @l~k a`Rky b>v krn lq wK@Sr#vN ut` q#Kmt avsr pw. o @m@S y Ÿ "@g~y asmlnyN @mwrM avS}`vK N @pr @n` y. @g~y av[mnyt @mwrM avq`nM @ls sp avS}`vK @pr r$ y. wv q, jp`n@Y t a#mk`v qKv` vWkM \Ak` qnvn p sMp`wv a#w. t amwrv, @M a@y~gynt n m s>h` bl`Žk`ryNt kvr k@lk vW sMq`k a @mwrM n @g`S @n`m#w.

"pW sMp`qkyN @M wWvy g#n av[`ny @y` kr w# yn awrm oN@G |v`sjnk Q[ k`\yN oN N m @p_Qgkv qKv lbn s#k sAk` mN @b`r# kr l#@B. sw&y nM, b`r asmlnyN@gN av[mnk` avq`nMvN h` p|c`W - l r` y`m s` a#vn kMpnyN@gN smNw b a`Ak aNwr`yNt w&K; yM @n`m# bvy." wv q, "sMq`k @n` vn pWvl" X`wy g#n š l& pW kvyN l s`kCc` "sA@KwvW kr@Y wWvy @kwrM s`hk ayrkt elx a#W q yNn y." ey "1930 gnNvl t q#k @n`m# m@n~ KPwyK ġ„ kr." @my @vN ġ„ kr@Y "wn g@Y r$ @g~y a`Rk@Y avq`nm y". (SvN @r~C, An Historic Moment,@eh`k @m`@h`wK, 2003 23)

"@l~k@Y rtvL v# m`nyk, ihl mTtmk pW uW@WjnyK @y`qv` n q", @g~y a`Rky b> bl`@p`@r`W n#vw n#vwW N a#w# j`w&Nwr M b> b#Av, @l~k a`Rky sMbN[@yN W kl avsN v`Rw`@v sthN kr. "vd` g#„r# bl@VgyN y`Wmk y h# y." yn sMX`w`vy @k@R emN av[`ny @y` mt mA s#l a#w.

@M wK@Sr# pqnm mw gmny mt vN@N 1990 gnN vl a`rMX@Y ipW krn lq s`my b> nv gyK h` @g~y sRŽy b> [@N|vry @p`@r`N N a@PK;` pyt wrmK v#r a@lyK @bn bv y.

@M pAcyN yLl - enMŸ g#„r# vn av[mny, gtm pv. a#nm, l&my sm@PK;ny h` s`kl& mA@k`Ll, kRm`Nwmy a[`w`vy, a\`l a`Rk asmnyN - [@N|vr sCcy y`v@ym aRqyk e@nkt @vnS lK;n@y~ y. @vnW vcnvN p#h# kl @h`W, vsr 30kt pmn @pr a#rƒ [@N|vr sAvR[n c@Y bn kl`v a`p h#rmt gW y @v@hskr yWnyN @n`wk` m em n#„r#v phwt m @y` pv. emN [@N|vr a`Rk@Y @KN@ym a# aRqyK @pNM @k@R. wv q, @M aRqy @KNgw a#W@W @l`v l aN yLlt m vd` blg a`Rky vn eKsW jnpq@y y. a#mk` aŽr`&jv`q@Y r`y`m pps a# g`mk bly @my .

@myt vsr 70kt aŽk k`lykt @pr`v, eKsW jnpqy, y @g~l pm`n s`rny arxWm, @`TS vqN ap y pW kl y. a#mk`v l a#vn aRqyK @Q\p`ln pb#mK a# @n` kr a#w# o p#h# k@L y.

vN@N eyt r#Q[ @qy . uWp`w k`ly lt vd` aRq k`ly l, eKsW jnpq@Y a`Žpw& vd` Rn @ls, vd` v^w @ls h` vd` akMp` rw @ls y`Wmk v a#w. "a#mk` eKsW jnpqy wm krw` h` v&`N jy @gn Ev`N g#l g#m s>h` y` kr a#W@W - ey vN@N a`y`@V , k#nd`@V , q a#mk`@V , OS@y`@V v q, s`mk`v @h~ q m`Rg@yN v q, - `}k vs@yN m @r~p@Y yq." (The third International After Lenin,@lN@gN p Nvn j`w&Nwry, 8 vn v.)

b @Y @Q\p`ln a`Rky

eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`qy h` @g~y a`Žpw& s>h` e s#lM @m@hyvn bl@VgyN vd` p#h# @ls an`vrny kr vS, [@N|vr a`Rky l a#w#M ak sb>w` ql vs@yN v q ap wv rtW slk` b#mt av\& y.

`G[n sCc@y pqnm vn aKw ag@Y ekm l`œy vn` j`w&Nwr kMkr# pN@Y vm`n œmy . @M aKwy kRm`NwvN l#@bn l`Xy, @p`y h` b y vs@yN, @Qplvl @vnS Svr$pyN awr @b y. '@b y`m' y ap yn t a iN s`mk` y`m`Rgyk# aqhS @n` krŸ @vl> @p`lvL h` sMpW s>h` Rqy arglyK @my vN@N.

@M y`vy l y b y v#qgW Xk`vK i krN@N. b y yN@nN aqhS @k@rN@N @qKm idM ay hrh` [ny eKS m @n` @V. iN vd` @p`@V aqhS @k@rN@N, yM sMpwk Ek`Žk` ay N @h~ @Q\p`ln bly N ukh`@gn a# a`q`ym.

b @yN l#@bn a`q`ym [ny Rm`ny mK @y~jny @n` kr. E @vvt ey vn` q#ntmW Rm`ny @k pvn aKw vn`km, a@Y kM mN @h~ @Q\p`ln m`[&yK mN aWpW kr g#@M r$p`k^y.

ey vn` smSwyK vs@yN `G[nyt l#@bn aKwvn`k@mN a kr gW pAv. @M av b y aWpW kr gNn` w#n#Ww` sh `G[ny awr Xv ev`kmK pv.

[@N|vr vR[n@Y vy ihlt nn k`l pC@Cqyk , l`Xy ihl nN s$@hn ihl mTtmK aWkr@gn pvn w l, b @Y p#v#Wm imhW v#qgWkmK qrN@N n#w. e@hW [@N|vr vy phwt h# l`X`p`ky phw v#@tNnt a#r@xn t wWvy brpwl @ls pvRwny @VŸ kRm`Nw @h~ l&my `G[n@Y bl @k`tSvlt b qr`gw @n` h# @VŸ et oV b aW kr gNn` awt gl` en a`q`ym wmN @vwt hrv` g#mt uWs`h krn gmN '@vl> @p`@L qhs.' yn stNp`y nAv.

b y b> @Q\p`ln a`Rky vRwm`n Q[yt sh ir`k@Y sMpW aW kr g#mt eKsW jnpqy qrNn` v$ymt a`sNn m vs@yN aq`l @V. Q[yt sh`y @qN@n~ eKsW jnpq av\&w`vNt ph@vNm @l~k @vl> @p`N ir`k @wL l gw h# y @pNM krN, @M Q[y yW kr @bN@N @wL aWpW kr g#mt y yn aX&R}ny K@p kl`h. wv q, @™rny šj @wL nM, sMb`[k ivW mtW p`qny y a#rmtW eKsW jnpqy q# uWs`hyk rw vNnt y q emN šj @wL lyt gNnN@G v`y s>h` @l~k @vl> @p`lvl s#pm v# krN l a mt kt krNnt id y q o y` p$h.

ev# y wRkvl arn vN@N p`qk vn a`Rk g`mk bly @qKm šj @wL @n` v, (rN rtt) @vnS vn SvX`k wWvyN @H @k`t @gn šj @wL kRm`Nw l p#n nNn` b @Y @y~[ a`NwryN y ([ rtvl b mTtMvl a# vNn` @vnSkM y - pvRwk) yNn vsN m y. @vnW vcnvN v @h`W, ir`ky ytW mt y` krn lQ@Q a#mk` eS vlt g$S @p`Mp mt vd` eKsW jnpq sAS}`vlt aKw agy h` l`X @p`Mp m s>h` y.

ir`k šj @wL p`qn@y l`Xq` bv g#n slk` b#@mN prvt w# a#W@W mK q yNn g#n apt ql mg @pNmK lb` gw h#k. whr# a# ir`k šj @wL Ž sAwy b#rL yn 112K pmn @V. e@S v q, Rn Ž sAwy a#w#M t b#rL yn 200K iKmy h# bvt q ey b#rL yn 400K wrM \`l y h# bvt q gnN bl` a#w. @M sAwy ewrM a`kR;y vN@N em @wL ukh` g#mt av\& v#y amW, E @H@vN a# vn a\`l b a`NwryW y.

eKsW jnpq bl\K @qp`Rw@MNvt av, "ir`k šj @wL p`qn v#y @l`@v am v#yK vn awr E @H@vN ir`ky šj @wL b> iw`mW a`kR;y a@PK;` pyK qr.

ir`k @wL b#rlyK @d`lR 1.50kt av @h~ a#w#M t @d`lR 1K wrM a qlkt @h~ pqy h# bv gnN bl` a#w. @my, @vnW a v#yN pqvn @Q\ vn m#@Ly`@v h` Om`n@y @d`lR 5K smg q, @mK@k~@v h` r#y`@v b#rly @d`lR 6 sh 8 awr m`nyK smg q s#s‰y h# y. w`n&y a`sNn ur# @q b#rlyk p`qn v#y @d`lR 12 sh 16 vn awr eKsW jnpq a`krvl ey @d`lR 20K wrM m`nykt n#y h#k.

Rw agy av, šj @wL b#rlyk l @d`lR 25K y upkLpny krN@N nM, p`qn v#y a @mN pv, ir`k sAwvl agy @d`lR yn 3.1K pmn @V. (@JMS E. @p~L oL@G, Iraq: the heart of the crisis ir`kyŸ aRq@Y @KNy nm# k^y blNn. @g~y pW sAsqy, 2002 @qs#MbR).

1970 gnNvl L vsr py l, ir`ky q a#v, šj @wL pqvn rtvL gnn`vK, y @wL kRm`Nw jns klh. @m ar#w @Y lb`gw h# b vN \`l @k`tsK @M rtvl j`k [@N|vr wNyN@G p`lny awt pWm . ey [`n aŽr`j&v` blvNt eNn eNnm vdvd`W q#y @n` h# wWvyK bvt pW a#w.

py q\k ekhm`r l, kN ytW w vs@yN p#v rtvL q a# v, @l`v vt` @p_Qgkrn LlK y`Wmk @B. @my y`Wmk a#W@W j`w&Nwr l& arq@L ymyN p "v&hgw @M" v#d@v@l @k`tsK @ls y. @m@wK šj @wLvlt @M irnm uq` n#w. nW ey [`n ilKky. qnK vs@yN, KNtN p`ln wN@y avsN n py l, "šj @wL a`nyny krn rtvl sA[`n@Y @hvW o@pK sA[`n@Y pWŸ eKsW jnpq a`Rkyt wRjnyK, yNn sMbN[@yN @k`As@y kr# mmK k#>vn l. "ap@G qhS @vl> @p`l pQ[yt h` ap@G sAgw-@r~ y`myNt o@pK sA[`ny N ذN gt h`r eLl krn wWvy l ar# @ls yv m" g#n e sX`pvry` KNtN p`ln wNy @hl` @V y. (In What Sense No Blood for Oil - 'šj @wL @v@vN @L @n` h#m mn ar#wN q' yn @j~RJ k#@fNTS@G k^y blNn).

@M a`Rk g#t slk` b#@mN "p`ln wN@y @vnsK m" yN@nN |wv aqhS krN@N mK q yNnt p#h# av[`nyK @y` @k@R. eKwr` v`q`yk sMbN[kM pvWv`@gn t q#N eKsW jnpqy smg g#mk @y NnN v# @|w QglyN ivW mt vd` \`l vs@yN v# @qyK, wN@y @vnsK a# m yN@nN a#<# @V; iN a#<@vN@N Rn a`Rk v&hgw m.

iw`m m$wK vn @wK eKsW jnpq r`j& @qp`Rw@MN@V pW s#lM a[&K; @ls @Svy kl, cD h`S, Intervention (m#hWm) nm# y k^@y @my m#nN p#h# k@L y. bly pmnK @ym @h~ @qKm QglN ilKk m m`nvW @n` vn bvW emN |w @Q\p`ln @vnSM @n` kr gw h# bvW o wNm y` @Y y. "ev# @vnSM a# @M sMX`w`v v# @M ekm mg nM, j`y @g`dn#m v# @b`@h~ @sN k`vn m#hWMvl @ym . E s>h` Nm y r#Q[ pK; n`\ mW, iN anr#v @vnW sm`jyK sWw`my vs@yNm sks` Rm`ny mtW id slsn ytW kr g#mk rwmK @myt a#lW @V. (2003 m# ms Monthly Review - mNW V s<r`@v aŽr`j&my a#mk`v h` Q[y yn @yN ut` qKvn l).

21 v# yv@s "a#mk` @Q\ pW@Y [`n arn vN@N eKsW jnpq uvmn`kM h` s`r[Rm smg sMp`w vn @l~kyK ndW krn v#d@vlt @s rtvL h` sA[`n Ek`krny y h`S p#h# kr a#w. @|;@yN m#q@pr@g, "sAv^w a`Rk pQ[" @ls o N h#‰N@vn pQ[, "anr# shgwy." es` y, eKsW jnpq-m#q@prg qhS @vl> kl`pyK q\kyK l S}`w mt  @y~jn` kr a#W@W. ɵwly ln @M pW@y ar#w mK q# ir`ky sMbN[ k`rny l q#kgw h# y. ert šj @wL a@l@yN l`X T lb`g#mt eKsW jnpq sAS}`@v~ @plg# . @myt a#lW vn h#bRtN sm`gm - šj @wL m h` ir`k šj @wL @p`Mp kr @bq` h#m s>h` @d`lR yn 7k upm agykt ytWv @qvsrk @k`N`WvK lb` a#wŸ @k`@l`G, N h` r$T sm`gm - šj @wL A aWv#y` kr y`Wmk m s>h` @d`lR yn 71k @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; @bcL sm`gm - bly uWp`qny h` jl s#pM pQ[ y iؿm s>h` @d`lR yn 680K qKv` XvyK q sw v, @d`lR yn 34.3k `rMXk @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; eMa vRLD @k`M sm`gm - ir`k@y vN j`lyK iؿm s>h` @d`lR yn 30k @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; a#mk`@V SV @d~A sRsS sm`gm uM ks`R g#„r# jl@yN vr`y q a# v ir`k vr`yN klmn`krny h` aWv#y` m s>h` @d`lR yn 4.8k eK vsrk @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; E a#@s~@YTS sm`gm @s_š& @Sv`vnt sh`y s#pm s>h` @d`lR yn 10k a`rMXk @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; @YV iNtRn#;nL a#@s~@YTS sm`gm - ir`k@y `}k h` Qy p`sLvl "K;k a[&`pn av\&w`vnt" @y`m s>h` @d`lR yn 62.6K qKv` v# @M sMX`v&w`vK q swv @d`lR yn 1k @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; dN@k~P sm`gmt - plq` y`Wmk m, aŽkrn h` cw@\~[n a`ywn ӵmt ir`k rjyt up@qS m s>h`, a#w#M t @d`lR yn 50K vn`, yn gnn`vk @k`N`WvK lb` a#w; iNtRn#;nL @s~sS g^^P sm`gm - h h` @k k`n nr#W}`pny @v@vN ah„ s#lMkrnyt sh`y m s>h` @d`lR yn 7.8k a`rMXk @k`N`WvK lb` a#w. @myt amwr v, d` @k`N`W gnn`vK q [`n @k`N`Wkr#vN N X`r @qn lq up @k`N`W mN v` lbn @vnW sm`gM q @B. (Q[yt e@r eKsW jnpq œkyN N q`nM krn lq 'ir`k@y v&`p`k a`mnyŸ eKsW jnpqyw`n& N aLl` gNn` lq ir`k@y @k`N`W q`ny krn lq eKsW jnpq sAS}`vl r$ sthN' blNn).

@g~y Rm`ny

@my šj @wL b b> |nyK @n` @V. ir`k@Y vN@N @g~y y`vyk @|w cNd k`\ny - em y`vy vn` eKsW jnpq@Y `G[n@Y @g~y mt h` a`Žpw&yt pvWn` b`[k yLl kd` > q#m. 1980 gnNvl arxn lq "v&hgw @M, pW @H@k`t @gn iw`mW m ‹ rtvL smhrk@gN b#Avlt @d`lR yn gnnK p#vm @k`t a#w. @p_Qgkkrny hrh` jly, bly, @s_š& @Sv` h` a[&`pny a` k phkM, l`X ukh` g#m s>h` v^w kr a#w.

@M @g~y Rm`n v&`p^y y`Wmk @M b`[kykt id w#y @n` h# y. - sWwN m, j`k r`j&yN N ikrn lq b`[kyNt id @n` w#y y. e q^v` sh`ykN gnn`vK N vrny krn lq p, eKsW jnpq@Y k`RyX`ry v@Y 19 v# yv@S w`n&y a`Žpw&y q#r$ a`k`r wvW j`w&Nwr @Q\p`ln h` a`Rk pRy`yK Rm`ny m .

a#mkN eNtRS iNST @hvW a#mk` v&vs`yk a`ywny N pl krn lq pK l`L@G "aŽr`j&yN a`rK;` m" yn yt av, E pRy`@Y hry nM j`k @Qpl av`kM @vvt j`w&Nwr @Q@p`l av`kM shk m . pl vn @l~k sA`m@Y em pRy`y > v#m @H @k`t @gn, 1920 gnNvl h` 1930 gnNvl a@vl a# y. N p a# p|c`W-q smy l, nv j`k r`j&@y~ j`w&Nwr @Qpl av`kMvlt e@rv wm j`k Sv`Žpw& Sr kr yh. l`Lt av, eKsW jnpqy @l`v aŽp @ls av`wv iSmmW smg @M wWvy avs`n vs@yN m#dp#v a#w.

j`k Sv`Žpw&y wy h` @k`N@Q sw y yNn av[`rny krn nv qR\ny vn` @l`@v s$m aSsK Llkm, j`w&Nwr h` @|;@yN eKsW jnpq `G[n@y, @g~y m h` @g~y q y`m s>h` av\&w`vl @Q\p`ln k`\ny y.

py jnv`@y ir`ky a`mny mt eKsW jnpqy q`nM vW m, cD h`S N krn lq @Q\nykt av, m$w k`l pC@Cq@Y v#qgW m vR[nyK vN@N, "Sv`Žpw&y vn` v^w @cKpwK @n` m ." @y~dR r$S@vLT@G vqN mwK krN o @m@S q yŸ "e@S vnv` @vvt, Sv`Žpw&y vn` eK eK r`j&y N wmN@G m rv#yN @k@R q j`w&Nwr j`v @k@R q yM ak b#‹M vgM i m smg eKv pvNn. yM p`ln wNyK @mm vgM i mt a@p`@h`sW t @h~ wm prm`Žpw&y ap@y~jny kl t @h~ m`Nk avS}`vl sNnQ[ m#hW@mN RKw m q a# wm S@@v prm`Žpw&y a kr g#@M avq`nmt pW @v. a#  @n`g#m wv rtW a j& l[RmyK @n` @V." (cD h`S, Sv`Žpw&yŸ pvn` av`kM, ksny vn vgM, 2003 jnv` 14).

@s`lmN pWvl m#hWm s>h` q hq`my blk`yK y#mt h`vD r`j&@Y rny @Vqny kl avS}`@V OS@y` @Q\ a#m a#@lKs#NdR dnR @M aqhS r`vy k@L y. b p`R|kWvy k "pl rw h` asA@KNŒw pWyK" @v@vN v# v#@yN @y@qn pRy`y pqyk# o j`k vW pW sm`jy i@Y krn lq @Q\nyk k`\ kr @Y y. h a`rK;k h` a@nW a@y~g sA@KNny m s>h` OS@y`v "sJwyN@G sN[`nyt" ekmt s#r . ap@G q#Km av Sv`Žpw& yNn prm vK @n` @V. m`nv vRgy`@G yhpw s>h` y` m It vd` v#qgW @V."

e@S nW, j`yK wm Sv`Žpw& @v@vN av`kM a kr@gn a#Wq# q "sJwyN@G sN[`n" m`nv vRgy`@G uvmn`kM @v@vN y` kl y q yn rny gN@N kr#N N q? em kK;y l pvn rtvL @n`p#l y`Wmk m s>h` p#h#vm, em rny gN@N blg aŽr`j&v` blvN yŸ eKsW jnpqy wm kK;y l pvn rtvlt @n` p#l y`Wmk vn @ls anv.

@l~k a`Rky h` j`k r`j& awr prSpry

@g~y a`Žpw&y aWpW kr g#@M eKsW jnpq a`y`s@Y K;k g`mky pvW@N [@N|vr sCc@Y aRqy l y. @my l`X ap`ky phw @h@M rNwr dny N q ey m#dp#v#Wmt py vsr 25 l qrn lq iw`mWm @v@hskr yWnyN@G as`R}kWvy lq k`wv pv. enW ey q iKmv` y. iw`mW ak wl@y eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`q@Y r` y$m @y~jny krN@N py yv@S v# @k`tsK l [@N|vr myt b`[`k` @KNŒŒŒy prSpry, g` a`k`ryN v q, jy g#mt qrn lq s`hk yWn.

plv# @l~k sA`my y`mW smg eKsW jnpqy a`Rk h` @Q\p`ln a`@r~hny kr` el„@N y. @`TS |@L;ny kl p, Q[y L b#s @gn @N @g~y pm`nyk p`qn bl@Vgvl vR[ny q wr< v# mh` blvN awr @l~ky @b p#v#Wm q yn prSpry l y. @M eK eK blvw` prSpryt s‹M @s@Y wmN@Gm a`Žpw&y S}`w m Ÿ emN eK eK blvw` wm mLlvy` smg {Ttnykt el.

j`w&Nwr sm`jv` Plv@y pl yvr @ls pkLpny krn lq h` y`Wmk krn lq r#y` Plvy k, @l~k a`Rky h` yL p#ny j`k r`j& r`v awr prSpry, g pqnM mw s>`m s>h` kMkr# pN@Y blk`yK N qrn lq pl yWny . avs`n@Y [@N|vr@Y bl@Vg vd` \KmW bvK oP y. Ķ y avS}`vN h` sMRn p`v`Mvl @Kqjnk sA@y~gyk plyK vs@yN Plvv` v#d@vl iyt @gn y$mt kMkr# pNy asmW y.

en, evN kNqK b‹ \KyN r` y @eh`k g#tv - enM, m`nv vRgy`@G @g~y vs@yN vR[ny p`qk bl@Vg, Qgk @Qpl h` j`k r`j& pQ[@Y n`\k` b`[kvN qhS kr vS, Ev` nn h` ihl pqnmk sA[`ny @M av\&w`vy - ar#qhN @Y n#w. yM k`lyK l ey ytpW kr w#mt h# n` pm. en, [@N|vr p`qn@Ym vR[ny m, ey y vrK m tt Em shk k@L y. eq kN v`t vd` @rn a`k`rykt y.

eKsW jnpqy N ir`ky ytW kr g#m @M @eh`k h` @Q\p`ln sNqRXy l ӵty y. @g~y a`Žpw& s>h` a#mk` a`y`sy, yM aNqmk @g~l pm`n a#mk` aŽr`j&yK Rm`ny m N @l~k [nv`q@Y @KNŒy prSpry s>`@M aŽr`j&v` yWnyK r$pny kr. @M a#mk` aŽr`j&, a#mk` `G[n@Y a`Rk av\&w` h` uvmn`kMvlt alv aR}k}ny krn lq "qhS @vl> @p`l" y`myNt av y`Wmk vn awr wm q hq`v h` wm p`KkyN@G q hq` blk`yN mN a`rK;` @k@R.

@g~y pRy`y b> @M oLm`q q#Km  @vST @p`NT up`Ž[`N amw` 2002 1 q` kl @Q\n@yN ipW krn l. 17 vn yv@s j`k r`j&@Y n#@mN @m`b "Q[yt q`nMm @vvt, s`my l mh` blvN wr< krn @l`vK @g`dn#mt" a# @h`>m avS}`v q#N eKsW jnpqyt uq` a#w# o y` @Y y. mh` j`N awr wr<y @n` v#l#Ky h#Kk. en, Q[y @n` v#l#Ky h#KkK @n` @V. eyt @Hv "a@y~gyt lK kl @n` h# q hq`my \KN a#mk`v sv m h` ذN gtm em wWvy wb` g#mt a#mk`vt a# al`;y . emN, aW gvl p#v a`k`r aS}` k`rk q a wr< rR}k bvt pW kr mLlw`vN @vl>`m q s`my l @k@rn @vnW ac`ryNt q m` @k@r a#w." @l~ky sA[`ny m s>h` ipW @k@rn @mm @y~jn`v, 1914 vs@R ey Nm ipW krn lq avS}`@v t q vd` g` @V. l`X pQ[@Y @KNy lm a# aRqy mN @m@hy @g~y a`Žpw& aW kr g#mt eKsW jnpqy @y @gn n [`vny N s`my a# kr n#wŸ sm^QŽy @g@n q n#w. iN a# y h#K@K q hq`my h` Ek`Žpv` p`ln Svr$p mN @yq@vn bl`Wk`ry mN @l`v jny` mwt vd vd`W g#„r# h`r eLl m .

e@S nM, i mg mK q? eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`qy @g~y a`Žpw& s>h` @y n` [`vnytW E N gl` en blvW v&snytW e@rv stN kl W@W @k@S q? ih`sy N ap @vw ipW kr a# g#tv ey .

e@S v q ih`sy m`KS @pNM kl p yM g#tvK ey s>`m s>h` av\& v&my s`[k E smgm sMp`qny krN@N n#v ipW krN@N n#w. eKsW jnpq aŽr`j&v`qy r` y`m, p`qn@Y @g~ykrnyt qKvn lq @k`Llk` h` g` c`ry; e@hW p`qn@Y @g~ykrnym @pr kvr k@lk vW y @n` h# q @nN pmnK qKn` lQq` q j`w&Nwr pm`vkt s`m`n& v#d krn jnk`y eKsW m N em g#tvt @eh`k vs@yN g c`ryK s>h` av\& wWvyN q Rm`ny kr @B.

ey, ir`ky a`mny mt @pr`v @l`v r` y @plp`vl v`Swk v#qgWkm nM. @M @plp`vlt shX`@v~ wmN @g~y v&`p`ryk @k`tsK bv av@b~[ kr@gn, E av@b~[y N \Ky ukh` gWh. @mm mh` jnw` @m@hM N an`vrny @Y @g~ykrny a#W@W p`qk bl@Vg pmnK @n` v, argl@y @y@qn m`nv vRgy`@G @Q\p`ln y`k`rkM q bv @V.

@l`@v q#N blvN @qplK - enM, eKsW jnpqy h` @l~k jnmwy - n bvK @pyN@Ny yn V@y~K tMS vW p@W cRc`vt ;y @Y @M nv wWvy . e@S n#w@h`W, q n$N;L tMS vW p@w m$w k`\nyN s>hN p @g~y [nv`qy "avs`n@Y @Q\p`lny @g~krny mt @qn dnyN p#nn#Am mN" aNm n`v (jyhny) k`RL m`KSt lb` a#v`K @m.

@g~y q @r~ v&`p`r@yN ugw p`dM

en, em v&`p`r@yN pS msK gw y , mK q @Y yNn g#n wK@Sr#vK kl v a#w. em v&`p`ry, pvn amhW Xvy q E smgm, em Xvy s`K;`W kr g#mt nM, jygw v a# g#t q @pNM k@L y.

@M g#t s`rgRX vs@yN ekkt >@V. enM, @Q\p`ln iqR\ny b> aRqy . @plp` @pNM k@L p#h#v sksn lq v#d@vlK h` iqR\nyK @n`m# km. yMw`K m`nykt ev#NnK nM, ey k, av\& wrmt blp$mK a# kl @h`W @k@S @h~ Q[y vlk` gw h# yn h#m . E nN bln kL, @mm @plp`, @r~[w` @Q\p`ln@Y vlAX`vy Ky h# eKwr` a`k`ryk q#v#Nw pR@Y;nyK y.

ih`sy @m@S k`\ kl`K @mŸ aw@y ugW p`dM @n` wk` ob |v`s krN@N mh`jn dny p`lk blvN @k@R rn`Wmk blp$mK eLl mt smW y yNn . ob e@S |v`s krN@N o@Bm vrqN @n` @V. @h`>, ob @v@vN, @m@wK @l`v q#v#Nwm @g~y @r~[w`vyk SvX`vy gW mh` pK;nyK mm sA[`ny krNnM. epmnK @n` v, @M Q[yt eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny lv` y cNqy m K@p mt q mm kt slsNnMŸ emN em sA[`n@Y vlAX`vy q pK;nyt lK krNnM. et @M s`[kvlt a`mny vlKv`gw h# q# apt q#k gw h# y. ih`sy @m@S q pvsNnt a#wŸ @myt w&pk`r vs@yN m` o@bN krn ekm iLm nMŸ @M pR@Y;ny avsn e as`R}kWvy b> av\& p`dM ob ukh` g a#w# yNn y.

@M p`dM @m`nv` q? Ev` nM, mh`jn v&`p`ryt p`lk pNNt blp$M eLl m @n` v, @Q\p`ln bly aWpW kr g#m ar kr gW sAsNŽw y`m`RgyK h` iqR\nyK av\& bv yŸ

@M iqR\ny @g`dn#@m ph@vN gw h# s‹M @n`m#w. ey aW @h~ cr stN p`yK @s`y` g#m vW wv wvW blg @r~[w` sA[`ny m vW b> |nyK @n` @V. m`nv vRgy` n @qn kr h` sARn g#t jygw h#K@K j`w&Nwr kMkr# pNy N @Q\p`ln bly aWpW kr g#@mN pmnK y yn av@b~[w`v@yN @p` jn v&`p`ry sNnQ[ y y. aN yLltmW vd`, 20 v# yv@S ih`sy av@\~;ny kr g#m q E s>h` av\& @V. @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady rw vn y ktvl pqnm vN@N @M kRwv&y .

@mm gmn p#h# kr g vS, @g~y Ky b> v&`p`ry y h#‰Ny h# @q@y š w`n& @Lšk@y vn @j~RJ @m`Nb@y`T@G m$w yK Kmt mm k#m#W@w. 17 q` g`yN vW pwt yN @m`Nb@y`T, a`Rk @g~ykrny wmN i@Y a# yLl ag`@gn yn awr ey Rm`ny @mN n`\y q krn bv o v#rv @pNM kr. emN bl g#N g#m s>h` @pr @n` r$ avS}` @l~k jnw`vt ipW kr. @m`Nb@y`T h` wvW uqy "@g~ykrny" sr` @ls @hl` qN w l @l~k sm`jv` @vB ady N EW gNvn lQ@Q q |wvm @mm kr#nm y. wm aŽr`j& v&`Pw m mN v&`p`r @l~ky, @l`v jny`t aŽr`j&yt e@rv y a@y~gy sMbNkrny kl h# wWvyN Rm`ny kr a#w# y. @m ar#w vN@N q#N ap "Plvk` @m`@h`wkt @SN @vN" y h# bv.

e@S v q, g#tv vN@N v&`p`ryt v#d@vlK @n` m . e Rn`yk Rvlw`vy @my y o v#rv h‹n`g. ap kRwv& v@Y "@g~ykrny @prl` q#m @n` v, ey aWpW kr @gn, m`nv vRgy`@G pl @g~y j`wNk Plvy s>h` ey y`NnyK vs@yN up@y~ kr g#m y."

@k@nt @M L mw h` ek< y h# y. e@hW @M @g~y j`wNk Plv@Y aNwRgwy b>v @m`Nb@y`T@G @y~jn`vN g#n slk` bln t g#t p#nn.

o [`n yvr @qkK @y~jn` kr. plv#Nn, j`w&Nwr l& arql h` @l~k b#Av ivw l` E @vvt 1944 vs@R @TN DS sM@Mln@Y @KNS N @y~w sA[`nyt @b`@h~ rt sm`n sA[`nyK a`@Q\ m . @KNS@G @y~w arn @Y aŽk @vl> aKw h` u_nw` a#m v#l#Km . @qv#Nn, eKsW j`N@G a`rK;k sA[`ny ivw l` e blwl sASkrny eKsW j`N@G mh` svK @vw p#vm . e , wm jnghnyN@G \`lWvyt av q "@g~y j`wN qR\kyK" av q j`Nt cNq bly l#@b a#w.

"@g~y j`wNk Plvy" b> ihw @y~jn` slk` b#@mN p @k@nt v h#K@K, "kNqK l` p#tv vq` a# bv y."

@g~y a`Nkrn@Y nv j`wNy Svr$pyN whr# kl y @m`Nb@y`T wr@Ym y` m v#r y. en, evN j`wNyt w}& aR}yK a#mt nM, @y~[ p`rj`k sAS}`, b#A h` l& a`ywn Qgk a@yN ivW kr @p` ayt ytwt @gn Em N Ev` j`wNk p`lnykt ytW kl y. @k@yN v@h`W, s#b$ j`wNy - enM, mhjny`@G p`lny - s`K;`W kr gw h#K@K `G[n@Y p`lny avsN @m. E @qk awr shvnyK p#vy @n` h#k.

m`grT w#cR @my mn`v av@b~[ kr gWw` y. "sm`jy" yNnK @n`m# bv a#y v` y. "qhS @vl> @p`@L" y`Wmkm a#y sMNdny k@L "@vnW kLpyK @n`m#w" yn v# k. a#y v#r y.

|w vs@yNm v#qgW kr#n q ey . `G[n@Y a`Žpw&yt kLpyK @n`m# nM, j`wNyK @n`m#y. kLp awN @w~r`g#m, rn g#m h` a#w#Mt, Ev` @vnS m @h~ Ev` vd` uQpny h` vR[ny m j`wNy h` b#Š a#w. kLpyK @n`m# nM, a#vN@N a``q`ykWvy y, `G[n@Y a``q`ykWvy h` l`X s>h` e @n` @mn a`y`syt @l`@v jny`@G uvmn`kM, av\&w`, al`; ytW m .

avs`n vs@yN, @pbrv`@y r` y mh` v&`p`ry, 20 vn yv@S aɵ aWq#M av@\~;ny kr y X`g kr av\& @Q\p`ln p`dM ukh` @gn nM, aŽr`j&v`qyt h` Q[yt e@r argl@y yr j`w&Nwr sm`jv` Plv@Y vR[ny y yn av@b~[y yt@W @m@hy nM, aq wWvy @kwrM @vnS v a#W q# slk` bln @ls a#mt mm o@B avsry pw.

q#nt, aŽr`j&v` bl@Vg k^^r apr`[yK @k`t g#l @g`S a# bvK @p y. q#nt eKwr` aNqmk @Q\p`ln sl bvK pv. ey iKm y a#w. nv argl vR[ny v a#w. en k |ny wv rtW iv pvŸ enM, y`Wmk y W@W mn v#d@vlK h` i qR\nyK mw q? yNn y. em argl iyt y a#W@W ap kRwv&y asvL asvL rjy @k@r @h~ ItW wv, eKsW j`N@G sA[`ny @k@r, blp$M a# @M @h~ yty eKwr` smyk mhjn sh`y lb` gw h# pK; @h~ sA[`n y pn g#N@M sAkLpny mw pqnM @n`@k`t, 21 vn yv@S kMkr# pN@Y j`w&Nwr sm`jv` v&`p`ry @g`dn#@M , gw 20 vn yv@S ym p`dM mw pqnM krn m`nyt y.

@l~k sm`jv` @vB ad@Y arn v@Y @M v&`p`ryt av\& \`ny s#pm h` eyt n`ykWvy m s>h` j`w&Nwr Plvk` pK;y @g`dn#m . @mm sv em arn s`K;`W kr g#m @k@R wvW eK yvrK v a#w# a a@PK;` kr.

aq`l @vnW

a#mk` qv`q@Y @Q\p`ln a`Rky
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2003 s#Pw#MbR 24

ir`k Q[@Y @Q\p`ln p`dM
2003
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2003
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2003
m# 26

vdb`šy lt: a#mk` aŽr`j&v`q@Y aRqy sh ir`kyt e@r Q[y
2003
a@L 29

 


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